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^ Commentary 





91 Commentary 





W. a. HUMPHRY, B.D., 

Vicar of St. Martin »?i the Fields, Prebendary of St. PauVs Cathedral, 
and one of the Company of Revisers of the New Testament. 


Cassell, Petter, Galpin <k Co. 


[all rights reserved.] 


I. It has been my desire in writing this book to provide 
a companion for the English reader who studies the 
Revised Vei\sion of the New Testament with a view to 
his edification and instruction. He may use his best 
endeavours to understand what he reads, and may have a 
fair knowledge of the Scripture in the original language ; 
yet if he be altogether without guidance he will sometimes 
fail to discover the reason or the significance of the change 
that has been made in the Version ; and in such cases 
he will lament his own lack of critical insight, unless 
indeed he hastily condemns the new reading as a need- 
less disturbance of the old familiar text with which he 
and his forefathers have been well content. A very 
few words will generally suffice to make him see that 
the change was not made " for the sake of change " or 
out of mere pedantry. He will find that in one place 
daylight has been let in on a passage which before was 
dark ; that in another place a slightly different shade of 
meaning has been given to a phrase or word ; and remem- 
bering what the Holy Scriptures are, that they contain a 
Divine as well as a human element, and that we know 
not how intimately the two are blended together, he will not 
venture to say that a closer approximation to the original, 
however minute, may safely be neglected. 

A work undertaken with such a purpose, while it con- 
tains many things that are obvious to the mature Greek 
scholar, will yet leave much room for the exercise of care 
and thought on the part of the intelligent readers for 
whom it is specially intended. They need not have their 
attention drawn to every case in which the sense of a 
passage has been affected by the more accurate rendering 
of the Greek article or the tense of a verb, by giving to 
a pronoun, conjunction or preposition its due force, by 


removing an ambiguity, by following the order of the words 
in the original where the order is essential to the emphasis, 
by observing uniformity in the translation of the saux' 
word, by distinguishing in translation terms which in the 
Authorised Version are regarded as identical in their 
meaning. With regard to such points, which, thougli 
small in themselves, are often very material to the sense, 
it is sufficient to offer a few words of comment, when the 
change which they involve is so important as to require 
particular consideration, or so slight as to be easily 

In like manner those changes only in the Greek Text 
are noticed which may possibly cause perplexity to a reader 
who is not apprised of them. With regard to a very few 
such changes, a brief summary is given of the evidence on 
which the emendations have been made. For a complete 
exhibition of the textual authorities, as well as for a full 
discussion of the more difficult questions of translation and 
interpretation, recourse must be had to the critical and 
exegetical commentaries which have appeared in great abun- 
dance during the last forty or fifty years — among which 
may especially be mentioned those of the late Dean Alford 
and the present Bishop of Lincoln (Dr. Wordsworth), Tlie 
New Testament Commentary for English Readers, edited by 
the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, and The Speakers' 
Commerda,ry, on the whole of the New Testament ; those 
of Canon Westcott on the Gospel of St. John, of Dean 
Vaughan on the Romans, of the late Dean Stanley on the 
Corinthians, of the Bishop of Durham (Dr. Lightfoot) on 
the Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, and 
Philemon ; and those of the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol 
(Dr. Ellicott) on many of the Pauline Epistles ; also the 
critical edition of the Greek Testament by Canon Westcott 
and Dr. Hort (Cambridge, 1881), Dr. Scrivener's Tntrodiiction 
to the Criticism of tlie New Testament, and the two editions 
of the Greek Testament published respectively at Cambridge 
and Oxford in 1881 by Dr. Scrivener and Archdeacon 
Palmer, the one exhibiting in the margin, the other in- 
corporating in the text, the emendations whicli have been 
approved and followed in the Revised Version. With 


these should by all means be read the pamphlet entitled 
The Revisers and the Greek Text of the Neio Testament, hy 
ttvo Members of the New Testament Company, London, 
Macmillan, 1882, being a defence of the principles followed 
by the Revisers with regard to the emendation of the 
Greek Text. 

II, It is unnecessary here to set forth the general 
principles by which the Revision was governed, as every 
reader of this book will doubtless have made himself ac- 
quainted with them by a careful perusal of the Preface to 
the Revised Version, in which they are stated and explained. 
The leading principle of all is contained in the following 
rule : — 

" To introduce as few alterations as possible into the Text 
of the Authorised Vei-sion consistently with faithfulness." 

Of no little importance in its bearing on this rule, though 
not specially referring to it, is a resolution of both Houses 
of Convocation, passed by them unanimously, in the follow- 
ing terms : — 

"Tliat notwithstanding the restriction introduced into 
the fifth resolution, this House does not intend to give the 
slightest sanction or countenance to the opinion that the 
members of the Revision companies ought to be guided by 
any other principle than the desire to bring the translation 
as near as they can to the original texts ; but, on the 
contrary, regards it as their duty to keep themselves as 
much as possible on their guard against any bias of pre- 
conceived opinions or theological tenets in the work of 

The chief difficulties of the Revision arose in the appli- 
cation of the great principle of faithfulness to the original 
text. When is that principle peremptoiy in its require- 
ments % when, and how far, does it allow of laxity ] 

Happily, our noble English Version had already pre- 
scribed very clearly the lines and the limits which were 
to be observed in the Revision ; it had already decided 
that the freedom which is usual in translating out of one 

* See Bibhop Thirlwall's Letters to a Friend, p. 211. 


language into another is not applicable to the Bible. "The 
best of all translations," it has been said, "is that which 
makes you forget that it is a translation, and tempts you 
to think that it is an original."* This maxim must be taken 
in conjunction with another of an opposite tendency, which 
was laid down long ago by St. Jerome for his o\\ti guidance, 
and was rigorously observed by him — too rigorously, we 
must confess — in his great work of Scriptural translation, 
the Latin Vulgate. " In translating from the Greek," he 
says, " my practice is to give the sense of the original, 
not to render word for word, except in the case of the 
Holy Scriptu7-es, where even the order of the words is a 
mystery." "Non solum fateor, sed libera voce profiteer, 
me in interpretatione Grsecorum, absque Scripturis Sanctis, 
ubi et verborum ordo mysterium est, non verbum e verbo, 
sed sensum exprimere de sensu."t The Authorised Version 
has avoided both extremes. In general easy and melo- 
dious, it has occasionally a certain ruggedness, due to its 
close following of the original ; it contains Hebraisms, 
Greek and Latin words and idioms, turns of expression 
derived from the German, English words and phrases which 
are now obsolete ; some of these being due to the successive 
revisions through which it has passed, others inherent in 
it from the first. For the most pai't it is abhorrent of 
paraphrase ; but Tyndale's Bible, though pui-e and simple 
in its style as it came from his hands, was pruned of many 
elegant and pithy but inaccurate phrases, before it was 
brought into the form which it has kept for nearly three 
centuries without alteration. Still there are found in it 
some few loose translations which obscure or impair the 
sense of the original. For these it lias been the endeavour 
of the Revisers to substitute words which should fall in 
with the flow and rhythm of the context ; and where there 
seemed no way of doing this, it became sometimes necessary 
to .sacrifice the graceful diction, the familiar rhj^lmi and 
melody, to truth. The Revised Version is intended not 
only for " the hearing of the ear," but for study and medita- 
tion ; and one who gains from it a better insight into the 

• Bishop Wordsworth, on the Revised Version, p. 15. 
+ Epist. nd Pammach, 101, 


sense of the Scriptures will be content to forego any sweet 
cadences and felicitous phrases which give an untrue or 
imperfect representation of the sacred text ; moreover, he 
will generally find that his ear becomes in time as well 
accustomed to the new rhythm as it was to that which has 
been displaced. 

The several books of the New Testament, though united 
in one by the one all-pervading Spirit, are manifold in 
respect of their human authorship ; and it is not desirable 
that their distinctive peculiarities should be smoothed over 
in translation, and such a uniformity of style maintained 
throughout as would obliterate the signs of individuality, 
the incidental traits of manner, mental training, and habits, 
the national or local characteristics, which naturally tran- 
spire, and which may be found, if they are looked for, in 
the Holy Scriptures, as in the works of uninspired writers. 
Many such personal features are preserved hi the Authorised 
Version ; and the Revision goes only a little beyond it, in 
preserving the Hebraisms of St. Matthew and St. Mark, 
and the occasional ruggedness of the latter Evangelist ; 
in drawing attention to those points, in style or language, 
which are peculiar to St. John ; in making it apparent 
that St. Paul and St. John, much imlike as they were 
(be it said with all reverence) in personal character and 
in the substance of their Epistles, were entii'ely at one 
in their inculcation of the " first and great command- 
ment," which is "the bond of all virtues." 

To bring out clearly such distinctions and such har- 
monies, one thing most needful is the uniform rendering 
of the same word or phrase, wherever it has precisely the 
same sense, by the same English equivalent. Another 
important point, with a view to this object, is the careful 
discrimination of synonyms, which, though describing the 
same thing, have each a special shade of meaning. Thus, 
by the first three Evangelists a miracle is called " a power," 
" a mighty work " (Svvafiis) ; whereas St. John's word is 
ai)Hiiov, " a sign," an evidence of the Divine presence. Yet 
this peculiarity is entirely lost in the Authorised Version, 
which has the word "sign" once and once only m St. John's 
Gospel (chap. xx. 30), " Many other signs truly did Jesus." 


Conipai'e also the use of the terms " kingdom of God," 
" kingdom of heaven," " Christ," " the Christ," and other 
expressions, as they occur in the several Gospels and in 
the Epistles. 

In pursuance of this principle, even the slighter linguistic 
peculiarities have been thought worthy of note. Such 
are the connecting links of sentences in a narrative — in 
St. Matthew and St. Luke " and," in St. Mark " straight- 
way," in St. John "therefore;" the participial constructions 
of St. Matthew, a conspicuous example of which appears 
in the narrative of the adoration of the Magi ; St. Paul's 
habit of reiterating a word till the train of thought con- 
nected with it comes to an end, as in 1 Cor. xiii. ("love"), 
2 Cor. ii. (" sorrow "). There are other distmguishing 
features of style which cannot be represented in a version, 
such as St. Matthew's use of the woi'd "heaven;" St. Mark's 
accumulation of negatives and fi*equent use of diminutives ; 
St. Luke's long compound words, and in the Acts his use 
of the particle re as a copula instead of Kai ("and"), which 
he employs almost exclusively in his Gospel. 

III. — The Greek Text which King James's Revisers 
generally followed is that of Beza (Geneva, 1598), which 
agrees very nearly Avith that of Stephens (Paris, 1550), the 
edition of Stephens being based on that of Ei-asmus, who 
was the first to publish the New Testament in Greek, at 
Basle, in 1516. The text of Stephens was founded on a 
few MSS. of late date, used with little critical skill ; and 
in the three centuries which have passed since its appear- 
ance all the most ancient MSS. that are now known to 
the world have been discovered and carefully examined, to- 
gether with a great mass of evidence, supplementary to 
that of MSS., obtained from ancient versions, liturgies, 
and quotations of Scripture found in the works of early 
Christian writers. To the collation and examination of 
this evidence many of the eminent scholars of this 
country and of the continent have directed their laboui's 
during the present century ; and the result has been the 
formation of a Greek Text, not, indeed, commanding uni- 
versal assent, for the evidence is often too conflicting or 


too evenJy balanced to produce tlie same effect on every 
mind that weighs it, nor yet a text that can claim finality, 
so long as it is possible that other MSS. may be forth- 
coming of such higli authority as to modify the con- 
clusions adopted by critics in our generation. But a Text 
has been formed, far more trustworthy than that of 
Stephens, because based on a much greater concurrence of 
testimony — that testimony also being more ancient, more 
varied, and better understood by those Avho have used it. 

With regard to the correction of the Greek Text, as 
with regard to the revision of the English Version, we can 
say with thankfulness that it has not impaired in the 
slightest degi-ee any one ai-ticle of the faith. And we 
may go further than this. To assert that in consequence 
of this twofold process of revision the doctrine of the 
Church stands as firmly as it did before, is to undei'rate 
the effects of what has been done. The doctrine is all the 
stronger, all the more impregnable, because the confident 
statements of assailants have been I'efuted, and the mis- 
givings of half-hearted believers, so far as they were coun- 
tenanced by discrepancies in the MSS. and imperfections 
in the version, have now, we may hope, been for ever set 
at rest. 

The total number of Greek MSS. of the New Testament 
at present known is aboiit a thousand. Of these, about thirty 
are entire copies ; the rest are in every degree of incomplete- 
ness. The greater part are not of earlier date than the 
ninth century. The more ancient are written in capital 
letters, and are called " Uncials ; " the later, ranging from 
the ninth to the sixteenth centuries, are in smaller ("minus- 
cule ") characters, approaching more or less to a running 
hand, and are thence called "Cursives." The two most 
ancient and authoritative ai'e the " Codex' Vaticanus " (B), 
in the Vatican Library at Rome, in whicli some of the 
Epistles and the whole of the Apocalypse are wanting ; 
and the "Sinaitic" (*<), discovered by Tischendorf in the- 
convent on Mount Sinai in 1859, presented by him to the 
Czar of Russia, and now at St. Petersburg. These two 
are assigned to the middle of the fourth century. Next 
to these, and of somewhat later date, stand the " Codex 


Alexaiidrinus " (A), presented to King Charles I. by the 
Patriarch of Constantinople, and now in the British 
Museum, containing all except parts of St. Matthew's and 
St. John's Gospels, and of 2 Corinthians ; and the " Codex 
Ephraemi " (C), in the Paris Library, containing about 
three-fifths of the whole, disjiersed over almost every book. 
With these may be associated in point of antiquity, though 
by no means equal to them in the value of its text, the 
" Codex Bezaj " (D), in the Library of the University of 
Cambridge, to which it was presented by the great Swiss 
scholar and critic, Beza, in 1581, containing the Gospels, 
the Acts incomplete, the Pauline Epistles in another 
hand, not quite complete, and a Latin translation. 

Of the early versions, the two most important as textual 
authorities are, from their great antiquity and intrinsic 
merits, the Latin Vulgate, which may be described generally 
as a revision made by St. Jerome of already existing Latin 
versions about 384 a.d. ; and the Syriac version, called the 
" Peshito," or " Simple," from its plain and popular style, 
believed to be no less ancient than the Vulgate. Next to 
these in value rank the two ancient Coptic or Egyptian 
versions, viz., the Memphitic, or version of Lower Egypt, 
and the Thebaic, or Sahidic, the version of Upper Egypt, 
both of which are attributed to the second century. To 
these may be added the -^thiopic of the fourth or fifth 
century ; the Armenian, made early in the fifth ; and the 
Gothic of Ulfilas, the great bishop of the Goths in the 
middle of the fourth century. Other versions, being merely 
translations from the Latin or Syriac, have no independent 
weight on textual questions. 

Citations from the New Testament abound in the Avorks 
of Origen of Alexandria of the third century, and are found 
also in great numbers in the writings of St. Chrysostom of 
Antioch, Cyril of Alexandria, Theodore of Mopsuestia, ikc, 
before the middle of the fifth ; also in the Latin Fathei's 
Tertullian (end of the second century), Cyprian (of the third), 
St. Jerome and St. Augustine (of the fourth and fifth). 

IV. One feature of this Commentary is the continual 
reference which is made in it to the earlier English versions. 


The object of this jjart of the work is not only to bring 
the Revised Version into comparison with its predecessors, 
but also to draw attention to the special characteristics of 
each, and to shew how they illustrate the changes which 
have taken place in our language during the long period 
over which they extend. For those who wish to be well 
acquainted with those early versions, the study has of late 
been made most easy and agi-eeable by the treatises of Canon 
Westcott and the late Dr. Eadie on the English Bible, and 
by the publication of that excellent work, Bagster's English 
Hexaqyla, which contains the Greek text, with six English 
versions in jjarallel columns beneath it, and a full his- 
torical account of each, in a quarto volume, which may be 
purchased at a very moderate price. Many of the laity, I 
doubt not, as well as of the clergy, are able to confirm from 
their own experience the testimony of a living statesman, who 
finds that the perusal of one of those versions fi'eshens his 
interest in the Holy Scriptures, and leads him to see many 
a familiar text in a new light. The shoi-t history of tho 
English Bible which follows is chiefly derived from the 
standard works mentioned above. 

1. WyclifiFe. — The first complete translation of the 
Bible into English was commenced by John Wyclifle, who 
was born near Richmond, in Yorkshire, about a.d. 1324. 
After passing much of his life in the University of Oxford 
as student and Doctor of Divinity and head of a House, 
he died in 1384, at Lutterworth, to the rectory of which 
parish he had been appointed ten years previously by King 
Edward III. This translation was made entii-ely from 
the Latin Vulgate, without any reference to the original 
languages, and it was circulated in manuscript, the art of 
printing being the invention of a later age. His New 
Testament was finished and published in 1381, and a second 
edition, revised and freed from some of its errors and 
obscurities by his friend and curate Purvey, made its 
appearance in 1388. This it is which is reprinted in 
Bagster's English Hexapla. Of the style of his version it 
has been observed that "it is racy, homely, familiar, and 
picturesque, the language of his own age, but far simpler 


anci more intelligible than that of Chaucer, his contemporaiy. 
Wycliffe translated for the people, not for the nobility ; and 
his translation is really better in style, more lucid and 
idiomatic, less to} tuous and laboured, than his own original 
writings." Some of his renderings are of interest, as being 
borrowed fi'om the phrases or customs of his period. Thus, 
Cyrenius is called " Cyrus, justice of Syria " (Luke ii. 2) ; 
" they took Jesu in the moot hall " (Matt xxvii. 27) ; 
" the provost stood before the ark " (Judges xx. 28) ; 
Pontius Pilate is called "Pilate of pounce" (Matt, xxvii. 2), 
and is entitled "mayor" in the first edition, and "justice" 
in the second. 

2. Tyudale. — The efi"ect of Wyclifie's translation of the 
Latin Scriptures on the religious life of England has been 
likened to the first touch of the Saviour's hand on the eyes 
of the blind man "who saw men, as trees, walking;" and 
when the second touch passed over it by the translation of 
the Bible from the original languages, and its multiplication 
by printing, then the light streamed in as on the purblind 
man who saw every man clearly. William Tyndale, born 
in Gloucestershire about 1484, acquired his knowledge of 
Greek, when about thirty years old, by attending the lectures 
of Erasmus at Cambridge. " To him more than to any man," 
says Canon Westcott, " the English Bible owes its character- 
istic shape ; and the man was not unworthy of the glorious 
honour for the attainment of which he lived and died." 
The Greek Testament of Erasmus, which appeared in 1516, 
must have been a strong incentive to Tyndale ; but its un- 
favourable recejjtion in the University, and the commotion 
which it stirred up against its illustrious editor, were 'signs 
of the treatment which any one might expect who devoted 
himself to the study of it at Cambridge. Tyndale removed 
to London, where for a time he was hospitably received and 
sheltered by Humphrey Munmouth, merchant and alder- 
man. Munmouth, when accused before the Privy Council 
in 1528 of sending money abroad to the assistance of 
Tyndale, described, in the course of his defence, the manner 
of Tyndale's life while under his protection. " I took him," 
he said, " into my house half a year; and thei-e lie lived as 


a good priest, as methought. He studied most part of the 
day and of the night at his book ; and he would eat but 
sodden meat, by his goodwill, and drink but single small 
beer. I never saw him wear linen about him in the time he 
was with me. I did promise him ten pounds sterling to 
pray for my father and mother, their souls, and all Christian 
souls. I did pay him when he made his exchange to 

In the hope of finding a quiet place, where he might 
accomplish his great design of translating the Bible into 
English, and enabling "every ploughboy to know moi'e of 
the Scriptvires than did the Pope," he became a volunta)-y 
exile from his native land, and carried on his work suc- 
cessively at Hamburg, Cologne, and Worms. His New 
Testament was published anonymously in 1526. On its 
arrival in England it was eagerly bought by the people, and 
as eagerly denounced by the authorities in Church and State. 
Sir Thomas More, the prototype of some excellent men but 
intemperate critics who have flourished in the nineteenth 
century, declared it to be "ignorant, dishonest, and here- 
tical." King Henry YIII., the " Defender of the Faith," 
immediately, by advice of Wolsey, ordered the book to be 
burnt ; and burnt it was, at Oxford, at Cambridge, and with 
great solemnity, in the presence of the bishops and mitred 
abbots, at Paul's Cross. But as fast as it was consumed, the 
thii-d edition, published at Antwerp, was brought over to 
England with the cargoes of wheat which were imported 
during the great scarcity of corn in 1527. 

The first six editions, numbering in all about 15,000 
copies, appear to have been almost wholly destroyed by the 
fierce persecution which was kept up against the book for 
many years ; not one complete example of them is now 
known to be in existence. Tyndale lived long enough to 
hear that the rage against him in England had subsided, 
and that the king who had burnt his version allowed that 
of Coverdale to have free course. But he was himself im- 
prisoned, tried for heresy by four divines of the University 
of Louvain, condemned, strangled, and then burnt — a martyr 
"whose name will be blessed by all generations. 

The extent to which Tyndale was influenced in his 


translation by Luther's German vei'sion and the Latin 
Vulgate is traced with care and discrimination in the learned 
work of the late Dr. Eadie, On the English Bible, i. 145. 
Whatever coincidences there may be between his version 
and these, his work was, as a whole, essentially original and 
independent, and became the model, in point of linguistic 
purity and simj)licity of style, which his successors copied ; it is 
not above the intelligence of the " ploughboy " whom he had 
in his mind's eye when he began it. The few paraphrases 
which on account of their inaccuracy have been i-emoved 
in the present revision, we part with regretfully ; they 
are so pithy, so idiomatic, so characteristic of Tyndale. 
How clear and vigorous he was in the expression of his 
own thoughts may be judged from the following specimen 
opening sentences of the Prologue to his New Testament : — 
" I have here translated, brethren and sisters most dear 
and tenderly beloved iai Clnist, the New Testament for 
your spiritual edifying, consolation, and solace ; exhorting 
instantly and beseeching those that are better seen in the 
tongues than I, and that have higher gifts of grace to 
interpret the sense of the Scripture and meaning of the 
Sj^irit than I, to consider and ponder my labour, and that 
with the spirit of meekness ; and if they perceive in any 
places that I have not attained the very sense of the tongue 
or meaning of the Scripture, or have not given the right 
English word, that they put to their hands to amend it, 
remembering that so is their duty to do. For we have not 
received the gifts of God for ourselves only or for to hide 
them ; but to bestow them unto the honouring of God and 
Christ, and edifying of the congregation which is the Body of 
Christ." (See Parker Society's Edition of Tyndale, vol. i., p. 7.) 

3. Coverdale's and Cranmer's Bibles.— Little needs 
here to be said of these two versions, the former of which 
was published in 1535, the latter, called from its size "the 
Great Bible," in 1538. Neither of them was an original 
work ; both may be described as re^dsions of Tyndale's, with 
the aid of the Vulgate ; both were done by Coverdale. 
The Great Bible appeared under the sanction of Cromwell 
and Cr.'\nmer (at that time Archbishop) : it marks an epoch 


in the history of the English version, inasmuch as it 
had the imprimatur of Tunstall, Bishop of London, who 
had been one of the foremost in condemning Tyndale's 
version : it was published with the licence of the king, 
who by his royal proclamation commanded that the Great 
Bible should be set up in every church in a place where it 
might conveniently be read by the people; and in 1540, 
in compliance with this injunction, six copies of it were 
set up by Bishop Bonner in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

4. The Great Bible was superseded in 1569 by the 
Bishops' Bible, so called from its having been undertaken 
by Archbishop Parker, and carried through by a number 
of revisers, eight of whom were bishops. It was, in the 
main, a revision of the Great Bible, and was published in 
a magnificent volume in 1568, and again, after revision, 
in 1572, bearing on its title-page the important words 
cimi privilegio regite voluntatis ; but it does not appear to 
have obtained authoritative sanction for its exclusive use 
in churches. Dr. Westcott says "it has received far less 
attention than it deserves, and in the New Testament it 
shows considerable vigour and freshness." In treating of it, 
Dr. Eadie has some judicious remarks bearing on the work 
of Biblical revision in general. He says : " The process of 
revision employed in the preparation of this Elizabethan 
Bible led to a virtual Avant of uniformity in the various 
parts of it. There had been little consultation among the 
revisers, and there was not that final supervision of their 
work which had been suggested by Bishop Sandys. It is only 
by earnest deliberation, the constant exchange of critical 
opinion, and the survey of a term or an idiom on all sides, 
that a good and popular version can be formed. The 
earliest translators were virtually individual workers, and 
their versions bear the stamp of personal toil. The 
Genevan was the first version that sprang from collegiate 
labour ; and it had naturally, on this account, no small 
superiority" (The English Bible, ii. 100). 

5. The Genevan.— In the reign of Mary the public 
use of the Bible was forbidden, and the printing of it was 


suppressed. The principal Reformers who escaped fco the 
continent gathered together at Frankfort; and some of 
them, seceding from their brethren, and retii'ing to Geneva, 
completed in that city the version -which is distinguished 
by the name of the " Genevan." The first edition was 
published in 1557; the second appeared in 1560, carefully 
revised and dedicated to the new Queen Elizabeth. Being 
of a convenient size (a small quarto), and having a marginal 
commentary composed in a terse and vigorous style, it 
quickly became, and for three-quarters of a centuiy con- 
tinued to be, the household Bible of the English people, 
though it was never, like the " Great Bible," authorised 
for public use. It may be described generally as a re- 
vision of Tyndale's Bible, largely influenced by Beza'a 
Latin version of the New Testament, which appeared in 

A high estimate of the value of this version is given by 
those who have made it their study. The following is by 
Dr. Eadie {The English Bible, ii 30) : "The Anglo-Genevan 
Bible is much more correct than its predecessors, and ranks 
in value next to that in common use. It was also the 
great intermediate step between it and Tyndale's ; both were 
made in exile. It was the self-imposed work of noble- 
hearted Englishmen ; and they could not have spent their 
enforced leisure to better purpose. Their good scholarship 
and idiomatic English are alike apparent in many felicitous 
renderings which yet survive. Beza w-as their oracle ; and 
he well merited the honour, for he was a masterly Hellenist, 
of great accomplishments and refined tastes. His exegetical 
insight was clear and profound, when it was not dimmed 
by the oblique lights of his theology." 

The Genevan version, after about one hundred and sixty 
editions of it had been issued, fell gradually into disuse in 
the reign of Charles I., giving place to the Authorised 

6. The Rhemish Version. — The English Version in 
use among Roman Catholics is called the Rheims and Douai 
Bible, the New Testament having been publislied, as appears 
from its title-page, " in the English College of Rheims," in 


1582, and the Old Testament at Douai, in Flanders, in 
1610. Among those who took part in its production, the 
two persons whose names are most cons[)icuous are Gregory 
Martin, sometime scholar of St. John's, Oxford, Avho is said 
to have been the principal translator of the whole Bible ; 
and William Allen, Canon of York, and Principal of St. 
Mary's Hall, Oxford, afterwards Archljisliop of Mechlin, and 

Though the Rhemish version is in general a literal 
translation of the Latin Vulgate, some of the best Greek 
scholax'S of the time were concerned in it — e.g., Gregory 
IVIartin, who is spoken of as a great linguist ; they had the 
Greek Testament open before them, and in some particulars 
referred to it with good eftect, especially in the attention 
which they paid to the definite article, inserting it in many 
places where previous translators had omitted it, and in some 
places where it is not found in our Authorised Version. 
They kept in view and used, though without acknowledge- 
ment, the previous English versions. They professedly 
aimed at uniformity of rendering, which, as a principle of 
translation, King James's revisers pointedly disclaimed, 
though in another way they shewed their respect for the 
Rhemish Version by introducing many fresh renderings 
fi'om it into their revision. 

7. The Authorised Version. — The last revision, made 
in the reign of James I., is well entitled to the name which 
it bears, if not from any exclusive sanction conferred upon it 
by authority, yet from the exclusive acceptance and general 
approval which it has retained for so many generations 
wherever the English tongue is spoken. Not much, how- 
ever, needs to be said of it in this brief summary. Its 
praise is on the lips and in the hearts of all. The principles 
on which it was conducted are set forth in the preface 
prefixed to it, and in the preface to the Revised Version ; 
the extent to which it was based on Tyndale and influenced 
by succeeding versions will be apparent in the course of this 
Commentary. It may suflice here to say that the under- 
taking, though not actually set on foot by the king, was 
congenial to his character, and owed much to the active part 


wliicli lie took in laying clown the plan for its accomplish- 
ment, A number of divines, forty-seven in all, were selected 
for the work, and were divided into six companies, two of 
which met at Westminster, two at Cambridge, and two at 
Oxford. To each company were assigned portions of the 
Old and the New Testaments ; and when the revision in 
parts was completed, the whole was subjected to supervision. 
The work occupied two years and three-quarters, and was 
published by the king's printer in 1611, with the announce- 
ment on the title-page that " it was appointed to be read in 
churches." On what "authority," if any, this notice was 
issued, and the authorisation of the " Great Bible " super- 
seded, it does not appear possible now to ascertain. 

It will be observed that in the present Revision a return 
has frequently Ijeen made to the very words, and still more 
often to the sense, of Wycliffe's and the Rhemish versions, 
and, substantially, to the rendering of the Yulgate ; and 
in a considerable number of such passages the Greek Text 
has been followed which underlies the Vulgate, in preference 
to that of Stephens, on which Tyndale's and the Autho- 
rised Version are based. These iiistances, so far as they 
go — and they go a good way — serve to sliew that the textual 
authorities upon which the current Greek Text has been 
amended are in agi-eement with the Vulgate, and that the 
Vulgate represents better as well as older MSS. than those 
which were known to Erasmus, Beza, or Stephens ; in 
other words, they support the principle adopted by modern 
critics of preferring the testimony of the few ancient MSS. 
which now are known, to that of the later but more 
numerous authorities. 

Influence of tlie Vulgate. — The Latin Vulgate, it need 
not be said, has exercised, both for good and for evil, 
a great and lasting influence on the English version : for 
good, by its close adherence to the original, setting thus an 
example of the literalism which .should be observed in 
translating the Holy Scriptui-es, and which has been followed 
more or less strictly in subsequent versions ; for evil, owing 
to the inability of the Latin language to cope with the 
strength and siibtilty of the Greek, being ^vithout a definite 


article, not having any means of distinguishing between the 
aorist (or " preeterite ") and the perfect tense of the verb, 
and though possessed of participles, admitting but sparingly 
of theii' use. 

From the Yulgate, through our version and liturgy, 
we have derived the greater part of our religious vocabulary ; 
as, for example, the words "person, essence, scripture, 
lecture, sermon, grace, adoption, repentance, spirit, glory, 
satisfaction, conversion, sacrament, redemption, privilege, 
election, eternity, communion, discipline, missionary, re- 
generation, justification, congregation," &c. (Eadie, Enqlish 
Bible, ii. 154). 

It remains for me to say, in justice to my brother 
revisers, that for the inception of this work, and for all its 
faults, I am alone responsible. 

I cannot better conclude this Introduction than by 
adopting a few words from the Prologe of Myles Coverdale 
2cnto the Christen Header : — " As for the commendation of 
God's Holy Scripture, I would fain magnify it as it is 
worthy, but I am far insufiicient thereto, and therefore I 
thought it better for me to hold my tongue than with few 
words to praise or commend it ; exhorting thee, most dear 
reader, so to love it, so to cleave unto it, and so to follow 
it in thy daily conversation, that other men, seeing thy 
good works and the fruits of the Holy Ghost in thee, may 
praise the Father of heaven, and give this Word a good 
report; for to live after the law of God and to lead a 
virtiious conversation is the greatest praise that thou canst 
give unto his doctrine." 

The following abbreviations are commonly used in tlie course 
of the Commentary:- 



. Tlie Latin "Vulgate . 



. Wycliffe's Yersiou, as rc^dsed by Purvey 



Tyudale's Version .... 



. Craumer's Version .... 



. The Genevan Version 



The Rhemish Version 



. The Authorised Version . 


It is to be understood that botli Craumer's version and the 
Genevan agi'ee with that of Tyndale, except where they are 
mentioned separately. 







1 The book of the generation. Margin, " Or the genealogy." 
This word well expresses tlie meaning, but being of Gr. origin, 
fails to represent the Hebraic phrase of the Evangelist. More- 
over, it is more in its proper place, as the translation of its own 
Gr. original, in the Epistles of St. Paul (1 Tim. i. 4 ; Tit. iii. 9), 
where it is joined with terms of disparagement. 

The word translated " generation," {yevecris, genesis), has several 
shades of meaning ; here it is synonymous with y^vea (family, or 
descent), at ver. 18 with yeveVrj [birth). 

2 Jndah. — Auth., " Judas." Here and elsewhere the Hebrew 
names are rendered in the forms to which we are accustomed in 
the O. T., not in those which have been given them in the Gr. of 
the N. T., such as Esaias, Jeremy, Osee, Jesus (for Joshua j, &c., 

11, 12, 17. The carrying away.— The Gr. word is the same in 
all three verses, though Auth. varies in its rendering of it. 

17 The Christ. — Auth., " Christ." It is to be observed that where 
the article is prefixed in the Gr. as it is here, this name, " the 
Christ," points to our Lord as "the Messiah," "the Anointed 
One," foretold in proj)hecy, and expected by all them that " were 
looking for the redemption of Jerusalem." 

18 When. — Auth., " when as," now obsolete ; similar in form to 
" whereas." 



Betrothed. — Auth., "espoused," whicli formerly had the same 
meaniiij?, but now is frequently used of the marriage rite itself. 
Wycl. hei-e has " betrothed," and so Tynd. and the Genev. ; 
Cranni. " married," Rhem. " espoused." Compare Luke ii. 5. 

18 The Holy Ghost. — Margin, "Or Holy Spirit; and so 
tlu'oughout this book." The two names liave to us precisely 
the same meaning as names of the same Holy Being, and 
they can therefore be used indifferentlj' ; but the words " ghost" 
and " spirit," taken by themselves, are not interchangeable, not 
being in all respects exact equivalents ; and whereas the latter 
word is often used to denote the third Person in the Godhead, 
the former is never so used. 

19 A righteous man. — Auth., "a just man." The Gr. SUaios ia 
rendered in the New Testament with some laxity, now by one 
of these words, now by the other. They are not identical 
in meaning. " Righteous " comprehends the discharge of duty 
both toward God and man ; "just " properly refers to righteous- 
ness as between man and man. There is no need, however, in the 
New Testament to enforce this distinction rigidly. Thus " The 
resurrection of the just " has been retained in Luke xiv. 14, 
where the meaning cannot be misunderstood; while in such pas- 
sages as this tlie term "a just man" is liable to be taken, and 
might reasonably be understood, in its more limited sense, but 
for the ruling of other passages, such as Luke xxiii. 37, 50, which 
require tlie wider meaning, and the use of the more compre- 
hensive Englisli word. 

21 For it is he that shall save.— The pronoun in the Gr. 
is emphatic. Possibly the emphasis is overdone by this ren- 
dering; but it is quite lost in Auth., " for he shall save." None 
of the English versions take notice of this, though the Vulg. 
has ijjse cnini salvum faciet ("for he hwiself shaW. save "). 

22 Is come to pass. — The Gr. verb is in the perfect tense. 
Auth., " was done." The Evangelist views the event as having 
happened in his own time, and still present, stiU continuing, in 

its effects. 

By the Lord. — Auth., " Of the Lord." " Of," in its good old 
English use for "by," might here be taken to mean "con- 

Through the prophet. — Auth., " by the prophet." The 
Lord spake through the prophet as through an instrament or 
channel. God is also said to have spoken in the prophets, as at 
Heb. i. 1, where see Note ; in the Nicene Creed " by (Gr., 
through) the prophets." 


23 Behold, the Virgin . . . The passages quoted from the 
prophetical books of the Old Testament, and the Canticles in 
bt. Luke's Gospel, have been arranged stichometrically — i.e., 
divided in lines, so as to indicate the metrical structure and 
the parallelism of the Hebrew poetry. 

25 A son.— There is but little MS. authority for the reading which 
Auth. here follows, " her first-born son," and which is part of 
the genuine Gr. text in Luke ii. 7. 


1 Wise men from the east came.— Auth., " "Wise men came 
from the east." The collocation of the words in the Gr. appears 
to connect "from the east" with "wise men," rather than with 
" came," denoting that their home was in the east, and not that 
the east was the direction from which they came to Jerusalem. 

4 Gathering together. — Auth., " When he had gathered to- 
gether." This chapter is marked in the Gr. by the frequent 
combination of a jjarticiple and a verb to express a double action, 
which according to English idiom is usually expressed by two 
verl)S, as in verse 3. The paraphrase by which the Latin 
language avoids the i;se of the participle has been adopted 
in English, especially by the first ti-auslators of the Bible, who 
had tlie Latin Yulgate always before them. Occasionally, how- 
ever, as here and in verses 9, 11, the participial construction serves 
to lighten the sentence, without injury to the rhythm, and with 
some gain to the ^'ividness of the narrative. 

He inquired. — SoWycl.; Auth.. "he demanded" (after Cranm.); 
a word denoting, as used in the Bible, an imperious or peremptory 
interrogation, which though it might be consistent with tlie 
character of Herod the king, is not implied by the Gr. eirvfedvero. 
"Inquired" also represents the Greek better than "demanded" 
or " asked," as being suggestive, like the imperfect tense of the 
Greek, of a repeated and continued questioning ; which is not 
the case with the other two words. Compare Note on Acts iv. 7. 

6 By the prophet. — Margin, "Or through," which is tlie literal 
rendering of the Gr. preposition 5j«, but would not be intelli- 


gible here, as it is at chap. i. 22, where the instrumental meaning 
"through," "by means of," can well be expressed, "spoken by 
the Lord through the prophet." 

6 Thou Bethlehem, land of Judah. — Auth., " Thou Betlilehem 
in the land of Judah." The insertion of in is uuuecessaiy, and 
indeed incorrect, the words " land of Judah " being applicable 
to Bethlehem, considered as the name of the town and tlie 
surrounding district, over which district, it is to be observed, 
Herod extended his massacre (verso 16). 

Shall be shepherd. — Auth., " shall rule," Gr. iroifiaveT. It is 
not often tliat this beautiful Orientalism, pervading both the 
Old and New Testaments, can be preserved in English -^vithout 
encumbering the sentence : e.g., it would not be admissible in 
Revelation ii. 27, xii. 5, xix. 15, where " rule " has been retained; 
for in these places it is not the general character of the shepherd, 
but the notion of guidance, and so of governance, one of his 
offices, which is predominant. 

7 learned of them carefully. — Auth., "inquired of them dili- 
gently." The Gr. verb denotes not the act of inquiry, but its 
result ("learned"), and exactness rather than diligence. All 
previous versions have "diligently," except WycL, "busily;" 
Yulg., diligenter. " Diligence" was a bright and suggestive word 
while the Latin was a living language ; but now, though not 
obsolete, it has become somewhat faded and colourless; and 
" pains-taking " is a stronger word. " Ascertained," as used 
in modern English, would fairly, but somewhat feebly, represent 
the Greek in this place. 

8 Search out carefully concerning the young child.— 

The two prejjositions expressed by " out " and " concerning " are 
omitted in Auth., " Search diligently for the young child." 

That I also may come and worship him. — Following 
the Greek order. Auth., "That I may come and worship him 
also," intending the same sense, but making it possible for a care- 
less reader to connect " also " with " worship," or even with 
" him." The position of " also " in an Enghsh sentence seems 
often to depend on other considerations than those of perspicuity, 
and its true connection is left to be determined by the intel- 
ligence of the reader. Here j)erhaps it was thro^vn to the end 
to prevent the concurrence of open vowels, " I also." 

9 See Note on ver. 4. 

11 Offered. — More close to the original Gr., and more suitable to 


an act of adoration, than Autli. " presented." All previous ver- 
sions have " ofiered." 

13 An angel.— Aiith. has " the angel," following all previous 
versions. But in ver. 19, Auth., as well as Tynd. and his suc- 
cessors, rightly, though inconsistently, omit the article. 

Until I tell thee. — Auth., " Until I bring thee word." So 
Tynd. The Gr. is different from that which is well rendered 
" bring thee word" in ver. 8. 

16 Did I call.— Aiith., " have I called " The Gr. aorist here 
refers to an action completed long before ; as is shown by the 
passage of Hosea xi. 1, " Wlien Israel was a child, then I loved 
him, and called my sou out of Egypt." 

16 The male children. — Gr., robs iralSas; Auth., " The children," 
thus doubling the number of the slaughtered innocents ; and so 
Tynd. and Oranm., following Wycl. But Geneva had " male 
chilcben," and the Rhcm. '• men children," following Vulg., 

Borders. — Gr., dpiois ; Auth., " coasts," a word only used now 
of the sea shore. 

18 A voice was heard in Ramah.— Auth., "In Rama was 
there a voice heard." This inversion of the Greek order pro- 
duces awkward English, is of no advantage to the rliythm, and is 
not required for emphasis. It is derived from Tyndale, and is 
not in the Auth. of Jer. xxxi. 15. 

Jeremiah.— Ramah.— See Kote on chap. i. 2. 

18 Lamentation. — Auth. Omitted in accordance with change of 
Greek text. 

And -she would not. — Auth., following Tynd., "and would 
not." This change, or rather restoration of Wycl.'s rendering, 
is required to make the sentence grammatical. 

22 But. — " Notwithstanding " (Auth.) is never wanted as a transla. 
tion of the little word 5e, which is no more than a connecting 
liuk between one word, or clause, or sentence, and another, and 
may be rendered "and" or " but," according to the context. 

Withdrew. — The Greek avaxupeu bears several shades of mean- 
ing in the N. T. ; e.g., "departed," ver. 12. Here "withdi'ew" 
is more suitable than Auth. " turned aside." 

23 The Greek particle on, " that," when it introduces a saying or 
quotation which is the substance, but not the exact form, of what 


was said or wi-itteu, is to be trauslated "that"; sometimes it 
may be regarded as a part of that whifh it introduces, and in 
that case must be left out in translation. Here it is prefixed to 
a quotation which is not given verbatim ; and it shoidd there- 
fore be translated. The contrary is the case at chap. iv. 6. 


1 Cometh. — Gk., irapayiyfrat. Auth,, and all English versions 
except the Rhem., have *' came." Yvilg., venit, is ambiguous in 

3 Isaiah the prophet. — Auth., "the prophet Isaiah." This 
may seem a small matter ; but it is well, even in this, to follow 
the usual order of the Greek, which is indeed commonly observed 
by Auth. Once only is this order revei'sed in the Greek, Acts ii. 

Make ye ready. — Auth., " prepare ye." The Gr., iToifj.d(fiv, 
is trauslated both ways. The change here is consequential on 
that Avhich it was necessary to make in the parallel passage, 
Mark i. 3, where see Note. 

4 John himself. — Auth., "the same John," wliich is perhaps 
rather an archaic than an incorrect use of " same." It was " this 
John " in all the versions till the Rhem. changed to " the said 
John." Gr., Avrbs Se 6 'luavuris. 

Food. — Auth., "meat." This word has long lost the comprehen- 
sive meaning which it bore three centmies ago. The Auth. has 
"food" about forty times in the O. T., but only foiu- times in 
the N. T. (not once in the Gospels); "meat" about sixty times 
in the N. T., and frequently in the O. T. 

8 Fruit. — Auth., " fruits." Change in Gr. text. 

Worthy of repentance. — Auth., "meet for repentance," 
which was probably suggested by Beza's Latin version, conveni- 
elites resipiscentice, amending Vulg., fructum dignum pceni- 
tentid. " Meet for," though it may be rightly understood, is 
open to iiiisintorpretatiou. 


Margin, " Or, worthy of your repentance." Whether tliis reii- 
deriug should be talcen, or that which stands in the text, 
depends upon the force of the article in the Gr. — ttjs neruvolas — 
which may denote the grace of repentance (in the abstract), or 
"the repentance which you profess." The former has been 
thought the more probable. 

10 And even now. — The inference being that there is no time to 
be lost. Auth., " And now also." Change in Gr. text. 

12 Cleanse. — Auth., "purge." The simple verb KaOapl^o) is almost 
always translated " cleanse " in Auth. ; and the compound. 
StaKadapiCo, has been conformed to it, both here and in the 
parallel passage, Luke iii. 17. 

But the chaif he will burn up with unquenchable fire. 

— Auth., " but he will burn up the chaff." Here again the pre- 
sei'A'ation of the Gr. order throws the emphasis on the emphatic 

14 But John would have hindered him. — This gi^es the 
Gr. imperfect its proper sense, which is overlooked in Auth. 
"forbad him." Moreover, StaKu\vetv is to "hinder," not to 

16 Prom the water. — Auth., " out of the waters," the Gr. being 

an6y not iK. 

As a dove. — Auth., "like a dove." Gr., iicrel, "as it were"; 
denoting the manner of descent, not resemblance in form. 

Coming upon him. — Auth., " lighting upon liim." Gr., t'/jx*^- 
ixevou eV avrSv. The Corrections in this verse are all in agreement 
with Wycl. and Rhem. Auth. follows Tynd. and his successors. 

17 A voice out of the heavens. — All English versions, "a 
voice from heaven," although " the heavens," in the plural, have 
been spoken of in the same verse. In nothing does the Gospel 
of St. Matthew more strongly show its Hebraic authorship than 
in the distinctive uses of the singular and plural of the word 
heaven. (1) In the singular, " heaven " is applied to all that 
lies outside the earth, whether the suljjoct be the birds of the 
air, or the face of the sJcy, or the " clouds of heaven," or the 
" stars of heaven ; " also when the in^^sible world is mentioned, 
as the " angels in heaven," and the heaven, the " throne of God," 
and when the whole universe is comprehended in two words, 
" the heaven and the earth." (2) " The heavens," in the j)lm'al, is 
very rarely used, except where there is reference more or less 
distinct to the dwelling-place of the Most High. Thus instead 


of " the kiugdom of God," of which we read so often in the 
other three Gospels and the rest of the New Testament, we have 
a term common in Rabbinical writings, " the kingdom of heas'en," 
literally, " of the heavens " {tuv ovapvUv), peculiar to St. Matthew's 
Gosjiel, in which it is found not less than thirty times. Other 
expressions peculiar to St. Matthew are, in the Lord's Prayer, 
" Our Father, which art in heaven " (lit., " the heavens "), 
though the singular number is used in the same prayer, " as in 
heaven;" and "our heavenly Father" (lit., "our Father from the 
heavens." " The powers of the heavens " (meaning the greater 
lights, the sun and moon), which is found in the first three 
Gospels, is an exception to this statement, but is from the Old 
Testament (Isa. xxxiv. 4). 

The usage of St. Mark in this particular agrees with that of St. 
Matthew, except as to " the kingdom of heaven." In St. Luke 
the plural, " heavens," occurs only four times ; in St. John, not 
once ; in the Acts, twice ; in the Epistles frequently ; in the 
Apocalypse, once only (chap. xii. 12), " Rejoice, ye heavens." 
The distinction here pointed out appears to have arisen among 
the Jews from the Rabbinical conception of heaven as consisting 
of several regions or layers, one above another ; whence the ex- 
pression of St. Paul, " the third heaven," in 2 Cor. xii. 2 — i.e., 
the highest heaven. According to some Rabbinical writers 
the number of these regions was seven. 


2 He hungered. — Auth., " he was an hungred," a word now 
obsolete, similar in formation to afeared (which is foimd in 
Spenser, and still used in rural dialects) ; the n added before h, 
as in "an horse." Wycl. here hag, "he hungered"; Rhem., 
" he was hungry." Both these forms occur elsewhere in Auth. ; 
and tliere being three modifications of the same word, all convey- 
ing the same sense, it is no wonder that one of them has dropped 
out of use. 

3 If thou art. — Auth., " If thou be," which would represent 
fav is. " If " with the indicative is as correct in English as in 
Greek, and is frequently found in Auth. — e.g., 2 Cor. xi. 4. 

Margin, " Gr., loaves." The word for " bread" is in the plural. 


Become. — Autli., "be made;" Gr., yeuuvrai. It is j)ropcr to 
mark this : by tlie fiat of a word, and not by any handiwork, was 
the change to be brought about. 

5 Taketh him. — Auth., "taketh him up." The Gr. means liter- 
ally, " taketh [him] along with him." 

He set him. — Auth., " he setteth him." Change in Gr. text. 

The pinnacle. — A particular part of the temple, as appears 
from the article, which is omitted in Auth. The margin gives 
the literal meaning of the Gr., irTepvywv, wing. What part it 
may have been there are no means now of determining. 

6 On their hands. — Auth., " in," &e., giving to the Gr. pre- 
position €7ri a meaning which it will not bear. 

Lest haply. — Autli., " lest at any time." A change fre- 
quently made — e.g., Matt. v. 25, xiii. 15. In Luke xiv. 25, Acts 
V. 39, Auth. itself has " lest haply." The proper temporal sense 
of ^uTjTToTe passes into a notion of contingency. 

12 Delivered up. — Auth., "cast into prison," which was the 
subsequent act of the authorities to whom he was " delivered 
up." (Comp. Matt. x. 17, 19, &c.) Withdrew. See on chap, 
ii. 22. 

13 By the sea. — Auth., " by the sea-coast." Gr., tt^v irapadaXacraLav, 
to be distinguished from ttjs irapaKiov {x^p<^s understood,) which 
is rightly translated " the sea coast " at Luke vi. 17. 

16 Did light spring up.— Auth. (following Tynd., &c.) " light is 
sprung up." Wycl. alone gives the tense correctly, " light 
arose to them." The later versions seem to have been led into 
their erroneous mode of rendering by Yulg., orta est, which was 
not in itself incorrect. 

19 Come ye after me. — " Follow " is used in Auth. to translate 
many Gr. words and phrases for which a more literal as well as 
a varied rendering is desirable. 

21 Boat. — Auth., here and elsewhere, " ship," which gives an erro- 
neous idea of the size of the fishing vessels on the lake (Gr. ■kKoIo)). 
All the former vei-sions have " sliip," and Yulg., navi. 

24 All that were sick, holden with . . . — Auth., "All 
sick people that were taken with," &c. The text follows more 
closely the Gr. construction, and also gives the participle its 
proper meaning, which is not " being taken " or seized, but 
" being held fast." 


24,25 "People" is without ueed iuserted iu Auth. By "the 
people," at the end of ver. 23, is meant the Jewish nation 
(Gr., rf \af). 


1 When he had sat down. — "When he was set" runs 
through all the English versions, showing that " to sit " was 
foiTuerly conjugated like " to come " and " to go." Vulg., 
cum se'disset. " Set," at verse 14, is the rendering of a Gr. 
participle (/cei^eV??). 

10 That have been persecuted. — The Gr. is in the past 
(praeter-perfect) tense. The Vulg. and all English ver- 
sions render it as a present, " which are persecuted." By 
attention to this point, the distinction is made more clear 
between those who are spoken of in this verse and those who 
are addressed in the next. The latter class (including our 
ownselves) are thus encouraged, in case we sufEer persecution, 
by the assurance that they who have suffei'ed before us "for 
righteousness' sake" are already blessed. 

11 Reproach. — " Revile," which is the rendering of Tynd. and 
all subsequent versions, is too strong a word for the Gr. 

13 Its savour. — Auth., " his." The distinction of genders with 
regard to this and other inanimate objects has become archaic, 
though it lingers in some provincial dialects of England ; and the 
language has gained in simplicity, though not in poetry or 
euphony, by the substitution of " its," which in 1611 had no 
place in the Bible, but is used by Shakspcare, e.ff., five times in 
the Winter's Tale, and by MUton, though rarely, in Paradise 

15 Lamp . . . stand. — Auth., " candle . . . candlestick ; " and 
so all English versions, except Wycl., " lantern . . . candlestick," 
following Yulg., lucernam . . . candelabrum. Our translators 
were probably not aware that candelabrum was commonly used 
by the Romans (like " chandelier " by us) for a lamp-stand as well 
as "' a candlestick ; " and seeing it used in the Vulg. to translate 


tte Gr. \vxvlav, they took " candle " for Auxj'oj', in this and some 
other places, reserving " lamp " for \a/xTrds {lampas). The seven- 
branched candlestick of the Temple was lighted by lamps, not by 

15 The bushel . . . the stand.— All English versions omit 
the article, which denotes that the utensils thus referred to were 
things usually to be found in every house. 

Shineth. — Auth., "giveth light," following Cranm., but in the 
next verse, for the same Gr. both these versions have " shine." 

17 I came. — So Wycl. and Rh. ; Auth. with Tynd., " I am come." 
The Gr. is the aorist; Vulg., ve7ii, may be either " I came," or 
" I am come." 

18 Pass away. — Auth., "pass," following Wycl. and Cranm. here, 
but with " pass away " at chap. xxiv. 35, and in other similar 
passages. Tynd. and Genev., "finish." Vulg., transeat, re- 
minding us of " sic transit gloria muudi." 

20 In no wise. — Auth., " in no case." The emphatic negative 
oi) fi-n is not elsewhere so rendered in Auth. The previous versions 
have in this place simply, "ye shall not," following Yu]g.,non 

21 It was said to them of old time. — Auth., "by them," 
foUoAving Beza, dictmn est a veteribus. All previous ver- 
sions, following Yulg., with Chrysostom, &c., " to them." 
The Gr. is in itself ambiguous ; but the meaning is decided by 
the consideration that the commandments which follow were 
given, not by sundry lawgivers or teachers, but by one, by Moses 
to the Israelites : and the antithesis may be thus expanded : 
" This was said by Moses to them of old time : but I say unto 
you." Both the pronouns (especially "I") are here emphatic 
in the Gr. Moi-eover, the Gr. ippfdri in the New Testament and 
in the LXX. is not followed by a noun describing the speaker, 
but by one which (as here) denotes the persons addressed. 
Compare Rom. ix. 12, 26. 

Thus at the A-ery outset of His ministry our Lord assumes 
Divine authority, not speaking in the manner of the scribes, the 
servile expoimders of Rabbinical tradition, but taking upon Him- 
self to enlarge and spiritualise the law given by Moses mider 
inspiration from God. 

21,22 Every one . . . whosoever. — Auth. repeats "who- 
soever," losing sight of the variation in the Gr. 

22 The omission of " without cause " (Auth.) is consequent on a 


change of the Gr. text. The Auth. and Cranm. alone follow a 
text which had the omitted words. 

The hell of fire —Auth., "heU fire; " the Gr. being literally 
" the Gehenna of fire." Gelieuna was originally the name of a 
valley near Jerusalem, in which the Israelites offered their 
children in sacrifice to the false god Moloch. A -f^er its defile- 
ment by Josiah, recorded in 2 Kings xxiii., it wt< legarded as an 
accursed place; and its name, being a name of horror, became 
a by-word with the Jews of later times for the place of future 
retribution. So it is said in the Rabbinical commentaiy (the 
Targum) in Isa. xxxiii. 14, " Gehenna is tlie eternal fire " 
(Plumptre, commentary on this verse, and Dr. Field, Otium 
Norvicense, part 3, p. 3). The old English " hell," therefore, in 
its modern acceptation, seems fairly well to represent Gehenna. 
The Gr. construction requires that " of " should be inserted. 
So Rhem.: Wycl. has " fire of hell." Yulg. may be taken either 
way, reus erit Gehennce ignis. Tynd., " hell fire." 

23 If therefore- — Auth., following Tynd., Cranm., and Luther 
(Darum loenn), " Therefore if." The return to the Gr. order 
lightens the sentence, and is a change, which, though slight, has 
been often made with advantage. 

23 If thou art offering. — The present tense in the Gr. sup]30ses 
the remembrance to occur, as is very likely to be the case, when 
the worshipper is in the act of offering his gift. Auth., " if thou 
bring," which less vividly conveys the same idea that the sacri- 
fice is inchoate, not completed; but the Gr., here rendered 
" bring," has its usual and proper meaning, " offer," given to it 
in the next verse. 

25 Lest haply. — Note on chap. iv. 6. 

26 The last farthing.— So Wycl. and Rhem., following Vulg., 
novissinmm, and in accordance with English idiom. This is the 
only place in which the Gr. is rendered " uttermost " in Auth. 
(after Tynd.), except Acts i. 8, xiii. 4, 7, where it has its proper 
local meaning, " the uttermost parts of the earth ; " " utmost, 
uttermost, outermost," being the opposite to ''inmost, innermost." 

Till thou have paid, like the Gr., ews hv diroS^s, leaves it 
uucertaiu whether it ever will or can be paid. Auth., " tiU thou 
hast paid," points to a definite time when it will have been paid. 
The Genevan first introduced the definite futm-e here into the 
English version. 

29 Causeth thee to stumble. — Auth., "offend thee," which 
would mean " sin against thee," or " displease thee," whereas 


the Gr. means "causeth thee to stumble," and in the meta- 
phorical sense in which it is very frequently used in the N. T., 
" canseth to sin." The noun {crKdvSa\oi/, scandalon) is properly a 
" stumbling-block." Though occurring fifteen times in the New 
Testament, and twenty times in the LXX., it is scarcely ever 
found in profane authors. Hei*e the word is appropriate in its 
figurative sense, the eyes being mostly in fault when we take a 
false step in walking ; and it is through the eyes that the sin 
mentioned in the last verse has been committed. But in vcr. 30, 
and generally, the original metaphor is lost sight of, and the word 
signifies that which causes a moral fall — a temptation to sin. 
The English word " scandal " bears a very difi:ereut meaning ; so 
does " slander," which comes to ns through the French, and is 
another form of the same original. There is a singular variety 
in the English versions as to the rendering of the word in this 
place. Wycl. has " slander thee ; " Tynd., followed by Auth., 
"offend thee;" Cranm., " hinder thee;" Gen., " cause thee to 
offend;" Rh., "scandalise thee" (following Vulg., scandal- 
izet te). 

And not thy whole body be cast into hell.— Auth. in- 
serts that, "and not that thy whole body," &c., i.e., "and not 
profitable that thy whole body be cast," &c., thus giving a wrong 
turn to the sentence, the whole of which depends on " it is pro- 
fitable for thee " at the beginning. 

30 Go into. — For Auth., "be east into," by change in Gr. text. 

32 Maketh her an adultress. — Literally, " causeth her to have 
committed adultery." Auth., " causeth her to commit adultery." 
A change consequent on change in Gr. text (the verb being in the 
past tense, the aorist, instead of the present). 

When she is put away. — Auth., "her that is divorced." 
The Gr. is the same here as in the two places above, where it is 
thus rendered. 

35 The footstool of his feet.— Auth., " his footstool," follow- 
ing Tynd. Wycl. and Rhem. preserve the Hebrew idiom, follow- 
ing Vulg., scabellum est pedum ejus. 

Nor by Jerusalem. — The Gr. is literally " toward " (eh) ; 
doubtless, when they swore by the holy city, they looked towards 
it, as they did in their prayers. 

37 Your speech. — Auth., " communications," with all previous 
versions, except Wycl., " your word." 

Is of the evil one. — Margin, " or, evil, as in ver. 39 ; vi 


13." AutL, " Cometh of evil."^ (So Tynd.) The question be- 
tween the masculine and neuter is a doubtful one, the Gr. being, 
iK Tov TTovnpov, but appeal's to be decided by ver. 39, where see 

39 Resist not him that is evil. — So Wj^cL, " an evil man," 
the Vulg. being, non resistere malo. All other English versions, 
" evil " (in the abstract). But we are boimd to resist evil, and 
him also who is the author of it (James iv. 7). The Gr., there- 
fore, though in itself ambiguous, must signify " the evil man," 
as at 1 Cor. v. 13, where the mascidine is used, "Put away the 
wicked man from among yourselves." Some explain this pre- 
cept as forbidding retaliation, "retm*n not evil for evil;" but 
there is no example of the verb which is here rendered " resist " 
ha\'ing any other sense. 

40 Go to law. — The Gr. is so rendered at 1 Cor. vi. 1. Here Auth. 
has, " sue thee at law." The word includes litigation, whether in 
prosecution or defence. 

41 Compel. — Margin, " Gr. impress." The word, which is of Per- 
sian origin, is connected with the custom of impressing horses 
and men for the use of a king's courier carrying despatches ; it 
is used (chap, xxvii. 32) with reference to Simon of Cp'ene. 

44 The omissions in this verse are consequent on changes in the Gr. 

48 Ye therefore shall be. — Auth., " Be ye therefore," follow- 
ing Wycl. and Rhem., and Vulg., estate. The Gr. is the future 
indie, used often, as here, with an imperative meaning, as in the 

Your heavenly Father.— For Auth., " Your Father which 
is in heaven," by change in Gr. text. 


1 Do not your righteousness. — For Auth.. "alms," by a 
change of Gr. text, which is generally receired. Yn\g..ju.^titiam. 
followed by Wycl. and Rhem. The Auth. follows Tynd. The 


command is thus of general application, and not limited to alms- 

With your Father. — i.e., in his judgement. So Cranm. : Auth., 
following Tynd. and Genev., " of." The Gr. is napd, which the 
Viilg. renders wcU by apicd. 

2 They have received their reward.— Auth., " They have 
their reward." The Gr. is in the present tense, but with the 
sense of the perfect, "they have got it" (anexovcri). So Vulg., 
receperunt, followed by Wycl. and Rhem. The Auth. follows 
Tynd. ; but in a similar passage (Luke vi. 24) has " ye have 
received," following Genev. 

4 Shall recompense thee. —Auth., "reward." The Gr. is 
ano^ucrei ; but in vers. 1, 2 " reward " (the noun) represents a dif- 
ferent Gr. 

Tlie omission of " openly " (Auth.) is consequent on a change in 
the Gr. text, as also the substitution of the plural for the singular 
in the next verse. 

6 Inner chamber. — Auth., " closet." The Gr. is the same as 
in Matt. xxiv. 26, " Behold, he is in the secret chamber " (Auth.), 
and properly means " a storehouse." 

10 As in heaven, so on earth. — Auth., " in earth, as it is in 
heaven." The Gr. order is followed, as in Luke xi. 2 (Auth., but 
omitted in the Revision). There is much diversity in the earlier 
versions. Vulg., sicut in ccelo, et in terra, according to the 
Gr. order, is followed by Rhem. only. The inverted order is 
tliat of Wycl. and Tynd. The Gr. order emphasizes the last 
words, " so on eartli " ; the Auth. throws the stress on " as it 
is in heaven," and suggests, as the meaning of the petition, " may 
Thy will be done on earth, as perfectly as it is done in heaven ;" 
whereas the true meaning, according to the Gr., is, " may Thy 
will, which is done in heaven, be done on earth also," no compa- 
rison being implied as to the manner in which it is done : the 
connecting particles being " as " (a»s, not Kaddis) in heaven, '' also " 
(Kal, not ouTois) on earth. 

It is worthy of notice " that " heaven " appears in the Gr. as a 
plural at the beginning of the prayer, and here in the singular. 
(See Note on chap. iii. 17.) 

13 Bring us not.— Auth., " lead us not," with Vulg,, ne nos 
inducas, and all English versions ; Gr., m^ ela-eveyKris. This verb 
in the six other places of the New Testament in which it occurs, 
and in classical Gr., is " to bring," or " carry," not to " lead; " 


and when said of a person it implies that he is made to go, if not 
against his will, without his consent. Compare the petition in 
the Litany of the Clmrch, " That it may please thee to bring into 
the way of truth all such as have erred and are deceived." "To 
lead " is suggestive of a consenting will. Thus it is remarked by 
Bishop Andrewes in his Analysis of the Lord's Prayer (published 
in 1611), that qui ducitur volens ducitur, " he who is led 
is led with his own consent," and that the Gr. word in this 
place is " rather ne inferas than ne inducas " {Sermons, Oxford 
edition, 1843, vol. 5, p. 446). Of our Lord it is said (Matt. iv. i.), 
that He "was led up" (avvx^v), and (Luke iv. i.) that He "was 
led " (^76To) by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of 
the devil. He was led ; His will then, as always, going along 
with the Divine will. This cannot well be said of us, at the very 
moment Avhen we are deprecating exposure to temptation ; "bring 
not " is, then at least, more appropriate to our frame of mind 
than " lead not ; " at any rate, it is the word which, if we are to 
follow literally our Lord's injunction, He has prescribed for our 

It has been observed that "lead" is an over-strong and jiainful 
word, drawn from the Vulgate, and used thei-e for the reason 
that the Latin has no verb which adequately represents "bring" 
in the sense required here. (" Ely Lectures on the Revised 
Version," by Canon Kennedy, p. 71.) 

Deliver us from the evil one. — All English versions, 
" from evil ; " Vulg., a tnalo. Beza, Bishop Andrewes {Sermons 
vol. 5,457), Bengel, Bishop Wordsworth, and other modern com- 
mentators, " from the evil one." The Gr. a-rrh rov -jrovrjpov may 
be either masculine or neuter, and is rendered ambiguously in the 
Latin a malo. The question is whether in this place the mascu- 
line or the neuter is to be preferred ; and the answer to this 
question requires consideration of the usage of the New Testa, 
meut, and of the sense attached to the word in the ancient ex- 
position of the prayer. 

It appears that our Lord unquestionably used 6 irov-qpos of " the 
evil one," in Matt. xiii. 19, " then cometh the evil one," and chap, 
xiii. 38, and probably in this discourse, chap. v. 37 (see above) 
and John xvii. 15, and that it was clearly so used several times 
by St. John (1 John, ii. 13, iii. 12 ; v. 18, 19, Compare Jolm 
\'iii. 44, 1 John iii. 8). The passages where it is undoubtedly neuter 
are only two — Luke vi. 45, and Rom. xii. 9 — " Abhor that which 
is evil ; " there are also three or four places in which the same 
ambiguity exists as in the Lord's prayer. 


Tlie mast'iiline sense agrees well with tlie coutext. " Briug us not 
into temptation, but deliver lis from tlie tempter." 

As regards versions, the most ancient Sp'iae appears to have the 
masculine rendering. The most ancient Latin, followed by St. 
Jerome in theYiilg., has a malo, which was taken by the Fathers 
of the Latin Church generally, thougli not by the most ancient, 
as a neuter. It will be seen that mains is the rendering given 
in tlie Yulgate for the Gr. 6 novr^pos, the evil one, at chap. xiii. 19, 
where see note. In the Saliidic, the version of Upper Egj-pt, it is 
a masculine : in the Memphitic, the version of Lower Egyi)t, it is 
ambiguous ; but in the liturgy of that Church it is interpreted 
as a masculine, '' Deliver us from the evil one and his works : " 
and so it is interpreted in the three most ancient Gr. liturgies, 
Avhicli are named after St. James, St. Mark, and Adgeus. The 
earliest Latin liturgies (those of tlie Western Church), following 
the example of the later Latin fathers, have the masculine. 

The Greek Fathers, who expound or refer to this petition, all 
take the masculine interpretation — e.g.. the Clementine Homilies. 
Origen, Dionysius of Alexandria, Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory 
Nysseu, Didymus of Alexandria, Chrysostom, Isidore of Pelusium ; 
so does the earliest Latin Father, TertuUiau, followed by Cyprian. 
In Latin writers, as Ambrose and Hilary, a change is manifest; 
and Augustine sets the example, which has been followed by the 
Western Church, of taking the neuter sense, " e^-il." in general, 
not the " e^il one " as a j)erson. For a full investigation of the 
eAadence of which the above is a brief summary, the reader is 
referred to the able papers on this subject l)y the Bishop of 
Durham (Lightfoot), which appeared in the Guardian of Sep- 
tember, 1881, in answer to a learned argument on the other side by 
Canon Cook, entitled " A Protest against the Change in the Last 
Petition of the Lord's Prayer adopted in the Revised Version. " 

It has been obsen^ed in further confirmation of the mascu- 
line rendering, that, accordmg to St. Matthew, tlie prayer was 
delivered by our Lord shortly after He had liimsclf lleen led 
into temptation, and had been in conflict with tlie •' evil one." 

Canon Cook has i-ecently replied to the Bishop of Durham, and 
the deeply interesting discussion is not yet concluded. (June, 


13 The omission of the Doxology is rendered necessary l)y tlie 

great preponderance of textual authorities against it. It is not in 

the Vulgate, and is not generally used in Western Christi'ndoin. 

Its interpolation into the Gr. text was probably in the first iu- 



stance due to its use as a proper termiuation of tlie prayer iu the 
services of the Church. The omissiou of the Doxology in the 
Church Catechism is readily accounted for, when it is borne in 
mind that the Lord's Prayer was generally knoAvn and taught in 
Western Europe according to the Latin use, Avithout the Doxology, 
until the pul^lication of the New Testament in Greek by Erasmus, 
iu 1516. He in the text of subsequent editions indicated its 
doiibtfulness, and in his Commentary (1522) argued strongly 
against its authenticity : and though retained by Stephens (1546) 
and Beza (1598) in their editions of the Greek Testament, and in 
Elzc\ar's text of 1633 (now current under the title of the Textns 
Receptus) it was not -admitted into any part of the service of the 
Church prior to the Revision of the Prayer-book iu 1662 ; and 
then it was probably introduced (as has been suggested 1)y 
Freeman, Principles of Divine Service. Part 2, p. 108) iu con- 
sideration of its use in the morning seriace of the Greek Church. 
It was judged to be spurious by Mill in his critical edition of 
the (ir.Test. (Oxfurd. 1707.) "800 Note on 1 Pet. iv. 11. 

18 That thou be not seen. — So Auth. at verse 5, where the 
Gr. is the same ; ))ut here " appear not," probably because of 
" seeth in secret," in the same verse. But "appear not," is in- 
appropriate, being suggestive of the outward seeming as 
opposed to the reality. 

19 Consume. — All English versions "corrupt," except WycL, 
•■ destroyeth ; " Vnlg., demolitur. The Gr. is, literally "maketh 
to disappear." We do not say, cloth is corrupted by the moth, 
or, iron is corrupted by the rust ; the word has now a moral 
significance, whicli does not in any degree appertain to the Greek. 

21 Thy treasure. — By change in Gr. text from "your treasure " 
(Auth.). The sudden transition from plural to singular, and 
singular to plural, is a characteristic of the Mosaic laws and 
precepts. Our use of "you" for "thou" precludes us from 
resorting to this mode of giving -vivacity and variety to a familiar 
discourse; but it is used several times by our Lord iuthis and the 
following chapters. 

22 The lamp of the body.— All English versions, "light," 
except Wyel. and Rhem ; Gr., as before, \vxvos. The eye 
receives light, but is in no true sense a light itself. 

23 The darkness.— All English versions, " that darkness;" here, 
as in many other places, being misled by the Vulgate, which, as 
tlie Latin language has no article, either neglects the Greek 
article, or ovei-translates it, and liere has ipsce tenebroe. 


25 Be not anxious. — Auth.," Take uo thought," apparently using 
that phrase liere and in 1 Sam.ix. 5. to denote anxious tliought, 
which is the meaning of the Gr. ; Vulg., Jie solliciti sitis; Wycl.. 
" be not busy ; " other English versions, " be not careful." 
"Over-careful" is not a classical i^hrase, or it miglit have been 

Pood, — All English versions. " meat ; " whicli has now a mnch 
more limited meaning than the Gr. Tpo(pris, ''nourishment." The 
article, omitted by all except Rhein., signifies " tlie food which 
sustains the life . . . the raiment which clothes the body." 
and the tliought, thus expanded, resemljles that in chap, xxiii. 17, 
"' Whether is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctifies the 
gold P " 

26 Birds.— All English versions, " fowls." which, like '" food," is 
now in modern usage a Avord of limited meaning in comparison 
of the Gr. Trereca Avhich it represents ; though it is etymologically 
eqiuvaleut to it. Vulg., volatilia. 

Of the heaven. — ^Autli. " of the air," All above the earth was 
to the Hebrews " heaven." 

26 Of much more value.— So Auth., for the same Gr., at chap. 
X. 31, but here, following T^nid., "■ much better." Y\\\g.,]pluris 
estis. Wycl., " ye are more worthy." 

27 Stature. — Margin, '• or. or/e." The latter rendering has been 
supported, on the ground that it is the proper meaning of tlie 
Gr., as iu John ix. 21 ; Heb. xi. 2-1. But " a cubit " is a measure 
of length, and is applied in classical Gr. to the measiirement of a 
man's stature, as in Aristoph. VespcB, 553, and is not a measure 
of age. Compare also Luke xix. 3, where the same Gr. is pro- 
perly rendered " stature " (see Field's Olium Now., Part 3, p. 4). 

30 If God doth so clothe. — " If." in Gr. or Engl., with the in- 
dicative mood, puts hypotlu'tically what miglit be assumed as a 
certainty. " If he so clothes, as he does " — Aiitli., " if he clothe," 
states it as uncertain, whether the hypothesis be true or not. 

33 His Kingdom.— For Auth., "the kingdom of God," by change 
in Gr. text. 

31 "Will be anxious for itself.— For Auth.. "for the tilings 
of itself; " things of" being omitted in Gr. Text. 



2 Measured unto you.— Autli., •• measured to you again," fol- 
lowing a different reading of the Gr. text. 

4 Let me cast out. — So Autk., in the next verse, for the same 
word ; here, " pull oiat." 

9 Who, if liis son shall ask him . . . will give.— AutU., 
" whom, if his son shall ask him . . . will give," an migraiu- 
matical eonstruction, like that in ehap. xvi. 13, " whom do men 
say that I am.'' (See Latham's English Grammar, vol. ii., 
p. ;361.) 

A loaf. — Auth.. "bread." Tlie Gr. in the singular is properly "a 
loaf" (compare Mark \'iii. 1-i). and here something is gained by 
marking this, and so suggesting the cmtward resemblance wliich 
may be supposed between a loaf and a stone, as between a lisli 
ami a serpent. 

13 Narrow is the gate. — So Rhem. All other Engl, versions 
liave '■ strait," which, as an adjective, has almost gone out of use. 
Being derived from " strict " ( Latin, stridus), it is not to be con- 
founded with " straight," which is the same as " stretched." 

Enter in. — So Wycl. and Rliem., following Vidg., qui intrant 
per eaui, and rendering the Gr. exactly. Autli., after Tynd., 
"go in." 

1-i Straitened.— Auth., " strait." The Gr. is not the same adjec 
tive as at ver. 13, but the participle of a verb signifying ''to 
press," or " hem in." 

16 By their fruits, &c.— The order of the Gr. is inverted here in 
Auth., but followed in ver. 20. 

22 Mighty works.— Auth., "wonderful works ; " the Gr. literally 
being "powei's," and suggestive of "might" ratlier than 
"wonder." Tynd. renders the Gr. l)y " miracles," and is followed 
by Cranm., Genev., and Rhem. The Vulg. has virtutes. and 
hence Wycl. " virtues." " Mighty works " is the rendering of 
Aiith, in other places of the Gospels, but in the Acts and Epistles 
" miracles," except in 2 Cor. xii. 12. Avhere all the English ver- 
sions have "mighty deeds," except Wycl., "virtues." This 
diversity appears to be an indication that the four Gospels were 
, not in the Aiith. finally supei'\"ised by the same eve and hand as 
the rest of the N. T. 

27 Smote.— Auth., with Tynd., "beat," as at ver. 2.j. The Gr. in 

the two verses is different. 


28 The multitudes.— By the reiteration of this word (in the 
singular or plural) we are constantly reminded that our Lord, 
wherever He went, drew about Him eager crowds of the common 
people, who sometimes thronged and pressed upon Him too 
closely, sometimes followed Him far from their own homos, and 
always heard Him gladly. The English versions occasionally, as 
here, have " people," without any apparent reason or advantage. 

Teaching. — So Wycl. All other Engl, versions. " doctrine." 
following Vidg., doctrina. There are two words, often used in 
the N. T., the one denoting the manner of a person's teaching 
{SiSaxv), the other the substance of it. The distinction is marked 
.by using always " teaching " for the former and "doctrine " for 
the latter. To preserve this distinction uniformly, many changes 
have been made, as here, in the Auth. 

29 Their scribes. — By change of Gr. text for Auth. " the 


3 Stretched forth his hand.— Auth.. f(jllowing Tynd.. "put 
foi-th." The Gr. denotes a lively, energetic movement, and else- 
where in Auth. is almost always translated " stretched forth." 
Here the action was the more impressive, Ijecause to touch a leper 
was to incur canonical defilement, and by so doing our Lord 
showed Himself to be above the law. 

6 My servant. — Margin, " or, boy" the Gr. ha^-ing properly (like 
gar^on in French) the latter meaning, though often used in the 

In the house. — Auth., " at home." Wycl. alone gives this 
correctly, following Vulg., which has, in domo, not domi. 

9 For I also am a man, &c. — So Tynd. and Cranm., after 
Vulg., " For I also myself am a man." Auth., following Genev., 
" For I am a man." Only by " also " rendering the Gr., Kai, 
and by the emphatic " under myself," is it made apparent that 
he compares his own position with that of our Lord, whom he 
supposes to be under Divine authority, but endued with power 
over the subalterns, or inferior ministers of God. 


12 The weeping and gnashing.— All Eugl. versions omit the 
article, wliieli in tlie Gr. accompanies both words, bnt, according 
to Engl, idiom, being expressed with the former, extends to both. 
The article shows this to be a familiar expression for bodily and 
mental agony. This also apjx'ars from tlie frequent repetition of 
the phrase, wliich is found six times in St. Matthew and once in 
St. Luke. 

14 Lying sick.— Axith., " laid, and sick." Tlie Gr. here rendered 
'• laid," is literally " cast," and is translated " lying " in chap, 
ix. 2. The Engl, idiom says '' lying sick " where tlie Gr. has 
" lying and sick." 

16 He cast out the spirits with a word.— The Auth. alone 
inserts " his," which is not needed, and impairs the simple sub- 
limity of Aoyqi in tlie original. Comiiare ver. 8, margin. 

19 A scribe. — Margin, " Gr. one scribe." Compare Note on cliap. 
xxi. 19. 

22 Leave the dead. — All Engl, versions, "let the dead bmy their 
dead," where " let " is liable to be understood as the sign of the 
imperative mood, instead of an independent verb, as it is. (Com- 
pare " Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart.") Yulg., 
correctly, dimitte viortuos sepelire mortuos suos." 

25 Save, Lord- — Auth., "Lord, save us." The omission of "us," 
due to a change in the Gr. text, adds vividness to the cry for 

28 The Gadarenes.— Auth., "the Gergesenes." The MSS. vary 
much as to the name of tliis locality. The most probable reading 
is " Gadarenes." Their city was at the south-east of tlie lake of 
Gennesareth, and its rock-hewn tombs still remain, and are the 
only habitations of the living. The Gergesenes appear to have 
had no city, and to have been a remnant of the nomad tribes, 
whom the Israelites found in occupation of the Promised Land. 
Their name occurs (Josh. xxiv. llj in connection witli the 
Hivites, &c. 

29 "Jesus." (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

31 Send us away.— By change of Gr. text for Auth., "Suffer us 
to go away." 

32 Rushed down the steep.— Auth., " ran violently down a 
steep place," impairing the vividness of the narrative by the 
omission of the article, and by the periphrasis employed in the 


rest of the sentence. The Vulg. led to this, by the not incorrect 
translation, impetu abiit per prceceps. 
34 From.— Auth., " out of," which would in Gr. be eV, not airS. 


1 Crossed over. — All Engl, versions have " passed over." "To 
pass " is used in Auth., wiih or without a preposition, to repre- 
sent eleven different Gr. words (for an example see ver. 9 of this 
chapter) ; and " to cross over " is now a more usual phrase than 
to " pass over," for going across the water. 

2 Son. — M&vgin, " Gr. child" (reKvov). This word may probably 
have been preferred by our Lord, as better expressing his tender 
compassion for the parent. 

Thy sins are forgiven.— All Engl, versions (except Ehem.), 
" thy sins be forgiven ;" which might possibly now be mistaken 
for an intercessory prayer. That " be" and "are" were formerly 
interchangeable in a declaratory sentence is shown in the prayer 
for purity, '* unto whom all hearts be open .... and from 
whom no secrets are hid." 

6, 8 Power. — Margin, " or, authority." Consistently with the 
usual rendering of the Gr., i^ova-la, the word in the mai'gin sliould 
have been in the text. Compare John v. 27. There have been, 
however, a few dejjartures from this rule ; and the cure of the 
sick man was a visible exercise, not of " authority " only, but of 
" power," and therefore imparted to the word, at least as used 
by the multitudes in ver. 8, the stronger meaning of " power." 

9 The place cf toll. — Auth. (following Tynd.), "the receipt of 
custom." The Gr. signifies the place at which tolls were levied 
on the cargoes landed from the vessels that traded on the lake. 
So Wycl., " tolbooth." 

13 I desire. — Auth. (with Cranm. and Genev.), " I will have." 
Wycl. and Rhera. (following closely the Latin, volo, and the Gr., 
fleAco), "I will mercy." Tynd., with a paraphrase, " I have plea- 
sm-e in mercy." 

" To repentance." (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 


Ifi Undressed cloth.— An tli., following Tynd., " new." as in the 
paralli4 passage (Luke v. 36), "a new garment"; where, how- 
ever, the Gr. is different. The word used in tliis j)lace is applic- 
able to a piece of cloth that has not yet undergone the final pro- 
cess of bleaching, which takes out of it some portion of its 
strength. Viilg., i'>cmni rudis. Wycl., " boistous " (the same 
as " boisterous," " rude," Chaucer). 

17 Wine-skins.— Auth., "bottles," with Wycl.. Cranni., and Rliem. 
Vnlg., 7(fres : properly vessels made of hides partly tanned, and 
liable, when old, to crack. See Josh. ix. 4, 13. 

Is spilled.~All Engl, versions, "runneth out," except Wycl., 
"is shed," following Vulg., effimditur. The Gr. is a A-erb 

New wine into fresh wine-skins.— The words in Gr. are 

varied. Auth., " new wine into new bottles." 

20 The border of his garment- — All Engl, versions, "the hem." 
The Gr. is the same as in chap, xxiii. 5, " they enlarge the borders 
of their garments " (Auth.). Yulg., fimbriam. 

21 I shall be made whole.— Auth., " I shall be Avhole." The 
Gr. is literally. " I shall be saved," denoting the cure, not the 
state of soimd liealth which will ensue thereon ; and so the Auth. 
in the next verse. 

23 The flute-players.— All Engl, versions, " minstrels." Vulg., 
tihlcines. Hired mourners, plajnng on the solemn Phrygian flute, 
were usual attendants at funerals among the Greeks and Romans, 
and among the Jews also, as appears from Eccles. xii. 5 ; Jer. 
ix. 17. 

The crowd making a tumult.— Auth., with Wycl., Cranm., 
and Genev.. " tlie people making a noise." Tynd., '• the people 
raging." The Gr. signifies the stir and confusion of a crowd, 
rather than tlie noisy ejaculations of a number of mourners. So 
Vulg., tnrham tumuUnantem. 

26 Went forth.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth. following Cranm., 
"went abroad." The one rendering refers, as does the Gr., to 
the going out, the other to the spreading, of the report. In ver. 
31 " spread abroad his fame " (Auth.) is a good and faithful trans- 
lation of tlie Gr. The preposition, with which the verb is com- 
pounded, here is 6k, in ver. 31 Sid. 

27 As Jesus passed by. — Auth., as Tj-nd., " dej)arted." Wycl., 
"passed," following Vulg., transiente hide Jesu. Gr., trapayovri. 
We may infer from this word that Jesus was passing by in the 


road, and the two blind men hoard that it was He ami followed 
Him. So, in Luke xviii. 37, it is related that a blind beggar, 
sitting by the wayside, heard that Jesus of Nazareth was passing 
by, Gr., Trapepxfrai. 

Have mercy on us, thou son of David.— The Gr. order, 
followed here, expresses, better than the inverted order of Auth., 
the eagerness of the blind men in crying for mei'cy. See Note 
on chap. xxvi. 22. 

30 Strictly charged.— Auth., " straitly,'' now obsolete. 

31 Land.— Gr., yf;. Auth., " country," follomng Rhem. All pre- 
vious versions, " land." " Country " is used to denote one's own 
country, x'^P"- irarpis (chap. ii. 12, xiii. 57) ; a foreign country, 
Xoi/jo (chap. viii. 28, Acts xxvii. 27); the country in contradis. 
tinction to the to^vn, x«^P" (Mark v. 14) ; but " land " more nearly 
answers to the more general word yv. 

34. By the prince of the devils . .. .—The Gr. order is 
followed by Auth. in the parallel passage of Mark iii. 22, though 
not here, nor in Luke xi. 15. 

35 Among the people. — Auth. Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

36 Were distressed.— For Auth., "fainted," in consequence of a 
change in the Gr. text. 


3 The changes here are due to changes in the Gr. text. The inter- 
pi'etation of the name " Canansean," given in the margin, is from 
Luke vi. 15 ; " Zealot," one who is zealous for God's glory. 

10 Wallet. — All Engl, versions, " scrip." now obsolete in this 
sense ; but compare Shakspeare, As You Like It, iii. 2, " Let us 
make an honourable retreat, if not with bag and baggage, yet 
with scrip and scrippage." 

11 Search out —The Gr. is more than " inquire," Auth. ; rather, 
'' find out by inquiring " (e|€To<roTe). 

12 As ye enter. — i.e., in the act of entering : more Aivid, as well 
as more exact, than Auth., " when ye enter." And so ver. 14. 


16 Harmless. — The Gr. means this, or, as in mai-gin, " simple," 
according as we prefer to derive it from Kfpas, a horn, or Kepawvixi, 
to mingle. 

23 The next. — Auth., "another." Literally, "the other" (tV 
a\\7]v). Compare "his neighbour" (Auth., "another"), whore 
the Gr. is Thv 'irepov, and Note on Rom. xiii. 8, " he that loveth 
his neighbour." 

Gone through. — Auth., " gone over." The Gr. is literally, 
" ye shall not liave accomplished." 

28 Be not afraid of . . . fear him,— Auth., "fear . . . 
fear him." The Gr. is slightly varied in the two parts of the sen- 
tence, but without any perceptible difference of meaning (<|>o/3>j07Jt6 

dirj . . . (poPridT]Te). 

29 Not one of them shall. — Auth., " one of them shall not," 
The negative is brought forward to throw the emphasis, where it 
is in the Gr., on " one." 

38 He that doth not take his cross and follow. — The 

negative is connected with both " take " and " follow " ; but in 
Auth., " he that taketh not his cross, and followeth," it is gram- 
matically connected witli the former verb only, as if the meaning 
were, " he that, without having taken his cross, followeth me." 

39 Life, — Margin, " or, soxiV The word ^vxh is to be understood 
in its two diiferent senses in each clause of the sentence. " He 
that findeth, preserveth his natural life, shall lose his heavenly, 
spiritual life (his soul), and vice versa ; an example of the double 
entendre, like, " leave the dead to bury their dead," chap. viii. 22. 


2 He sent by his disciples. — For Auth., "he sent two of his 
disciples," by change in Gi*. text. 

4 Go your way. — Auth., " go." The Gr. iropeuoyuoi commonly 
has the sense of "proceeding," "going on the way." and is not 
simply "go," "be gone," "depart." Comp. chap. viii. 33, where 
the opposite change is made. 


5 Have good tidings preached to them. —Auth., " have 
the gospel preached to them." Gr., evayyf\l(ovTai {eiiangeli- 
eontai). The Avord as used by our Lord, aud understood by liis 
hearers, would not have the special sense which it soon after- 
wards acquired, and in which we now use it, " arc evangelised," or 
in the old English foi*m, '' have the gospel preached to them." 
He meant by it simply " good tidings ; " l)ut by liis frequent use 
of it and tlie cognate noun, He commended it to his disciples as 
the plirase by whicli for all time the joyful message was to be de- 
signated, Avhich He brought from heaven, and whicli they received 
from Him. Tj'ud. alone has in this place '' glad tidings." The 
word as used by the evangelists has its later meaning, as iu 
Luke ix. 6. 

6 None occasion of stumbling.— No ground for disbelief 
aud refusal of my glad tidings. Auth., " shall not be offended." 
There was here, probably, a gentle glance at the doubts expressed 
by the disciples of John. 

7 To behold. — Auth., " to see." The G-r., eedaaa-eai implies that 
it was an unusual sight which they went out to look upon. In 
the next verse, when the question is briefly repeated, the shorter 
and more ordinary word <56?c, " to see," is used. The variation is 
not noticed in any of the English versions. In the ninth verse, 
according to the amended Gr. text, the question is repeated in a 
still shorter form, " But wherefore went ye out ? " 

11 He that is but little.— Auth., "the least." Wycl. and 
Tynd., " he that is less," after Yulg., minor ; Gr., 6 fx.iKp6Tepos, 
" he that is comparatively little," as in Mark iv. 31. The Auth. 
may have been iniluenced by Beza, minimus. 

12 Men of violence. — Auth., '• the violent." The Gr. is a noun, 
and has not the article. Wycl.. correctly. " violent men ; " TjTid., 
by a paraphrase, " they that go to it with violence." Auth. follows 
Cranm.j Genev., and E-hem. 

14 If ye are willing to receive it.— AU English versions, " if 
ye will receive it," which does not express the decided action 
of volition implied by the Gr. d fleXere. Yulg., si vultis. 

The word to be supplied after " receive " may be either it (the 
thing which I am about to say) or Imn (John the Baptist). The 
former is the more probable. 

Which is to come. — All previous English versions, " which 
was for to come," considering that the coming of John, and there- 
fore of EHjah iu his pex'son, could only be spoken of as a past 


event. But our Lord is addressing those who were still mentally 
looking forward from the Old Testament point of view, and 
having regard for them he, here and elsewhere, treats the 
coming of Elijah as a future event. Yvlg., venturus est. 

This is Elijah. — Nothing would be gained for sense or em- 
phasis by translating literally the Gr. avros. "himself." It is 
otherwise at chap. i. 21, where see Note. 

16 Market-places. — So Cranm. and Rhem.. with Vulg., foro. 
Auth. has the familiar abbreviation ''markets." Wycl.."chap}Tig." 

17 Ye did not luoxirn. — Margin, Gr., " beat the breast." One 
company of children are supposed to be making music, first in 
joyful and then in mournful strains, and the other refusing to re- 
spond in eitlier case with appropriate gestures of body. 

23 Shalt thou be.— For Auth., "thou shalt be." by change of 
Gr. Text. Hades. — The j)lace of the dead. The Gr. Avord is 
kept, as there is now no Englisli equivalent for it : " hell " 
more nearly represents Gehenna, the place of torment. 

25 I thank thee.— Margin, "Or, praise." The Gr. is properly, " I 
make acknowledgment to thee;" whether in thanksgiving or ex- 
pression, is to be inferred in each place from the context. 

Understanding.— This, rather than " prudent," Auth., is the 
meaning of the Gr. ffweriis. But prxulens being the rendering 
of the Yulg. was followed by all English versions, except Geuev.. 
which has " men of understanding," following Beza, intelligen - 
tibiis. So long as it I'ctained the original meaning, which was 
well defined by Chaucer when he said, " Prudence is goodly 
wisdom in the knowledge of things," " prudent " was a good 
translation of the Gr., but ceased to be so when it became nar- 
rowed to sagacity and providence concerning mundane affairs. 

26 It was well pleasing in thy sight.— Auth., "it seemed 
good in thy sight."' The Gr. is the sacred word, so often used of 
God's " good pleasure " (eiiSoKia — eudoJiia) as at Luke, ii. 14, &c. 
All previous versions express this thought by " it j)leased thee," or 
" it was thy good pleasure." Vulg., sic fiiit placit^im ante te. 

27 Willeth to reveal. — Auth., " will reveal." as at vei'se 14. 



1 Cornfields. — Autli., "corn:" but covufielcls iu the pai'allol 
passages of St. Mark aud St. Luke. 

An hungred. — Compare Note on chap. iv. 2: 

6 One greater. — Margin, " Gr., a greater thint/." The Gr. 
text being altered to form the masculine to the neuter, from 
Hi'i^oov to ixf^Cov. 

7 I. desire.— Auth., " I -will have." See Note on chap. ix. 13. 

10 Sabbath day. -Auth., " Sabbath days." The Gr., even when 
plural in form, is singular in sense, and is so treated in Anth., as 
in the next verse. 

12 To do good. — SoaU versions before Auth., " to do well," which 
is not the same iu meaning, nor so close to the Gr. 

14 Took counsel. — So again all versions before Anth., which has, 
*' held a council." The Gr. , <rviJL0ov\tov, generally iu the New Tes- 
tament means •' counsel," " consultation," and is so rendered in 
Anth. But in Acts xxv. 12 it is the " coixncil," the consulting 
body, and is so translated. 

15 Jesus perceiving it. — Anth., -when Jesus knew it;" sug- 
gesting, what is not in the Gr., that there was a time when lie 
knew it not. Previous English versions agree mth Anth. except 
Rhem., which has, " knowing it." after Vnlg., sciens. The Gr. 
denotes perception, not knowledge ; the contrary is the case at 
ver. 25. 

22 The dumb man. — By change in Gr. text for " the blind aud 
dumb" (Auth.l. 

29 The strong man. — ''Man" is in italics, not being in the Gr. 
which is literally "the strong one " — i.e., Satan. 

31 Every sin. — So Rhem. .following Vnlg., owjiepeccrtfHJH. Auth., 
with all other English versions, " all manner of sin," which, ho,v- 
ever true it may be, is not expressed by the Gr. nua-a. 

The Spirit. — Auth., "the Holy Ghost" {holy supplied in 
italics). Sec Note on chap. i. 18. 

32 Holy Spirit.— Auth., -'Holy Ghost." The change is conse- 
quent on the translation of Tlviv/xaros, "' Spirit," in the preceding 


35 Out of his good treasure. — By change of Gr. text for Auth., 
■• out of the good treasure of his heart." 

41 Shall stand up in the judgment. — Auth.. " shall rise in 
judgment." Tlie judgment i.s the final judgment. The word 
translated "stand up" is commonly used of the resurrection, but 
is also applied to the coming forward of witnesses at a trial, as 
in Mark xiv. 57, " There stood up certain, and bare false witness 
against him." 

■il A greater than — Here again the adjective in the Gr. is neuter, 
as at verse 6. In familiar English Ave might approach near to 
the Gr. tlius. •' more than a Jonah is liere." 

42 The ends of the earth. — SoWycl.. following Yidg.._/?jK'b (is. 
the Gr. being simply TrepaTcoi/. Auth.. following Tynd.. "the 
uttermost parts." 

43 He. — Margin, "Or, is ;" the Gr. for Spirit (TrreC^a) being neuter. 

Waterless places. — All English versions. " dry places ; " 
Yulg.. arida loca. which does not make it plain that the places 
are such as the psalmist describes. " a barren and dry land, where 
no water is." It is not the drpiess, biit the want of water, 
which is expressed by the Gr., and " waterless." though like the 
Gr. &vuSpos. an umisual word, and not found in the Bible, was 
used when the Bible Avas translated — e.g., by Udal the divine, and 
Wyat the poet. 

4fi Seeking to speak. -So Wycl. and Rliem. Vulg.. qucerenies 
loqni ci. Auth.. after Tynd., " desiring." The Gr. implies the 
effort made to get near liim. rather than the desire that pronijited 


And there were gathered unto him . . . Auth.. •■ And 
great multitudes Avere gathered togctlier unto him." This and 
other transpositions of the like sort liave been made, because 
Tiliilc they represent the order of the Gr..they are also in ac- 
corcknce Avith the general style of the Auth.. Avhicli in this re- 
sijoct is modelled on the Gr. — e.cj.. ver.-^e 1, " went Jesus," not 


"Jesns went" (according to modem English idiom), as tlie 
German jn-ose style in a much greater degree admits what seems 
to ns an illogical and inverted order, in secular literature as well 
as in the version of the Scriptures. 

All the multitude.— Auth., "the whole multitude," which 
regards the multitude as a unit, and would in Gr. be 6 iras oxf<os, 
rather than irds 6 ox^os. 

2 Beach.— Auth.. following Tynd., "shore." The Gr. denotes 
that it was sandy or pebbly (Hesychius), i,e., a beach or strand. 
Conip. Acts xxvii. 39. "It is the exact word for the exact spot 
at wJiich the event referred to took place, and it suits no other spot 
on the whole lake." (Farrar, Gontemp. Review, March, 1882.) 

3 The sower.— Auth.. " a sower." Gr., 6 airdpuv. Tlie definite 
article, though not required by English idiom, is not at variance 
with it, and enlivens the discourse, besides reminding us that the 
man who is sowmg represents the one great spiritual sower. 

5 The rocky places. — All English versions, " stony," except 
Rhem., "rocky," following Yvlg., petrosa. 

7 The thorns grew up.— Auth., with Tynd., "sprung up," 
which implies a more rapid growth than the Gr. 

8 Yielded.— Auth., with Tynd., "brought forth." The Gr. is 
literally " gave," as WycL, and Vulg., dabant. 

12 Abundance.— The Gr. is here over-translated by Auth., " more 
abundance ; " in chap. xxv. 29 " more " is omitted. 

14 Unto them. — For Auth. " in tlieni," in consequence of the 
omission of the preposition in the Gr. text. 

15 And should turn again.— Auth. ."should be converted." with 
Wycl. Cranm. and Rhem, following Vulg., convertantnr. Ty^ld., 
" should tvu-n ; " Genev., " should return ; " Beza, coavertant. 
The Gr. is einaTp(^w(n in the active A'oice, and where tliere is no 
reference to change of mind, it is commonly treated in Auth. 
as a verb neuter, " to return ; " thus chap. xii. 44, " I will return 
into my house." In the passage quoted here from Isaiah vi. 10 
the Auth. has the unusual verb neuter, " convert ; " " lest they 
should understand and convert." The passive sense. " be con- 
verted," appearing in Vulg., and thence adopted in the Auth.. 
testifies to the unwillingness which has long prevailed in tlie 
Western Church to recognise the " conversion," or turning or 
return to God. as in any degree the spontaneous act of the sinner 
himself. Tlie doctrine implied in the prayer, " Turn thou us, O 


Lord, and we shall be turned " (Lam. v. 21), was enlarged upou, 
to the neglect of the Apostolic precept, " Draw nigh to God, 
and he will draw nigh to you " (James iv. 8), and the great ex- 
ample of St. Paid's conversion threw into the shade tliat other 
side of our Lord's teaching which He himself put before us in 
(the parable of the returning prodigal. 

18 Hear then ye. — Avith., '' Hear ye therefore." The transpo- 
sition is made in order to show that " ye " is emphatic, as it is in 
the Gr., following on what has been said in the last verse. 

19 The evil one. — As in tlie Lord's Prayer. (See Note on 
cliap. vi. 13.) Auth., " with Rhem., the wicked one ;" Gr.. o iroutjpSs. 
There is much variety in the earlier versions. The Vulg. has 
venit malus ; Wycl., " the evil spirit ; " Tynd. and Oranm. 
(strangely I, " the evil man ; " Genev., " that evil one." This use 
of mains in the Yulg. is an indication that the word was meant 
to have a personal sense in the petition " Libera nos amalo." 

Snatcheth away. — This expresses the swiftness and violence 
of the bird of prey better tluin Auth., Avith Tynd., Cranm., and 
Genev., " catchetli away." Vulg., rapit. 

He that was sown. — Not as Auth., " he that received seed." 
Gr. o o-TTOfJeis. Tlie mistranslation in Auth., whieh first appears 
in Cranm. (verse 2U). was prompted by tlie desire to make the 
parable and its interpretation in aU points agree together. 

21 He stumbleth.— See Note on verse 5. 

23 Verily. — TJiis word represents the almost imtranslatable Gr. par- 
ticle Stj (de) which emphasizes the thought or feeling of the sen- 
tence in which it is used. Wycl.. following Vulg., expres.sed it Ity 
"truly:" Auth., •'also." The intermediate versions omit it 
altogether. See Note ou Acts xiii. 2. 

32 Less than all. — Autli., " the least of all," and so the previous 
versions. Tlie adjective in the Gr. is '"less." as at chap. xi. 11., 
where sec Note. For the same reason greater than is prefer- 
able to Auth.. '• the greatest." In neither case are the words to 
be pressed hi their literal sense ; but the mustard-seed was with 
the Jews a type of things extremely small, while the tree which 
sprmig from it attained such a size that a branch of it formed 
tlie covering of a hut, and the stem was so strong that a man 
might climb it. (Alford. Note.) 

33 All leavened. — So Wycl. and Tj-nd. Auth., following Ehem., 
'• the whole was leavened." The article is not in the Gr. 


35 Hidden. — Auth., "kept secret." The Gr. word wliieh is of 
frequent occurrence, is usually to " hide " in Auth., and is so ren- 
dered here in Wycl. and Rliem. 

36 He left. — Auth., with Tynd., "sent away," a meauiiigf rarely 
given to the Gr. word in Auth., which more often translates it by 
"leave," as at chap. iv. 11, " the devil leaveth him." A different 
word is rightly rendered "send away" in chap. xiv. 24. 

37 — 39 In these verses one characteristic feature of St. Matthew's 
style, the superabundant use of connecting particles (5e and Kai) 
has been retained, though at some loss to the buoyancy and 
terseness of the passage as it appears in Auth. 

38 The world. — Tliree Gr. words are represented by this — (1) 
d k6(thos, " cosmos " (as hei'e), which is in its widest sense the 
universe, but especially " the world " of men, to which it is often 
apj)lied exclusively, as in John xii. 19, " the world is gone after 
him;" (2) 6 alwv, "aion, " literally explained in the mar. 
ginal note, " Or, oge," denoting the period appointed by God, and 
knoAvn to Him only, during which the present or any other order 
of things is to continue. This meaning it has in verses 39, 
40, 49 ; (3) ^ olKovfievrj , the Roman Empire, as in Luke ii. 1, 
where see Note. 

The good seed, these are . . . — The Auth., with Geuev. 
only, omits " these." Tlie word, however, has its significance, 
" the good seed, these choice ones, are the sons of the kingdom." 

45 A man that is a merchant. — Auth., " a merchant man." 
In the Gr., " a man," from its position, has a slight emphasis, re- 
minding us that He who spoke was himself more than man. 

Goodly. — This elegant correction for " good " was adopted by 
Auth. from Crauni. Other English versions follow Yidg., &onas. 
Tlie Gr. is kukovs. 

55 Joseph.— Auth., " Joses." See Note on chap. i. 2. 

57 They were offended in him.— Here the ordinary rendering 
of Auth. has been retainotl. and the literal meaning, being too 
harsh for the text, is noticed in the margin. 



1 The report concerning Jesus. — AU English versious 
"the fame of Jesus," following Vulg., /«;/!-« w. The Gr. axoi^v 
may be rendered " that which was heard," and is used in that 
sense several times in the New Testament, as in John xii. 38, 
" Who hath believed our report " (Auth). 

2 These powers work in him. — ^Auth. (alone), " mighty works 
do show forth themselves in him." Compare Note on chap. vii. 22. 
The word here or elsewhere rendered in Auth., " mighty works" 
has its usual and j)roper sense, " powers ; " and the paraphrase 
" do show forth themselves " for " work" is unnecessary. 

These powers. — Gr., " the powers," i.e., " these of which we 
see the manifestation." 

6 Came. — So Tynd. : Auth., " was kept," with Cranm. and Geuev. 
The Gr. is literally '• on tlie coming to pass of the birthday." 
Compare a similar use of the word in Acts xix. 38 ; also Luke 
xxiv. 21. 

In the midst. — So Wycl. af ter Vulg. : Auth. ^vithTyud., "before 
them." The Gr. probably denotes the relative positions- of the 
dancer and the spectators. 

8 Being put forward. — Tliis is the literal meaning of the Gr., 
and also more gn'.pliic than that of the English version, "being 
befoi'e instructed," foUoAving Yvlg. lircBVionita. The same word 
is used in Acts xix. 33. 

A charger. — Tliis word, though obsolete in the sense of " a 
dish " or " platter," has been retained, partly because of its 
frequent occurrence in Niim. chap, vii., aud partly because no 
other word presented itself which would not seem below tlie 
solemnity of the occasion. 

9 For the sake of his oaths. — Auth., "for his oath's sake." 
Gr. is in the plural, tliougli singular in ver. 8. All English 
versions apparently, with the Vulg., have the singular. 

12 The corpse. — Auth., " the body; "the Gr., by change of reading 
(irrihixa for ffwixa), being the same as in the parallel passage of 
Mark \\. 29, wlicre it is " corpse " iu Auth, 

i 1 He had,ssion. Tlierc is here an imusual and interest- 
ing variety in llio English versions. Wycl., "he had ruth;" 
Tynd., "his heart did melt ;" Cranm., "he was moved with 


mercy ; " Geuev., " lie was moved with compassion : " and so 
Autli. ; Rliem., " he pitied them," following Yulg. misertus est. 

20 They took up that v/hich remained over of the brclcen 
pieces — i.e., the remainder of the pieces which he had broken. 
This is shown in the Gr. by the noun in this verse, K\d(xixa, whicli 
is cognate to the verb in tlie jn'ocediiig-, /cAatras. But in Auth. "the 
fragments that remained," the connection is obscured by the 
change from " brake " to fragments," and the suggestion arises 
that the " fragments " were the " crumbs " left by the multitude 
unconsumed. Thus it appears that the Lord had provided 
portions for a larger number of persons than those who were to 
partake of the meal. Wycl. has " they took the reliefs (relics) 
of broken gobbets ; " Tynd., " the gobbets that remauied." See 
Note on John \\. 12. 

24 Distressed. — Auth. ^^^th Tynd., ''tossed; " Wycl. " .shogged '* 
(■i.e., " jogged," or " tossed.") The Gr., in its ordinary meaning, is 
"tormented," as at cliaj). viii. 6; but compai-e Mark vi. 48, where 
it is said of rowers struggling against the wind. 

25 Came. — For Auth., " went," by change in the Gr. text. 

26 An apparition. — Auth., " a spirit," following Tynd.; Rheni., 
" a gliost." The Gr. occurs again only in Mark vi. 49. From 
it is derived the English " phantom," which is the rendering of 
Wycl. here. In the Vulg. it is unaltered, and -\vi-itten phantasma, 
which, as well as " apparition," is a Shakspeariau word. 

31 They came to the land, unto Gennesaret. — By change of 
Gr. test for Auth. " to the land of Gennesaret. Crossed over. 
See note on ix. 1. 

35 Knew him. — Auth., " had knowledge of him," an ambiguous 
rendering in this place, as it miglit mean " when they were in- 
formed of his arrival." The Gr. is projierly " they recognised 
him," as at Acts iv. 13, " they took knowledge of him." (Auth.) 



I There came to Jesus from Jerusalem Pharisees and 
Scribes.— By change of Gr. text for Autli., " Scribes aud 
Pharisees which were from Jerasalcm." 

3 Because of your tradition.— Auth.. "by your traditiou," 
giving to the Gr. j)reposition Sid with the accusative the seuse 
which it has ouly with the genitive. The sense is, that they 
broke God's commandments on accoimt of their tradition, to 
which they gave greater heed. 

4 Speaketh evil of.— Auth. " curseth," which is the translation 
of another word. 

Let him die the death.— The Margin, "Or snrcly die," 
gives the meaning of this peremj)tory Hebraic phrase. 

5 This verse has been relieved of the obscurity in Avhicli it is involved 
by the rendering aud interpretation of the Auth. : (1) by a dif- 
ferent arrangeniont of the first part of the sentence ; (2) by the 
insertion in italics of the words to God, " is given to God," these 
Avords being supplied from the parallel passage of St. Mark, vii. 
11, 12, where the word is not, as hei'e, the Gr. SUpov, "a gift," but 
the Hebrew horhan, mcauing that which is dedicated to God's 
service ; (3) by a change in the Gr. text of ver. 6, giving this as 
the meaning, '" he shall not honour his father," instead of " and 
honour not his father or his mother ; he shall be free." 

The pretence of the son is, that what he might have given for the 
bonetit of his parents he has already dedicated to God's ser- 
vice ; aud tlie Pharisees said, any one alleging such a prior 
dedication should be excused from obser-sauce of the fifth com- 
maiulmeut — he should not lionoi;r his father. Thus for tlie sake 
of their traditiou they allowed the law of God to be set aside. 

8 Part of this verse is omitted by change in Gr. text. 

9 The precepts. — So Tynd. ; Auth., '• commandments," whicli 
is the rendering in ver. 6 of a different word. The seuse is 
" teaching as their cardinal rules mere human precepts, instead 
of the commandments of God." 

II Proceedeth. — Aiith., " comcth ; " the same Gr. in ver. 17 is 
'■ proceed" (Auth.) ; and again in ver. 19 Autli. has " proceed" 
for a different Gr. Avord. 

14 Blind guides. — The Gr. means specially oue who guides 
another on his way, and is so rendered in Rhem. The Yulg. has 
duces, whence Tynd. and Auth. " leaders," 


A pit. — Autli., " the ditch," biitforthe same Gr. in chap. xii. 11, 

Auth. has " pit." 

17 Perceive. — So Tynd. : Auth. following Wyol., "understand"; 
■which has been properly used in the preceding verse as the 
rendering of another word. 

19 Railings. — All English ATrsions " blasphemies," except Genev., 
" slanders." Tlie Gr. is literally " blasphemies," which is indeed 
the Gr. word in Englisli form : but the word in English is limited 
to reviling against God, whereas the Gr. may have for its object 
God or man. Compare Titus iii. 2, " speak evil of no man," 
where the Gr. is " blaspheme." In this place, from its following 
on " false witness," the word appears to have man, not God, for 
its object. 

27 For even the dogs. — Even these, an inferior race, are per- 
mitted to eat, &c. Auth., "yet the dogs," not exj)ressing the Gr. 

28 Was healed. — So Wycl. : Auth., with Tynd., " was made whole," 
which represents another Gr. word. 

31 The dumb speaking.— Is easier English, and more true to the 
Gr. than Aiith., " the dumb to si^eak." Wycl. alone has tlie par- 
ticipial rendering. Tjiid., " the dumb speak " (without " to.") 

32 I would represents a separate word, fle'Aw, which is not dis- 
tinctly done by Auth., " I will." 

33 Isoaves. — Auth., "bread." The Gr. is the same in this verse 
and in the next. 

37 That which remained over. — Auth.. "that was left." The 
Gr. is the same as at chap. xiv. 20. 


Ye know how. — Auth., "Te can," with Wycl. and Tynd. 
Rliem., " Ye have skill." The change iu itself is immaterial, Ijut 
is requii'ed by faithfidness to the Gr. 

But ye cannot. — The Gr. may be interrogative, and is so 


iaken in Auth. ; but the indicative is preferable in a case wbere 
the context supplies no reason against it. 

5 The disciples came to the other side, and forgot to 
take bread.— Tills, the true rendering of the Gr., seems not to 
make it clear whether their forgetting was before or after they 
came to the other side, though the context may enable us to put 
the right meaning on it — viz., that it was before, not after. The 
less exact, but clearer rendering of the Auth., " When the disciples 
came . . . they had forgotten," requires to be supplemented 
thus : " When they arrived, they became aivare that they had for- 
gotten. See the j)arallol x^assage in Mark viii. 14. 

7 We took no bread. — The words " it is because " (Auth.) are 
omitted, and the Gr. 'on, which they represent, is merely 
introductory of the saying which follows it, and therefore 
according to the rule laid down in Note on chap. ii. 23, is not 
translated. There is, however, room for doubt whether such 
is the use of the Gr. particle ui this i^lace, and consequently 
the words omitted in the text are set in the margin. Even if they 
are omitted, the tliought which tliey express must have been the 
motive of the abrupt exclamation, '" We took no bread" — i.e., It 
is because we brought no bread with us that he says this. 

8 Ye have.— For Auth., " ye have brought," by change of Gr. 

11 But beware. — For Auth., " that ye should bewai-e," by change 
of Gr. text. According to this reading our Lord repeats his com- 
mand, and the disciples now perceive the meaning of it. 

13 Who do men say . . . ? — For the iiugrammatical English 
" whom do men say that I the son of man am ? " which stands in 
all Engl, versions, except Wycl., who has "whom say men to be 
man's son ? " thus leading those who followed him to a false 
English construction, by his adoi^tion of a good Latin con- 
struction from Yiilg., quevi clicunt homines esse Filium hominis. 

15 Who say ye ? — " Te " is emphatic, as it stands, and still more 
in the Gr., where it begins the sentence; as if it were, " And ye, 

who say ye," &c. 

18 And I also say nnto thee.— Axith., "and I say also." This 
change of order, besides being required by the Gr., is of value 
as throwing the stress on "I" preceding. ''Thou hast said 
who I am ; and I in return teU thee thy new name, and thy office 
and callino-." 


The marginal note sliows the origin and significance of tlie name; 
" Then art Petros, Peter, the rock ; and on this Petra, i-ock, I 
will build my Church." This is not the place for even touching 
on the controversy which ever since the Reformation has been 
maintained about these words. 

22 Be it far from thee, Lord. — The two Gr. words (" merciful 
to thee ") which ai-e thus rendered, are said to represent a brief 
form of deprecation in use among- the Jews. Compare 1 Mace, 
ii. 21, and Exod. xxxii. 12 (LXX. version). 

23 Thou art a stviinbling-block unto nxe. — i.e., Thou puttest 
in my way, as tliougli thou wert Satan himself, a temptation 
to sin. Auth., " an oifence." 

Thou miudest not. — " Thy mind is not set upon the things of 
God." For a similar use of the Gr. (ppoue7v, compare Phil. iii. 19. 
" Who mind earthly things " (Auth.). All English versions have 
'' thou savourest," which is now certainly an inappropriate ren- 
dei'ing of the Gr., and never can have been quite suitable, being 
a translation of the Yulg., sapis, one of the senses of which was 
expressed in French by savourer, another by savoir, according as 
the bodily sense or the mental percei>tion was to be signified ; 
and thus came into our language the two words, now widely 
different in meaning, " savour " and " sapient," both from the 
same root, one direct from the Latin, the other through the 

24, 25 Would come . . . would save. — Compare chap. xv. 
32 and Note there. 

26 Life. — All English versions " soul." The Gi'-, being the same 
{'^"X'h, " psyche ") throughout these two verses, must be translated 
in the same way, though it is used in two different senses, which 
we may distinguish mentally as we read, the lower bodily life, and 
the higher spiritual life. Comj^are chap. x. 39; also Note on 
chap. viii. 22, '• Let the dead bury their dead. " 

Forfeit. — Auth., following Tynd., " lose," The Genev. version 
showed that the Gr. meant more than this ; and it gave the mean- 
ing well, though too much in paraphrase, by " be condemned to 
pay his soid." Rhem., "sustain damage of his soul," following 
Vulg., datrimentimi patiatur. 

27 His deeds. — Literally, as the Margin shows, his doing. Auth., 
" his works," which is the usual translation of another word 




2 His garments became. — So Rhem. Auth., "his raiment 
was ; " but " became " at Mark ix. 3. The attii'e of his ordinary 
life was changed in liriofhtness. 

8 Lifting up their eyes they saw. — The participial con- 
struction of the Gr. is lighter and more vivid than that of Auth., 
following Tynd., "When they had lifted up their eyes, they saw." 

No one. — " One " has often, as here, taken the place of " man " 
(Auth.) not only as being more close to the Gr., but because there 
is often an advantage in the indefiuiteness which is thus preserved, 
the thoughts being not limited to sex or age or even to human 

11 Elijah indeed cometh. — ''First" is omitted by change in 
Gr. text. " Traly " (Auth.) is used for a stronger Gr., or rather 
Heb. word Amen. Cometh, not the future, " shall come " 
(Auth.), is required by the Gr. 

14 A man. — Auth., following Tynd., " a certain man." Tliis cor- 
rection has been often made; and, slight as it may .seem, it is 
worth while once for all to notice it. The Gr. ny, in Latin 
aliquis, may in many places be conveniently rendered by " a 
certain man," which, though not an exact, has become a conven- 
tional and well-understood expression ; but there can l)e no 
reason for having i-ecourse to it in passages like this, in wliicli 
there is no such indefinite word to be translated. 

15 Epileptic. — Auth.. "lunatic." The Gr. occurs in the New 
Testament only in this place and chap. iv. 23. It was a general 
term for disorder of the mind, implying, like " Imiatic," that the 
derangement was due to hmar influence, that the sufferer was 
"moonstruck." In this particular case the woi'd appears to de- 
signate what is uowcaUed epilepsy. Tyn dale's word is "frantic." 
The other Englisli versions, " lunatic." 

17 Bear with. — More idiomatic English, and a closer reading 
of the Gr., than " si;fBer," which all the versions have, following 
Vulg., iisque quo 2^atiar vos. 

20 Because of your little faith. — Auth., " because of your 
unbelief." The word now brought into the Gr. text is not else- 
where found in the New Testament ; but the adjective connected 
with it occurs several times, and is translated " of little faith" 
(Auth.), as in Matt. vi. 30 

25 Spake first to him.— So Tynd. and Genev. The Yulg. 


prcevenit was translated by Wycl., "came before him," but wa.s 
afterwards itself adopted into English, in the form here nsed 
by Cranm., Rhem., and Auth., "prevented." It has, hoM^ever. 
in a later age, acquired another, almost a contrary sense, and 
thus in the Bible and prayer-book has become the cause of 
embarrassment to the unlearned. To anticijpate is in some 
respects an equivalent, but is open to some objections ; and 
Tyndale's phrase best meets the present case. When Peter came 
into the house to report the matter to his Master, Jesus was 
beforehand with Iiim, and " spake first " to him, and by what He 
said at once showed his omniscience, and asserted his divine 

The kings of the earth, from whom . . .—This, the order 
of the Greek, brings out the point of the question more cleai'ly 
than does the Auth., " of whom do the kings of the earth," &c. 
The comparison implied, though not expressed, is between eartlily 
kings and their sons on the one side, and God and His Son on 
the other. 

27 A shekel. — Which was payment for two persons, being equal 
to four drachmas. The Gr. name for the coin of that value was 


1 In that hour. — So Wycl. and Rhem., following Vulg., and 
taking the Gr. &pa, hora, in its narrower sense of " hour," In 
its larger sense, " season," it is here taken by, following 
Tynd., and rendei'ed " at the same time." But though it occurs 
more than a hundred times in the New Testament, it is not more 
than a dozen times translated otherwise than " hour." 

Greatest. — Margin, Gr. greater ; " comparatively great, greater 
than others, and so greatest of aU. The comparative thus be- 
comes a superlative. 

3 Turn.— See note on chap. xiii. 15. 

6 It is profitable for him.— Auth., "it were better for liim." 
The Gr. is in the present tense. The verb is always in Autli. 
rendered " it is pi'ofitable," or " it is expedient," except here and 
in chap. xix. 10, " it is not good to marry." The meaning, though 


expressed, like some otlier sayings of our Lord, in the langTiasfo 
of hyperbole, is very plain. For sucli a man the worst punish, 
ment of human vengeance is a boon, in comparison to tlie retri- 
bution which awaits him at the hands of God. 

8 Eternal. — For Auth., "everlasting," and so wherever the Gr. is 

aidvios, aioyiios, 

9 The hell of Sre.— See Note on chap. v. 22. 

12 Unto the mountains. — Auth., " into." The preposition in 
Gr. is not the same as at chap. xvii. 1. 

13 Over. — The Gr. is not " of," as Auth., i.e., " concerning." but 
" upon." 

15 Sin against thee. — Tlie Gr. afxaprivoj is uniformly transl.ited 
" to sin." The English versions here have " trespass," for which 
there is no corresponding Gr. verb in the New Testament. 

Show him his fault. — Not merely as Auth., with Tynd., " toU 
him his fault," but show it him, make him see it. 

16 At the mouth. — Or (literally) " on the mouth," not as Auth. 
" in ; " '' on the evidence of," as we should say. 

Two witnesses or three. — This is the Gr. order, probably 
in reference to Deut. xvii. 16. Compare 2 Cor. xiii. 1. 

17 Tell it unto the church. — Margin, " Or, congregation." The 
two words, originally interchangeable, have become widely dif- 
ferent in meaning ; the " Church," the more comprehensive of the 
two, including the wliole body of the faithful, not a particular 
" congregation " or assemblage of them only. The Gr. ecclesia 
occurs in the Gospels twice, here and in chap. xvi. 18. 

Gentile. — Auth., " heathen man." The former is but the Latin 
translation of the latter, yet at the jDresent day the two names 
have different shades of meaning. If the nations are spoken of 
as Gentiles, it is in contradistinction to Israelites ; if as lieatheus, 
it is in contrast to worshippers of the true God. But the reason 
here and in other places for the change from " heathen " to 
"Gentile" is, that in the Auth. "Gentile" is by far the more 
common name, and the few passages in which " heathen " 
occurs have been brought into harmony with the rest. 

23 Would make a reckoning with his servants. — ^Auth., 
" would take an account of his servants," which is neither clear 
in meaning nor close to the Gr. 

25 He had not wherewith to pay. — Auth., " he had not to pay." 


The insertion of wherewith (though indeed hardly an insertion, 
as it is implied in the Gr. jj.^ ex'>'^'^'>s), is necessary to make the 
English clear. 

27 Released liim. — Auth., "loosed him." The Gr. verb, which is 
of frequent occurrence, is not elsewhere rendered " loose ; " nor 
is " loose," which implies previous binding or imprisoning, appro- 
priate here, as it is not said there had been actual seizure of the 
debtor's person. 

30 That which was due. — All English versions " the debt," but 
at ver. Si " that was due." The Gr. in these places is the passive 
participle, and not the word which is translated " the de])t " at 
ver. 27. 

31 SKCeeding sorry. — Auth.. " very sorry ; " hardly forcible 
enough for the feeling denoted by the Gr. 

32 Besoughtest me. — So Rhem. : " desiredst me " (Auth.) is not 
in itself a good phrase, nor does it adeqiiately render the Gr., 
which signifies a strong appeal. 

33 Mercy . . . mercy. — So Wycl. and Rhem. : Auth. following 
Tjaid. has " comj)assion . . . pity." The Gr. is the same 
word in both places, and that word is elsewhere in Auth., with 
only two exceptions, rendered " have mercy." 

34, 35 The omissions in these verses are due to changes in the Gr. 


6 There are several changes in this and the preceding verses of 
the chapter which do not seem to require explanation. 

7 Bill. — So in the parallel passage of Mark x. 4. In other 
places of the New Testament, about twenty-five in number, the 
Gr. /3(6Aiof (biblion) is, with one exception, " a book." The docu- 
ment here referred to, like the genealogy in Matt. i. 1, was 
doubtless a " scroll of a book." 

10 It is not expedient. — Compare Note on chap, xviii. 6. 

16 Master.— Auth. "Good master," The title "good," though 
omitted here (see Margin), is given in the parallel passages of St. 


Mark aud St. Luke ; and we cannot doubt that it was actually 
used by the questioner, as it is so pointedly referred to by the 
Lord in his answer " one there is that is good." (Plumptre, 
Commentary on this place.) 

20 " Fi'om my youth up " (Auth.), omitted by change in Gr. text 

Observed. — So Tynd. and Genev. (Auth. with "Wycl., Cranm., 
and Genev.), is " kept," which is elsewhere and more correctly 
used for another Gr. word. 

22 He was one that had. — Auth., " he had." The Gr. is peculiar: 
literallj^ "he was having," or "he was a holder of" great posses- 

23 It is hard for a rich man to enter.— This paraphrase ia 
adojited by Tyndale. Auth., following Rhem., has " a rich man 
shall hardly enter," whicli at first sight is a literal and satisfac- 
tory translation : biit according to modern English " hardly 
enter " means " shall scarcely, shall most j)robably not, euter," 
whereas the meaning of the original is that lie shall with diffi. 
culty enter, with struggle, suffering " hardness." Observe the 
difference between this passage and Mark x. 23, " how hardly," 

24 A needle's eye. — There is no article in the Gr. text either 
here or in Mark x. 24. Biit the change from " the eye of a 
needle " (Auth.) has been adduced with some reason as a case of 
unnecessary prccisoness. 

25 Astonished. — Auth., "amazed." which is usiially the reading 
of another word. (Compare Acts viii. 11, ix. 13). Tlie same 
may be said of " forsaken " (Aiith.), at ver. 27. 


6 Others standing.—" Idle " (Auth.) is omitted in Gr. text : 
also the words " and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive/' 
at ver. 77. 

8 Pay. — Auth., " give." The Gr. is literally " render." 

11 The householder. — As at ver. 1. All English versions exce])t 
Wycl., " the good man of the house." It is to be regi'etted that 


this good old English phrase is obsolete, aud no longer conveys 
to an ordinary reader the meaning of the Gr., " the master of the 
house." Yidg., patreni familias. 

12 Spent. — Anth., with Tynd., "wrought." The Gr. is properly 
" made one hour " — i.e, " spent it," as at Acts w. 33, " They had 
spent some time there," where Auth. has "when they had tarried 
there a space." 

The burden of the day and the scorching heat.— 

Auth., following Tynd., " the burden and heat of the day." The 
word rendered " scorching heat " is used in James i. 11, and 
Jonah iv. 8 (LXX. version), for the hot wind which prevailed in 
the forenoon. 

13 Friend. — An exclamation then, as now, not spoken always in a 
friendly tone. Gr. Iraipe. It is only found in this Gospel. 
Compare xxii. 12, xxvi. 50. 

14 Take up. — Auth., " take." He bids them take it up from 
the table on which he has put it. Yulg., tolle. 

It is my will to give. — All English versions, " I will give." 
The Gr. is de\ai, expressing the peremptory detei-mination of the 
householder. Stet pro ratione voluntas. Yulg., volo dare. 

16 The clause " For many are called," &c. (Auth.) is omitted by 
change in Gr. text, but occurs in chap. xxii. 14, in connection 
mtli the paraljle of the marriage feast. 

18 Shall be delivered. — So Rheiu. This is the usual meaning 
of the Gr., and there is no reason for translating, it as Auth. 
(foUoAving Tynd.), "betrayed" in this verse, and "delivered" in 
the next. 

19 Shall be raised up. — By change in Gr. text for Auth.," shall 
rise again." Our Lord does not yet make it fully kno^vn to his 
disciples that he was to be a voluntary sufferer, aud that he was to 
rise again by the power of his Godhead; " to lay do^vn his life, 
and take it again " (John x. 18). 

20 The mother of the sons of Zebedee. — Auth., following 
Tynd., " Zebedee's children," probably because " sous " occurs 
immediately afterwards. But the variation suggests that the 
persons named in the two places were not the same — viz., the 
Apostles James aud John. Compare chap, xxvii. 56. 

Asking. — Auth., "desiring." The Gr. is the same as in ver. 
22, except that in that verse being in the middle voice, and ad- 
dressed to the sons, it might be rcnrlcred " ye ask for yourselves." 


22 The clause relating to " the baptism " is omitted, by cliang-e in 
Gv. text, both iu tliis aud the following verses, ha\aug probably 
been interpolated from the parallel passage of St. Mark x. 38. 

24 Concersiing the two brethren. — This being the meaning 
of the Gr., not as Auth., " against," it would seem that the two 
brethren retired, and the ten expressed their indignation among 

25 Biulers. — Auth., " princes," with Wycl. aud Cranm. follomng. 
Yulg. principes. This, however, is the rendering of another 
word, for which it is more appropriate, apxvyiJs, as Acts iii. 15, 
" the Prince of life." Tynd. aud Geuev. here have " lords." 

29 Went out. — Auth,, "depart." The Auth., notwithstanding its 
studied variety, uses this for twenty-one different Gr. words, 

30 The transposition is due to a change in the Gr. text. 


4 Now this is come to pass— Auth.. "all this was done." 
Compare, as to the change of tense. Matt. i. 22. " All " is 

■omitted in the Gr. text. 

5 Hiding. — Auth., "sitting," as in ver. 7, and iu the uarallel 
passage of Mark xi. 7: 

7 He sat. — For Auth., " they set him," by change in Gr. text. 

8 The most part of the multitude. — The Gr. is very un- 
usual, TrAeFcrTos ux^^os. Wycl., " full miich peojile." Tynd,, 
" many of the people." ■ Auth., following Rhem. aud Vulg., " a 
very great multitude." 

10 All the city was stirred. — So Wycl,, after "Viilg., commota 
est. The Gr. is properly " was shaken," as by an earthquake. 
Auth., following TjTid., " was moved." 

12 The doves (-svith the article), which were offerod'iu the Temple 
on occasions of piu-ification, as in Luke ii. 24. Tlie mouey- 
cliaugers gave small coin for large, or Jewish for Gentile 
money, to those who were buying the doves or other oblations. 


13 Biobbers. — All English versions, " thieves," for which the Gr. 
has a different word. Bnrab1)as .and the two that were crucified 
on Calvary are called " roljbcrs ; " Judas Iscariot, " a thief." 
The propriety of the comparison is better seen if we take into 
account John ii. 14, where those that sold oxen and sheep are 
mentioned using the court of the Temple, as tlie caves in the rocks 
■were used by the brigands to house the droves of cattle which 
were their chief booty. (So Dr. Field, Otium Norvicense, on this 
passage, comparing Dion. Hal., i. 39.) 

15 Were moved with indignation. — So Wycl. and Rhem., 
after Yulg., indignati sunt. Auth., " were sore displeased." 
Tynd., " they disdained him." The Gr. is the same as at chap.xx. 

19 Margin, " Or, a single." The Gr. has the numeral " one," 
which is often emphatic in the sense of " one only." Here it may 
indicate that the fig-tree stood by itself ; as indeed each of us 
stands alone, whether he be fruitful of good works or unfruitful, 
in the sight of God. On the other hand, at chap. viii. 19, where 
the Gr. is " one," it is sufficiently rendered by " a scribe." 

Let there be no fruit from thee. — So the Gr. : Auth., 
" let no fruit grow on thee," following Tynd. 

20 How did the fig-tree immediately wither away? — 

It is not an exclamation of wonder, as in Auth., " How soon is 
the fig-tree withered away ! '" but a question, " how, from what 
cause ? " From the fuller narrative in Mark xi., there seems 
to have been an interval of a day between the cursing of the 
ti'ee and the saying of the disciples. 

Immediately. — Auth., "presently." Wycl.and Tynd., " anon; " 
and as that word had become an archaism in tlie time of the 
Auth., so is " presently," now obsolete, in the sense of immedi- 
ately," except as liaving in view the immediate future. 

21 Be thon taken np. — Auth., " be thou removed," which would 
represent another Gr. word. Tynd. has " take thyself away." 

24 Question. — Margin, " Gr., word." The various uses of the 
Gr. \6yos are signally shown in the New Testament, where it is 
rendered by the Autli. in fifteen different ways. 

29 Repented himself. — The Gr. verl) (not that which is com- 
mouly " rejjeut ") is thus rendered in Autli., and chap, xxvii. 3. 
See again ver. 32. This Avord nfTaueXo/xat implies rather the first 


qualius of compiuictiou tliau tliorougli " repeutauce " or " change 
of miud " {fieTcivoia). 

31 Go before you. — The Gr. is always so rendered in tlie Gospels ; 
but here it would have borue a more forcible translation : " lead 
you on the way." — (Plumptre.) 

32 The insertion of " even," which adds force to the rebuke, is due 
to a change in the Gr. text. 

33 Another counti'y. — Auth., " a far country," with "Wycl., which 
is not indicated by the Gr. The Yulg. has jperegre ])rofectus est. 

31 His fruits. — Auth., "the fruits thereof" (of the vineyard). 
The Gr. may be either. 

36 In like manner. — Auth., " did unto them likeAvise," is not 
now a recognised English phrase. The full form of it, " in like 
-nnse," is used in Aiitli. at verse 21 of this chapter. 

41 Miserably destroy those miserable men.— The iteration 
of a word to intensify the sense (as we say, " evil be to him that 
evil does") is a Gr. as well as a Hebrew idiom. It disappears in 
Auth., which has, " miserably destroy those Avicked men." 

12 Was made. — Auth.. " is become." The verb in Gr. is in the 
past tense, passive voice. 

This. — i.e., " this thing." not, " the head of the corner." As 
ths Gr. for " head," Kec^aXr;, is feminine, the pronoun, " this," 
being also feminine, would in classical Gr. refer to it. But these 
words are a cpiotation from the LXX. version of Ps. cxvii. 22, 
which here follows tlu' Hebrew idiom. So in 1 Sam. iv. 8 ; Ps. 
ci. 19 (Bengel and Wordsworth). 

This was from the Lord. — This is according to the Gr., 
though we must regret the loss of TjTidale's paraphrase, adox)totl 
by Auth., " this is the Lord's doing." 

41 Shall be broken to pieces. — So Cranm. All other versions, 
" broken " ; overlooking the force of the compound Gr. verb, 
which is given in Vulg., conf ringed a r. 

It will scatter him as dust- — Auth.. "will gi-ind him to 
powder." So Tjnid. and Gencv. Wycl.. " will all to (almost) 
bruise him." The Gr. is proijerly, " will Avinnow like chaff; " it 
is used in the LXX. translation of tlie prophecy of Dan. ii. 41 
(Aiitli.). "it (the kingdom wliicli shall never be destroyed) shall 
break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms," a passage 
which evidently supplied the imagery of this saying of our Lord. 



2 A marriage feast. — Auth., "a man-iag-e." T^aul., " wbioh 
married his son." Tlie Gr. is ixsed iu the LXX. version of tlie 
Old Testament for the celcln-ation of a marriage, and of other 
great ceremonies (as in Estlier i. 5 ; Gen. xxix. 22. See Alford, 
Note on this word). Tlie fuial fidfilment of the parable is to be 
looked for iu tlie " marriage supper of the Lamb," the Son of 
God (Rev. xix. 9). 

4 Made ready.— All other Engl, versions, " prepared." The 
same Gr. word, in its verbal and adjectival forms, is used in both 
parts of the verse. 

5 One to his own farm. — The emphatic Gr. adjective, 
showing the intentness of the man on his own private interest, is 
not expressed in any of the Engl, versions. 

6 The rest.— Auth., with Tynd., ''the reumant," which, as it 
denotes a single remaining fragment, is not an appropriate trans- 
lation of the Gr. plural. 

Shamefully. — So Craum. : Auth., following Rhem., "spite- 
fully;" the Gr. betokens insolence rather than malice. 

9 The partings of the highways. — Auth., following Tynd. 
" the highways." The Gr. docs not occui* again in the N. T. At 
the partings, or, what is the same thing, the confluences, of the 
sti'eets were open spaces, wliere tliere were many coming and 
going, besides the idlers and beggars and sportive children wlio 
usually congregate in such places. 

10 Filled with guests. — Tlie Gr. has simj)ly this meaning. 
Auth., following Tynd., "furnished." 

11 To behold the guests.- To take a -saew of them. Auth., 
" to see," with. Cranm. ; Tynd., " to visit." 

15 Ensnare Him. — This is the literal meaning of the Gr., in 
modern Engl., " to entrap." Auth., " to entangle." 

25 Married and deceased.— So Tynd.: Auth., "when he had 
married a wife, deceased," as if the one event followed immedi- 
ately on the other. 

25 Having no seed. — SoWycl. : Auth., "having no issue." The 
Gr. airipixa is elsewhere literally translated in Auth. 

33 Teaching.— Auth., " doctrine." See Note on chap. vii. 28. 


38 Great and first. — For Autli., "first and q-reat," by cliansre in 

40 Hangeth the whole law and the prophets.— The con- 
struction is like tliat in John ii. 2, " Jesns also was bidden, and 
his disciples, to the marriage." 

43 In the Spirit.— Under the influence of the Holy Ghost. All 
Engl. Tcrsious, " in spirit." 

44 Underneath thy feet.— By change of Gr. text for Auth., 
" till I make tliine enemies thy footstool." 

CHAPTER xxrn. 

6 Place. — Auth., "rooms," now obsolete in this sense. The 
other versions have " places" or " seats." " Place " and " room" 
are, in their etymology, similar, though distinct : " place " coming 
from the Latin platea, a street ; and " room " from the Gr. pv/j-v 
(rume), a street. 

9 Which is in heaven.— Margin, " Gr. the heavenly." This, 
which is the reading of all the best MSS., is not verbally the 
same, though it may be tho same in meaning, as that in the 
Lord's prayer, which, probably because familiar from its use in 
the prayer, was here introduced in place of the true reading. 

12 Humhled.— Auth., " abased." The Gr. is the same in both 
parts of the verse. The sentence in Wycl. is as follows, " ho 
that higheth himself shall be meeked ; and he that meeketh him. 
self shall be enhanced." 

13 Them that are entering in to enter.— Auth., " them that 
are entering to go in." The verb is repeated in the Gr., but 
from the difference between the participle and infinitive mood 
the assonance is not so marked as it is in Engl. See marginal 
note as to the omission of verse 14. 

15 And when he is become so. — This, in point of idiom, is 
not a satisfactory rendering; neither is that for which it is sub. 
stituted, " and when he is made," in which Auth. follows Wycl. ; 
Craum., '* when he is become one." 


A son of hell.— So Wycl. Auth., following Tynd., " a cliild 
of hell." 

16 The temple. — Margin, " Or, sanctuary." The Gr. properly 
denotes, not the Temple in its lai-ger meaning (rh iep/iv), with its 
pivcinct, but the sacred edifice which was especially dedicated to 
worship and sacrifice, in classical Gr. the shrine {va6s). It has 
often, however, in the N. T., the more comprehensive sense, and 
is so translated, except where it is limited in meaning by the 

He is a debtor. — Mavg'm, " Ov, ho2md by Ms oath," which is 
to be regarded as an interpretation, not as a literal rendering. 

18 A debtor.— Auth., following Cranm., "guilty." The Gr. is 
the same as in verse 16. Tynd., in both places, " offendeth." 

20 He therefore that sweareth.— Auth., " whosoever therefore 
shall swear." Our Lord speaks with regard to the present ; the 
Scribes are rej)resented, in verses 16, 18, as laying down a general 
rule, '"whosoever shall," &c. 

23 Ye tithe. — So all Engl, versions, except Auth., " ye pay tithe," 
which is an interpretation, but a correct one. 

24 Strain out. — So Tynd. Auth., " strain at," which now has a 
very different meaning. The common explanation of this pe- 
culiarity in the Auth., that at was a misprint for out, may be 
true, but is not supported by any evidence. 

25 Full from extortion and excess. — All Engl, versions, wth 
the Vulg., "full of extortion and excess." The foi'ce of the 
preposition in the Gr., e| apTrayris, has been overlooked, the sense 
being that their cup and platter are full in consequence of 
extortion and excess : the practice of these iniquities has been 
the means of filling their cup, the material cup, which out- 
wardly is so bright and clean. Excess, according to Aristotle's 
definition of the Gr., anpaaia, includes the immoderate pursuit of 
gain or honour, or any other worldly object {Ethics, vii. 6). 
The preposition on which turns this distinction between " from " 
and " of " is not repeated in verse 28, " ye are full of hypocrisy 
and iniquity." 

26 The inside. — The contrast is between the inside and the out- 
side (so Tynd., Genev., and Rhem.), not (as Auth., following 
Cranm.) between " that which is within," the contents of the cup, 
and the outside of the cup. 

28 Ye are full. — The Gr. is a different word from that used before, 


and shoiild have been rendered otherwise than by " ye are full," 
if our language supplied an equivalent. 

29 Sepulchres . . . tombs. — Auth., "tombs ". . . "sepulchres." 
This iuterehauge has been made to preserve the uniformity which 
has elsewhere, and especially in regard to the sepidture of the 
body of Christ, been observed in the treatment of the two words 
rd(pos and /Livrj/^eTov. 

32 Fill ye up then.— The emphatic " ye " of the Gr., coming at 
the close of the solemn strain of rebuke, is sufficiently represented 
by the position of the English pronoun. 

33 Offspring. — Auth., " generation," as at iii. 7, xii. 34. 

How shall ye. — Not " how can ye," as Auth. Meditating on 
the future, as if in soliloquy, the Lord goes on to predict what 
warnings would be given them, and with what effect. Wycl., 
Cranm., and Rhem. have the future, following Vulg./wg'ie^is; 
Tynd. and Genev., " how should ye." 

Judgement. — So Rhem. and Vulg., "judicium;" Wycl. 
" doom." The other versions, " damnation." This word occurs 
here in the New Testament for the first time: the Gr. Kpia-is, 
crisis, having in all former passages of this Gospel, and notably 
in ver. 23 of this chapter, been translated " judgement," accord- 
ing to its literal sense, in which it does not necessaril}'- imply 
condemnation. As the word " damnation " occurs eleven times, 
and the vcrlj " to damn " three times, it may be well once for all 
to say, that these words, having acquired a stei'ner meaning than 
they had in the time when the Bible was translated, have been 
displaced in the Revised Version by others more apposite to tlie 
woi'ds of tlie original Gr., which do not in tliemselves imply a 
judgement to condemn for all eternity. 

37 Which killeth.— All English versions, following the Yulg.. 
have " which killeth." Tlie use of the third person at the begbming 
of the verse has generally been ignored, except by some modern 
commentators, as by Bengel, who treats irohs avrriv as equivalent 
to Trphs ere. The sudden transition from the third to the second 
person, from speaking of Jerusalem to addressing her, may be 
taken to express the transport of tender affection and sorrow in 
the bosom of the Saviour, Avhich ensues on the utterance of her 
name. In the same sentence, with almost as sudden a transition, 
he passes from the singular to the j)lural, from apostrophising the 
city as a whole, to addressing her people, who in multitudes were 
listening to him. 



1 Went out from the temple, and was going on his way. 

— For Autli., " W(Mit out and departed from tlie temple," l)y 
cliauge in the order of the Gr. 

3 Thy coming. — Literally, " thy presence." Tlie Gr. napouaia, 
parousia, referring to the second advent of Christ, is so ren- 
dered several times in this chapter (bnt not elsewhere in the 
Gospels), and in many passages of the Epistles. 

4 Lead you astray. — Auth., following Wycl. and Tyud., " de- 
ceive you," whicli is indeed the secondary but not tlie literal 
meaning of the Greek. The word, as used in the Xew Testament 
implies that the people, like sheep, were led astray from their true 
guides by false shepherds pretending to have divine authority. 
Several such impostors are mentioned in the early liistoiy of the 
Church, as Theudas and Judas of Galilee, Acts v. 37. 

7 Pestilences (Auth.) is omitted by change in Gr. text. The 
words for " famine and pestilence " are nearly alike, differing 
only by a single letter, so that the introduction of the latter 
word into the Gr. text woiJd be easily made by a careless copyist; 
and the mistake would not attract notice, as the one calamity 
very commonly follows or accompanies the other. 

8 Travail. — All English versions, " sorrows." The Gr. uSlv pro- 
perly means the pangs of child-birth, and is used in that sense, 
as well as its cognate A^erb, many times in the New Testament. 
The " great jjain and peril," of which the word is a symbol, gives 
rise to many allusions ai. ! comparisons in the Old Testament ; 
and if we assume, as we well may, tliat our Lord here gives a 
higher significance to the word and to the thought connected 
with it, we better account for the frequent recurrence and de- 
velopment of the same figure of speech in the Epistles. The 
" regeneration," or new birth of the world, of which He speaks, 
is to be accomplished through pain and travail, "the whole 
creation groaning and travailing together until now." (Rom. 
viii. 22.) 

9 Unto tribulation. — So Wycl.. adopting the word of the 
Vulg., trihulationem. The Gr. e\:\pLs, for which this is now taken 
as the uniform iranslation, is variously rendered in Auth., some- 
times by " tribulation," as at ver. 21, and sometimes, as here, by 
" affliction." 

12 Shall be multiplied.— The Gr. is always so rendered in Auth., 
except in this place, where it is " abound." 


18 His cloke.— For "his clotlies " (Aixtli. witli Tyud.), by cliauge 
in Gr. text from the plural to the singular. Tlie ■\vord, when 
used in the singular, denoted particularly the long and large 
garment which would be worn by a man on a journey, but 
which he would leave at home when going to work in the field. 

21 Until now.— So Wycl. and Rhem. : Auth., "to this time. " The 
terseness of the Gr. would literally be represented by " until 
the now." 

22 Had been shortened . . . would have been saved.— 

Auth., " should be shortened . . . should be saved." The future 
is spoken of as already accomplished in the divine mind. 

23 Here . . . here. — Auth., " here . . . there." The Gr. has 
" here" in both places. 

24 If possible. — Auth., "if it ice7'e possible." The insertion of 
were, implying that the thing suggested was not possible, appears 
first in Tynd., and was adopted by Crauiu. and Genev. It is 
unnecesssry, and, considering the words that follow, may Ijc 
attril)uted to a predestiuarian bias. Yuig., &c., fieri jyotest, fol- 
lowed by Wycl. and Rhem. 

25 Beforehand. — Auth., " I have told you before," following 
Tynd. The correction is necessary to exclude the meaning " I 
have told you this already on a former occasion," and to make 
the sense and significance of the warning clear, " I have told you 
beforehand ; remember my words, and be prepared." 

26 Inner Chambers. — Auth., " secret chamber." See Note on 
chap. vi. 6. 

27 Is seen. — Auth., with Tynd. and Genev., " shineth." Wycl., 
Cranm., and Rhem. (foUomug Vulg., which hasj3«)-ei), " ap- 
peareth." " Shineth unto " suggests that the lightning, like the 
sun, travels across the sky ; whereas the meaning of the Gr. is 
that its light in the East " is seen," or is ap^mrcnt as far as the 
opposite quarter of the heaven. Is seen. — The same Gr. is 
so translated (chap. ^'i. 5), " that they be seen of men." (Auth.) 

32 Now from the fig-tree learn her parable. — Auth., " now 
leani a parable of the fig-tree." The article is in the Gr. pre- 
fixed to both words, and the preposition is " from," not " of." 
The order in the Gr, by placing the words " from the fig-tree" at 
the beginning of the sentence lays on them an emphasis whicli 
the Rhemish version only has preserved. Our Lord was 
sitting on the Mount of Olives (ver. 24), in passing over which 


on a former occasion lie had sought fruit from a fig-tree which 
grew there (Mark xi. 33). It is not unlikely that he now liad in 
xiew a tree of the same sort, and while discoursing of the things 
unseen, illustrated them by a sudden transition to one of the 
objects within sight of himself and his hearers. Compare the 
parallel passage in Mark xiii. 28. 

Is now become tender. — This is the meaning of the Gr. 
oTw ^5rj yfVTiTai. Auth., following Tynd., has " While his branch 
is yet tender," as if the " tenderness," the viridity, of the branch 
were passing away, not beginning. 

33 He is nigh is preferable to Auth., " it is near," which is placed 
in the Margin. The reference of " it " to " things," just above, 
is not free from difficulty, whereas " he " is clearly referable to 
the " son of man " (ver. 30), and this interpretation is strength- 
ened by the words of St. James (v. 9), " The judge staudeth 
before the doors." 

40 Two men. — This is s1io\\ti in the Gr. by the " one " in each 
case being masculine. All the versions have " two shall be." The 
Gr. also has the verbs which follow in the present tense, " one is 
taken, and one is left." The event is thus placed vividly before 
the mind. Wycl., in the next verse has the still familiar form, 
" the tother." 

M In an hour that ye think not. — Auth., " in such an horn- 
as," following Cranm. 

45 Hath set over. — Auth., following Tynd., "hath made ruler 

47 All that he hath.— The Gr. is literally, " all that belongeth 
to him." Auth., with Tynd., " all his goods." 

48 But if.— Auth., following Tynd., " but and if." The and in 
this connection is an archaism, having been originally a conjunc- 
tion resembling " " if" in meaning ; it is now redundant, and 
perplexing to the unlearned. Compare John vi. 62, " What and 
if" (Auth.). 

50 Expecteth not. . . . — Knoweth not. Auth., with Tjoid., 
" looketh not for him ... is not aware of," which are not 
quite literal renderings, though in themselves idiomatic and 



6 There is a cry.— Wycl., Tyud., and Autli., " There was aery 
made." The Gr. is literally " is come to pass." 

Behold the bridegroom !—" Cometh" (Auth.), is omitted by 
change in Gr. text. Both these changes add liveliness to the 

Come ye forth.— All Ejiglish versions, '• go ye out." The Gr. 
may be either " go out " or " come out," and the cry being from 
the outside, decides for the latter. 

8 Are going out. — The Gr. is in the present tense, a^ewwrai : 
and so Tynd., " go out." Vulg., extinguuntur. Auth. alone, 
" are gone out." This correction, the necessity of which admits 
of no doubt, may furnish an apt illustration to those who hold 
that the Divine grace is never in this life entirely withdrawn 
from any one avIio has received it, however he may have neg- 
lected to seek the renewal of it. 

9 Peradventure there will not be. — Auth., "Vo/ so— lest 
there be not." The elliptical i)hrase of the Gr. is completed by 
a paraphrase in the one case, and by an insertion in the other. 

13 Wlierein . . . — (Auth.), omitted by change in Gr. text. 

14 It is as when. — Auth., following Genev., inserts the hing- 
dom of heaven instead of " It." 

Another country.— For Auth., " a far country," as at chap, 
xxi. 23. 

15 To each. — So Wycl. : Auth., with TjTid., " to eveiy man." The 
Gr. is (Koi(TT(j). This change, for the sake of terseness and sim- 
l^licity, has been often made. 

22 Other two talents. — "Beside them" (Auth)., omitted here 
and in ver~e 20 by change in Gr. text. 

24 Didst not scatter. — Auth., following Tynd., " thou hast not 
strawcd " — i.e., strewed. The same Gr. is also in Auth. trans- 
lated " scatter," as at Luke i. 55, " Thou hast scattered abroad : " 
and although " strew " is a word that we would gladly retain, the 
meaning which we have here to express is not that of strewing or 
littering on the gi*ound, but of scattering abroad. 

25 Lo, thou hast thine own. — So Tynd. This, while more literal, 
gives the curt speech of the sullen servant better than Auth., with 
its inserted words (following Rhem. only), " Lo, there thou hast 
that is thine." Vulg.. ccce hahes gnod txmm est. 


27 The bankers. — So Rhem. Autli., " tlie mouey-cliaugers," as 
at verse 21. The busiuess of the " table-keeper " (the literal 
meaniug of the Gr. Tpaire(ir7is), included with luouey-chaugiiig 
what is now understood by " banking," or rccei^dng money on 
deposit and placing it out at interest. The latter term is the 
more appropriate here. 

With, interest. — Auth, with Wycl. and Rliem. (following 
Vulg., cum usiird),'hsiYe " with usury," a word which now has an 
opprobrious significance not implied in the Greek. Tynd., " with 

32 All the nations. — All English versions have " all nations." 
The pi-eseuce of the article appears to show that the solemn pas. 
sage which follows has particular reference to the Gentiles, de- 
claring the principle by which they are to be judged. The following 
is from Plumptre's Note on this passage : — " We have had in this 
chapter (l),in the wise and foolish virgins, the law of judgement 
for all members of the Church of Christ ; (2) in the talents, that 
for those who hold any office or ministry in the Church ; now we 
have (3) the law by which those shall be judged who have lived 
and died as heathens, not knowing the name of Christ, and 
knowdug God only as revealed in Nature, or in the law written 
in their hearts." 

40 One of these my "brethren, even these least. — This 
meaning is educed not so much from the words themselves as 
• from their order in the Gr. The Auth. differs, not widely, from 
it, " One of the least of these my brethren." It is to be remem- 
bered that although' the words are addressed to those who as 
Gentiles are not in the highest sense of the word " brethren "' of 
Christ, and may never have had an opportunity of showing kind- 
ness to any such, yet Christ has proclaimed the universal brother- 
hood of mankind, and their relation to Him, as the " Sou of 

46 Eternal punishment. — The Gr. aluvios (aionios) is the same 
in both parts of the verse, and in both places is " everlasting " in 
Wycl. and Rhem., and in Yidg, (eternum. In Auth., follo\^4ng 
Tynd., it is varied, being "everlasting" in the first place, 
" eternal " in the second. 



2 Cometh.. — Autli., foUowiug Geuev., "is;" other versions, "shall 
be." The Gr. is yiverat, not eVri, and denotes the coming on of 
the feast. A similar change is made in ver. 5. 

3 The court. — So Rhem. "Wycl. and Genev., "hall. Vulg., 
atrium. Auth., following Tynd. and Cranm.; "palace," which 
nsiially applies to a residence. The Gr. av\^, "a court," probably 
here denotes an open place in which assemblies and trials were 
held. So Auth. at Rev. xi. 2, " The court which is without the 

5 During the feast. — AU English versions, following Vulg., 
diefesto, have " on the feast day." The Gr. is literally, "in the 
feast ; " and the Feast of the Passover continued a whole week. 

Tumult. — This is the word used in Auth., for the same Gr. at 
chap. xx™. 24; and in this place it expresses better than 
" uproar " (Autli. follov^dng Tynd.) the popidar commotion by 
which the purpose of the coimeil might be defeated. 

7 An alabaster cruse. — All English versions, "an alabaster 
box." The Gr. is Alahastron. The vessel appears to have been 
in the form of a flask. The marginal note gives " a flask," as an 
alternative rendering of the Gr., which is said to have oi-igiually 
been the name of a vessel or A-ase without handles (from o ^nd 
\a^i), a handle), and subsequently to have been applied to the 
material of which A^essels of that form were usually made. 

10 Jesus perceiving it.— Auth., follomng Tynd. and Cranm., 
" When Jesus understood it." Compare chap. xii. 15 ; xvi. 8. 

12 To prepare me for burial.— Auth., "She did it for my 
burial." Pre-sdous versions, " She did it to bury me." Vulg., 
ad sepeliend^im me." The Gr. means properly to " prepare a 
body for burial — e.g., by embalming; and is so used in John xix. 
40., and in the LXX version of Gen. 1. 2, of the embalming of 
Jacob's body before its bm-ial in Canaan. 

13 That also which this woman. — Autli., " there shall also 
this that this woman," a rare instance of inattention to euphony 
in the English version, and peculiar to the Auth. 

Spoken of.— So Genev. Auth., with Tynd., "told." The Gr. 
AaAe'ctf means, and is commonly rendered in Auth.," to speak," not 
" to teU." 

15 They weighed unto him. — The true meaning of the Gr. has 


been overlooked by all Euglisli vcrbions, fulluwiug Viilg., consli- 
tuerunt. Wycl. has " ordained ; " Tynd., " api)ointed ;" Autli., 
"coveuanted mth liim for thirty pieces of silver." The same 
Gr. is used iu the LXX. version of Zech. xi. 12, conceriiiug the 
thii-ty xiieces of silver, where the Autli. has, " they weighed for my 
price." Compare also Jer. xxxii. 9 (LXX. version), " I weighed 
him the money (eo-TTjffa auri^)," as here. 

16 Deliver. — Anth., " betray." The Gr. is the same as in the last 

17 Make ready. — So Wycl. Other versions, " prepare ; " but at 
ver. 19, for the same Gr., Auth. has " make ready." 

18 I keep. — (The present). So Wycl. and Rhem. Vulg., facio 
Pascha. Auth., with Tynd., " 1 will keep." 

22 Is it I, Lord? — Auth., inverting the order of the Gr., " Lord, 
is it I ? " There is much diversity on this point in the previous 
versions, though they mostly xjrcserve the original order. Vulg., 
Num quid ego sum, Rabhi I Wycl., " Lord whether I am P " (both 
with a very imperfect apprehension of the sense). Tynd., " Is 
it I, Master ? " Rhem., '* Is it I, Lord ? " The disciples, hoi'ror- 
struck at what their Master has said, exclaim as with one voice, 
" Is it I? " or moi*e exactly, iu deprecation of such a charge, " It is 
not I, is it ? " Their question is put abruptly, and followed by 
the word of respectful address, with Avliich they would usually 
commence. This is the natural sequence of thought and speech 
in such a case, whetlier in Gr. or English. Compare chap. xvi. 
22, where om- Lord has foretold his approaching death, and St, 
Peter exclaims, " This be far from thee, Lord:" (Auth.). See also 
Acts ix. 5 ; x. 4. 

23 He that dipped his hand. — The past participle iu the Gr. 
shows that the action had ali'cady taken place. " Auth., 
" dippeth." 

21; Through whom. — The preposition in the Gr. is the same that 
is so often used in saying " The Lord spake through the prophet," 
signifying that Judas was an instrument in the hands of another. 
All English versions have " by whom ; " Vulg., correctly, per 

25 Is it I, Rabbi?— So Rhem., foUowing Vulg. Auth., mth all 

other versions, " Master." Judas does not, like the rest, use the 
higher title, " Lord," but " Rabbi," " teacher," the term by which 
the Jews addressed and described him. So again in the garden 
(ver. 49), " Hail, Rabbi." Ave Bahhi. 


27 A cup. — The article is omitted iu tlie best MSS. A tliffereuce 
iu tlie mode of giving the bread aud the cup is indicated iu tlie 
Gr. simply by the use of two different tenses of the same verb, 
but cannot be so simply represented iu English. He went on 
giving the bread (iSiSov) ; he gave with his own hand to each ; 
the cup he gave to them once for all (e5w;ce), that they might hand 
it on one to another. 

28 The covenant. — All English versions, following Vulg., " the 
New Testament." There is probably a reference to tlie words of 
Moses iu Exod. xxiv. 8., " Behold the blood of the coveuaut." 
The old covenant was now to be superseded by a better and more 
comprehensive one, which the former had pre-figured. The word 
" new " was originally wanting in this place, aud iu the parallel 
passage of Mark xiv, 24, and appears to have been inserted in an 
early age in the MSS. from Luke xxii. 20, aud 1 Cor. xi. 25. 

31 In me. — So Wycl. and Rliem., following Vulg. Autli., with 
Craum., "becaiiseof me," a true interpretation, though not an 
exact translation. Tyud. aud Geuev. " by me." 

35 Even if I must die with thee.— "Wycl., still more literally, 
" though it behove that I die with thee." Auth., following 
Tynd., " though I shoidd die," &c., 

37 Sore troubled. — This gives the sense of the Gr. more clearly 
than Auth., following Cranm., " very heavy." Moreover the 
latter word is used at ver. 43, where it is said that " their eyes 
were heavy." 

38 Abide. — (So Wycl.) is the usual rendering of the Gr. yueVw. 
Auth., "Tarry." 

42 Cup (Auth). is omitted in nearly all the older MSS. 

50 Do that for which thou art come. — The sentence in the 
Gr. is abrupt aud uugrammatical. AU English versions, fol- 
lowing Vulg., complete it in the form of a question, " Wherefore 
art thou come ? " In the Gr. the words stand thus, beginning 
with the relative pronoun, " The thing for which thou art come," 
and we may supply either an imperative " Do the tiling for 
which," or an interrogative " What is the thing for which ? " The 
former interpretation is that of the eminent Gr. expositor Euthy- 
mius, of the 12th centm'y, " ijyovu rh Kara (TKOirhv irpttTTe," " Do 

according to thy intent ; " as oiu- Lord had said to him at the 
sui^per; "What thou doest do quickly" (Dr. Field). If, iu 
such a scene of agony and confusion, an exclamation was abrupt 
in its utterance, or was imperfectly heard, it is no more than 
might be exjpccted to happen. 


The same meauiug is more clearly expressed in John xiii. 27, 
" "What thou doest, do quickly." 

53 Even now.^ — So Cranm. — i.e., "at this veiy moment." Gi-. 
&pTt. Auth., " presently," with Rhom. — i.e., "immediately." 

Send. — Auth., " give." The exact meaning of the Gr. is 
" make to stand at my side." 

55 A robber. — All English versions, "a thief." Compare Note 
on chap. xxi. 13. So large a force would not have been required 
for the capture of a common thief ; but the roblsers (or brigands) 
of Palestine were formidalile from the numbers in which they 
banded themselves together. 

Ye took me not.— So Tynd. Auth., " Ye laid no hold on me," 
which better represents another Gr. word, as at Tim^ vi. 12, 19 
(Auth). Wycl., '• Te held me not," from Vidg., non me tenuistis. 

56 Is come to pass.— Auth., " was done." Compare chap, i, 22, 
and Note there. 

58 The officers. . . — i.e., of the court. Auth., "the servants," for 
which in Gr. another word would have been used. 

60 Afterward. — More exact than Auth., with all previous versions, 
" at the last. 

61 This man. — Auth., "fellow," a term of contempt, which is not 
necessarily implied in the Gr. 

66 He is worthy of death.— So Tynd. Auth., with Wycl. and 
Rhem., " guilty of death," following Yulg., reus est mortis. The 
Gr. is literally " liable to death." 

69 Maid.— Auth. has " damsel " here, but "maid " for the same Gr. 
at ver. 71. 

75 The word which Jesus had said. — By change of Gr. 
text for " the word of Jesus whicli said unto him." 



.5 The sanctuary. — Anth.. "The temple." Compare Note on 
cliap. xxiii. 16. It appears that into this holy place Judas, iu the 
agony of his remorse, flung the pieces of silver, and then went 

6 Since it is. — Auth, "because." Tlio Gr. eirsi has properly, 
like " since " in English, a temporal sense, iu which it is commonly 
used hj classical authors ; but in the New Testament it is always 

9 Priced. — So Wycl. and Rhem. "Auth., valued." The same 
word in its verbal and substantival forms is in tlic Gr. three times 
repeated. The situation may be grating to the e;ir, Ijut aptly 
expresses what is deeply offensive to our feelings, that He who 
came to be a ransom for sin was himself priced at the price of so 
much money by those whom He came to save. 

14 He gave him no answer, not even to one word.— Auth., 

following Tyud., " answered him to never a word ; " " never " as 
the emphatic negative of our Old English idiom. 

15 At the feast. — Margin, " Or, a feast." Auth. after Tynd., "at 
that feast." There being no article in the Gr., the words admit 
of the rendering, "at a feast" (as in the margin), i.e., at any of 
the Jewish feasts, not at tlie Passover only ; and so it was taken 
by "Wycl. " for a solemn day." But the words of Pilate, at John 
xviii. 39, appear to confine this inconvenient custom to the gi'eat 
feast of all. " Ye have a custom that I should release unto you 
one at the Passover." 

19 Righteous. — All English versions following Yulg., " just,' and 
so at ver. 24, 

24 Was arising. — Auth., " was made ; " Rhem., " was toward ; " 
Gr., yiveTai. 

27 The Palace.— Margin, " Gr., Prcetorium." Auth. with Tynd., 
" common hall," with Margin, " Or, governor's house." The Gr., 
or rather Roman, word properly signifies the head-quarters of 
the commanding officer in camp, find from thence was applied to 
the residence of the Roman Governor at the seat of government 
in a province, as in Acts xxiii. 35. 

The whole band. — Margin, " Or, cohort," properly the sub- 
division of a Roman legion, called a cohort, and numbering 
about 1,000 men. 


29 Kneeled.— So "Wycl. ; this, the meaning of the Gr., " fell on 
their knees," not "bowed the knee" (Auth. after Tynd.), as 
in making obeisance. Compare Mark i. 40, x. 17. The follow- 
ing apt illustration of this act of the soldiers is from Dr. 
Field's note : — " With this irony of the Roman soldiery it is 
interesting to compare a grim jest which was wont to be played 
off by the Mediterranean pirates, of whose imboundcd insolence 
many anecdotes are recorded by Plutarch in his life of Pompey, 
xxiv. "But the most contemptuous circumstance of all was, 
that when they had taken a prisoner, and he cried out that he 
was a Roman (Civis Romanus sum), they pretended to be struck 
with terror, smote their thighs, and fell upon their knees 
(Trpoo-eViTTToi/ ouTcD) to ask his pardon ; and that his quality might 
no more be mistaken, some put calcei on his feet, others threw 
a toga around him, the official costume of a Roman citizen. 
When they had made game of him {KaTeipuvevcra^^voi avrSv) for 
some time, they let down a ladder into the sea, and bade his 
worship go in peace ; and if he refused, they pushed him oif the 
deck and drowned him." 

32 Him they compelled to go with them, that he might 
bear his cross. — Aiith. with Tyud., " compelled to bear his 
cross." The Margin gives the literal sense of the Gr. Avord, 
which is used here and in chap. v. 41, " to impress." It appears 
to have been a common thing for Roman sohliex's to impress 
people to carry burdens for them. (Farrar's Life of Christ, ii., 
395, quoting Ei)ictetus, Dissert, iv. 1.) 

34 Wine to drink. — So Wycl. and Rliem. following Yulg., 
vinum. Auth. with Tynd., " vinegar." The Gr. is literally 
" sour wine," such as was commonly drunk by the Roman 
soldiers, and is'described in Mark xv. 23 as having myrrh mingled 
with it. St. Matthew's narrative connects this act with the words 
of Ps. Ixix. 22, " They gave me gall to eat : and when I was 
thirsty, they gave me vinegar to drink." 

35 They parted his garments among them. — The words 

' among them " are not expressed in the Gr., but are implied 1)y 
the middle voice of the vei-b " parted." The quotation from Ps. 
xxii. 18, " They parted my garments," is omitted in the Gr. text, 
the great preponderance of ancient authorities being against it. 

38 Robbers.— All English versions, " thieves." Yulg., latrones. 
See Note on chap. xxi. 13. 

39 Railed on him.— Auth., " reviled " here, but at Mark xv. 29 
" railed." 


42 He is the king of Israel.— This, by tlae omission of " if," 
wliich has been removed from the Gr. text, becomes an assei-tion 
of the truth made in derision. 

42, 43 We will believe on him. . . He trusteth on God.— 

The Gr. preposition requires the rendering " on " in both places. 
Auth. has, " we will believe him. , . He trusted in God." 

44 Cast upon him the same reproach.— Auth., with Tynd., 
" cast the same in his teeth," a more vivid rendering, and better, 
if it did not suggest that there was a corresponding idiom in the 
Gr. Wycl., "upbraided;" Rliem., "reproached." 

50 Yielded up his spirit.— The spirit which he had, being man 
as a part of liis human nature {rh wevfj-a), concerning wliicli lie 
said (Luke xxiii. 46, in the words of Ps. xxxi. 5) : "Into thy 
hands I commend my spirit." The English versions here have 
"yielded up," (following* Wycl., "gave up") "the ghost," which 
better answers to the word that follows in the passage of Luke 
xxiii. 46, e|eVi'€U(r6, literally, " he expired," " gave up the breath 
of life." Compare John xix. 30. 

52 The tombs.— All English versions, " the graves." The Gr. 
here and in ver. 53 is literally " the monuments ; " and so Vulg., 

54 The Son of God. — Margin, " Or, a son." The word " son " has 
has not liere tlie article in the Gr., and though the article may 
properly stand in the English, it does not necessarily imply tliat 
the centurion confessed him to be the only Son of God, or that 
it was the same solemn ackiiowlcdgment in his mouth as it was 
when spoken by Simon Peter, xiv. 33, where also the article is 
omitted. With regard to the significance of expressions such as 
this, which were in common use, not much can be iuferred from 
the absence or presence of the article, there being in Gr. no in- 
definite article; and " God's Son" or " Son of God " might bo 
said at one time of Him who at another would be called " the 
Son of God." . 

50 The sons of Zebedee.— Compare Note on chap. xx. 20. 

58 Asked.— Auth. following Tynd., "begged." It is likely that 
he made his request submissively, but the Gr. simply says, " lie 

Commanded it to be given up. — Auth. with Tynd., " com- 
manded it to be delivered ; " " the body " is omitted by change in 
Gr. text. The word airodo9jjvai properly means " to be given back," 


and is not elsewhere in Autli. rendered " to be delivered,"' which 
commonly represents another Gr. word. 

60 Tomb. — Autli., " sepulchre." See Note on ver. 52. In tlie 
next verse the Gr. is rdcpos, which is rendered " sepulchre," 
as in Auth. By the interment the tomb {ixvqfx^iov) became 
a sei)idcre (to<^05). See Note on chap, xxiii. 8. 

62 Which is the day after. — Auth., "that foUowed." The 
clause is explanatory, the Evangelist thus explaining to his Hebrew 
readers that the ciiicifixion took place on the day of preparation 
for the Sabbath, Paraskeue, and that the chief priests, &c., went 
to Pilate on the day after, on the close of the Sabbath (See 
Alford's Note). 

64 " By night" (Auth.), is omitted in Gr. text. 

Error, — So all English versions, foUomng Vulg., thus repre- 
senting it as a possible error on the part of the people, who, if 
made to believe that Christ had fulfilled his prediction, and 
risen again, would be led still more astray than before. The 
Gr, irXavri, which occurs ten times in the NeAv Testament, 
has been uniformly in the Revised Version, and with only three 
exceptions in the Auth., translated " error." Considering that the 
cognate noun TAa;'os is "deceiver" in the preiaous Aerse, and the 
verb is commonly rendered " to lead astray," implying wilful de- 
ception, many commentators have proposed to read " deceit " in 
this place for "error." The true and normal meaning of the 
word, however, admits of an easy explanation, and must therefore 
be retained. 

65 Ye have a guard . . . — The marginal notes show that 
both the sayings attributed to Pilate are of ambiguous meaning. 
It may be that, vexed with himself, and scorning those who now 
came to him, he disnussed them curtly, with phrases purposely 

A guard. — So Rhem. Auth, witli Cranm., " a watch," wliich 
in this sense is archaic. Tyud. and Genev., "watchmen." 

QQ The guard being with them. — Auth., " and setting a 
watch," a departure from the literal rendering of the earlier ver- 
sions " with watclimen," probably made on account of the ob- 
jectionable juxtaposition of words which would be presented by 
. the translation, " sealing the stone with a watch," 



1 Late on the Sabbath-day. — Auth., "in the end of." In- 
stances are given by Bengel from later Greek writers (Plutarch 
and Pliilostratus) of the use of 6\pe for " after." If this sense 
could be admitted in the New Testament, the narrative of St. 
Matthew would be brought into strict accord with St. Mark's, 
"when the Sabbath was past." 

2 " From the door " (Auth.) is omitted in the Gr. text. 

3 His appearance. — Auth. , following Tynd.," his countenance." 
The Gr. i54a (idea), properly " form," " outward appearance," is 
not elsewhere found in the New Testament. Wycl. has " his 
looking," after Vulg., aspectus. The English translators may 
have taken " countenance," in order to associate the passage with 
Dan X. 11, where it is said of the angel, " his face was as the 
appearance of lightning." 

4 The watchers. — Auth., with Wycl. and Tynd., "the keepers," 
which is used for another word, <t>v\SL^ (Acts v. 23). Here the Gr. 
is 01 T-npovuTfs, which is translated "watching " in Auth. xxvii. 54. 

Did quake. — Auth., " did shake." Wycl. " were afeard," fol- 
lowing the loose I'endering of Vulg., exterriti sunt. Tynd., 
" were astonied." Tlie Gr. denotes " trembling," and the cognate 
noun at verse 2 is " an earthquake." 

5 Pear not ye.— So the Auth,. correcting Tynd., "Be not afraid." 
The " ye " is emphatic in the Gr.. which is not the case at ver. 10, 
where the Lord repeats the encouraging salutation of the angel. 
Though the watchmen were terrified, the women are told that 
they need not fear ; the pious purpose of their visit to the sepul- 
chre is known to God. 

Which hath been crucified. — Tlae event is spoken of as 
quite recent, the Gr. verb being in the perfect tense. " Auth., 
" which was crucified." 

6 The Lord. — We could iU have spared these words; yet the 
sentence, if, according to a strongly ^supported various reading, 
they were omitted, would be in keeping with the sublime brevity 
of the angel's address. 

8 From the tomb.— See Notes on chap, xx^ai. 52 — 60. It had 
ceased to be rd<pos, a sepulchre, and had become again fivvfj-etov, an 
empty touili. 

9 As they went. . . — (Auth.)., omitted in the Gr. text. 


They took hold of his feet. — So Rliem. All other EugHsli 
Tersious, " held him by his feet," followiug Yulg., temper unt, 
which would imply a continued holding, as if to detain him," 
which is not the meaning of the Gr. iKparria-ey. 

10 Fear not. — As at verse 5, where see Note. 

11 That were come to pass.— Auth., "that were done," with 
Wycl. and Rhem., following Yulg., facta fuerunt, as at chap. i. 22 ; 
xxvi. 56, &c. Tlie Latin fio is a good translation of the Gr. 
yivofiai, but its ]3ast tense (as here) is not an equivalent of the past 
tenses of yivofxat. 

14 If this come to the governor's ears. — This is one of 
Tyndale's idiomatic and felicitous renderings. The Gr.,as nearly 
as it can be translated, is " If this be heard before the governor," 
which suggests the alternative reading, given in the Margin, " If 
this come to a hearing (a judicial hearing) before the governor." 
"Wycl. has, " if this be heard of the justice." Yulg., si hoc 
auditum fuerit a prcBside. 

And rid you of care. — Auth., " make you secui-e," as Wycl., 
" make sicher." Yulg., securos vos faciemus. This woidd be 
correct if "secure" still bore the meaning of the Latin securus, 
" free from care : " but in modern usage it is synon^Tuous with 
" safe ; " and that sense is given to the Gr. by Tynd., '' save you 

15 Was spread abroad. — Auth., " is commonly reported." This 
change is required by the meaning of tlie Gr. verb, and by its 
tense (the aorist). The past act is sho's^ii in the Gr. to extend to 
the present time by the addition of the words " until this day." 
The English idiom requires a connecting link, such as " and con- 

16 Unto the mountain. — The article indicates that a particular 
place in Galilee had been appointed by our Lord, either through 
the angel (ver. 10), or, more probably, at one of his own appear- 
ances to his disciples. 

18 Authority. — The usual rendering of i^ovaia. All English ver- 
sions, " power." 

Hath been given.— Auth., "is given." The Gr. is i^roperly, 
" was given ; but here, and in many other places, the exact force 
of the aorist cannot be insisted on. 

19 Make disciples of.— AU English versions, " teach," follow- 
ing Yulg., docentes. See Note on chap. xiii. 52. 


Into the name.— All Euglish versions, " in the name." Yulg., 
in nomine, and so Acts xix. 5. But at Rom. vi. 3, Auth., fol- 
lowing Cranm., rightly has " baptized into Jesus Christ." Here 
Beza also has in nomine. 

The name of the triune God was to be to the believers all and 
more than all that the name of Jehovah had been to the Jews. 
To be baptized into that name was to be consigned to the loving, 
redeeming, sanctifying power of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

20 Alway.— The Gr. is literally, " all the days;" and so Vulg., 
in omnibus cliebus ; and Wycl., "in all days." The continuity 
of the Lord's presence is fully expressed in English by alway 
(Tynd.) ; but more impressively by the Gr., which says in effect, 
" there is not one of the days even unto the end of the world, on 
which I will not be with you. " 

The end of the world. — Margin, " Or, " the consummation of 
the age. See Note on chap. xiii. 39. The phrase only occurs in 
this Gospel : with " ages " (plural), Heb. ix. 26. 

The final Amen is not found in the most ancient MSS. and 




2 Isaiah, the prophet.— So Vulg., Wycl., Rliem. The Auth., 
with Tynd., follows the reading noticed in the Margin, " the 
prophets," an alteration made in some early MSS., apparently 
for the purpose of accommodating the text to the fact that two 
prophets are here quoted (Mai. iii. 1 ; Isa. xl. 3). 

3 Make ye ready.— So Wycl. Auth., with Tynd., "prepare," 
as in the last verse ; where, however, the Gr. is not the same word 
as here, and " make ye ready " has, consequently, been adopted 
for the word which is used in this verse and in the parallel pas- 
sage of Matt. iii. 3. 

4 John came, who baptized.— Auth., with Tynd., " John did 
baiitize," passing over the Gr., iyevero, which is feebly rendered 
in Yvi\g..fint Johannes haptizans, and Wycl., " John was in tlie 
desert baptizing." Moreover, the Gr. text, as now amended, has 
the article, and instead of '' baptizing," the participle lias tlie 
meaning " he that baptized." The exact force of iyfveTo 
here and in Averse 11 is '" came into existence," and the meaning 
of the whole is sufficiently expressed by " John came, who 

5 Country.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Yulg., regio. Auth., with 
Tynd., " land," which is the usual translation of another word (7^). 

The river Jordan.— Auth., " the river of Jordan," following 
Rhem., which was misled by Jordanis ftmnine of Yulg., Jorclanis 
being supposed to represent a genitive in the Gr. But Wycl. 
rightly had "flum Jordan," and so TjTid. 

3 A leathern girdle.— More literal and plainer than " a girdle 
of a skin," as all English versions. Had is inserted because the 

70 ST. MARK— I. 

English " clothed " is not, like the Gr. which it represents, ap- 
plicable to the girdle as well as to the camel's hair. 

7 There cometh after me he that is mightier than I. 

— Auth., "there cometh one that is mightier than I after me." 
This change, besides improving the rhythm, gives the requisite 
force to the article, which is omitted in all the English versions, 
except Oranm., "he that is stronger;" the anarthrous Latin of 
the Yulg. leading into error by venit fortior. 

8 With water. — Margin, "Or in." The Gr. eV may denote 
either the means wherewith, or the element wherein, the baptism 
is performed ; the former sense seems best to suit each of the 
mystic rites which are here contrasted. 

10 Rent asunder. — All English versions, " opened," as Auth.. or 
" open," following Yulg., ajpertos, except Genev., " cleft," which 
was probably suggested by Beza's Latin, findi. The Gr. trxiConevovs 
requires a Avord of this meaning, and is translated " rent " in 
Matt, xxvii. 51 (Auth.), and elsewhere. 

11 The heavens. — As in last verse. Auth., " heaven." See Note 
on Matt. iii. 17. 

Auth. inserts saying, which is not required, and, as we are now 
concerned with the vivid and often abrupt narrative of St. Mark, 
is better omitted. 

In thee. — ^For Auth., " in whom," by change in Gr. text. 

14 Delivered up. — So Rhem. Auth., " put in prison," foUowiug 
Genev., "VVycL, and Tynd., " taken." Compare Note on Matt, 
iv. 12. 

15 Believe in the Gospel.— Auth., "believe the Gospel." The 
preposition eV, in conjunction with iriaTevw, " to believe," signify, 
ing " I belicA'e in," is scarcely found elsewhere in the New Testa- 
ment. The same meaning is conveyed in the Creeds of the 
Church, and in the New Testament — especially in the Gospel of 
St. John — by Tncrrevu) us. 

16 Passing along: — For Auth., " as he walked," by change in Gr. 

18 left- — So Wycl. and Vulg., relidis retibus. Auth., following 
Tynd., "forsook," implying sudden abandonment, which, though 
true m fact, is not expressed in the Gr, 

23 Straightway. — This word is one of the most noticeable charac- 
teristics of St. Mark's Gospel. It is here added by change iu 
the Gr. text. 

ST. MARK— II. 71 

24 Let us alone. — (Autli.) omitted by change in the Gr. text. The 
changes of text throughout this Gospel are much more numerous 
than in the other three ; and they wiU only be noticed in the few 
eases in which they are of special interest or importance. 

27 What is this? a new teaching? with authority . . . 

— For Auth., " What new doctrine is this ? For with authority, 
&c," by change in Gr. text. These abrupt exclamations, though 
not elegant, are life-like, and in keeping with the general style of 
the Evangelist. 

28 The report of him.— See Note on Matt. iv. 24. 

Went out. — Auth., with Tynd., "spread abroad," which better 
represents another word in verse 45 and Matt. ix. 31. 

The region of Galilee round about— i.e., round aboxit Ca- 
pernaum. Auth., " the region round about Galilee." The Gr. 
may be grammatically rendered either way : the context decides 
in favour of the former. 

35 A desert place. — "Desert" is the constant rendering of 
eprifios ; otherwise " a solitary place " would here be preferable. 

38 For to this end. — Auth., " for therefore," after Cranm., 
with the same meaning, but using " therefore " in its now obsolete 

45 Spread abroad.— Auth., " blaze abroad." See Note on verse 28. 


4 The crowd. — Auth., following Tynd., " the press." The Gr. is 
the word usually translated " multitude." 

18 Were fasting.— So Wycl. Tynd., " did fast." Auth., with 
Rhem., "used to fast." The Gr. is literally "were fasting," 
and describes what was being done at that particular time. 

21, 22 See Notes on the parallel passage of Matt. ix. 16, 17. 

72 ST. MARK— III. 


1 Had his liand withered.— Auth., " a withered hand." The 
Gr. idiom uses the definite article, " the hand," as in English we 
use the possessive pronoun. 

4 To do harm. — A.iith., with Wycl. and Cranm., " to do evil." 
Tynd. and Geuev., "to do an evil." The Gr. denotes not evil 
generally, but injury to a feUow-creatm-e. 

A life. — Not, as Auth., " life " generally. 

5 The hardening. — Auth., with Genev., " the hardness," proba- 
bly following Beza, q^iod occalluisset cor eorum ; other versions, 
" blindness." The Gr. indicates the process, which the Lord ob- 
served in them going on. The same word irupucris is used by 
St. Paul (Rom. xi. 25 ; Eph. iv. 18). The state in which the 
hardening ends is expressed by o-KX-npoKapSla, which may be ren- 
dered " hard-heartedness." 

7 The change in punctuation is to be noticed, showing that a fresh 
sentence commences after " Jerusalem." Two multitudes are 
mentioned : one, from different parts of Palestine, " followed 
" him ; " the other, from outlying regions, " came unto him." 

12 Charged them much.— Auth., " .straitly." See chap. v. 23. 

26 Hath risen up . . . and is. — Auth., " rise up . . . 
and be." The verbs are in the indicative mood, not in the sub- 
junctive as at verse 25. 

29 An eternal sin.— The preponderance of the best ancient au- 
thorities, both of MSS. and ver.sions, is in favour of this reading ; 
and it has been adopted by the greater number of critical editors. 
A sin may be said to be eternal if it is undying in its guilt and 
its consequences. The Vulg. has eterni delicti ; Wycl., " ever- 
lasting ti-espass ; " Rhem., " eternal sin ; " Auth., following Tynd., 
" eternal damnation." 

ST. MARK— IV. 73 


For this chapter compare Notes in the parallel passage of Matt, 
xiii. 1, &c. 

10 The parables.— For Auth., "the parable," by change of Gr, 

11 All things are done.— So all English versions, except Auth., 
which inserts " these," putting a limit to what is expressed by our 
Lord as a universal truth ; as Beza, per parabolas omnia ista 
fiunt. But Vulg., in parabolis omnia fiunt. 

21 See Notes on Matt. v. 15. 

22 Come to light.— So Rhem. Auth., following Tynd., "come 
abroad." The Gr. denotes becoming manifest, rather than 

29 When the fruit is ripe.— Literally when it " yields," " sur- 
renders " — i.e., to the reaper. Auth., " is brought forth." 

He putteth forth .— Auth., " he putt eth in." Tynd., "he 
thrusteth in." Yxilg., mittit falcem : " sendeth" is recognised 
in our Margin, but is not probable. The Gr. is the same as in 
Joel iv. 13 (LXX. version), where the Auth. has " Put ye in the 
sickle, for the harvest is ripe ; " a passage which was evidently 
in the mind of our Lord in giA'ing this parable. {Field, " Otinm 

30 Parable. — So Wycl. and Rhem., the Gr. being irapaffoKfi, para- 
bole. Auth., following Tynd., " comparison." 

36 Leaving.— Auth., "when they had sent away." All other 
English versions, " they left." 

37 Was now filling.— The verb is in the jiresent tense. All 
English versions, " full," as if a past tense had been used. 

38 The Cushion.— All English versions, "a pillow"; the seat of 
the rowers and steersman. (Alford and Wordsworth.) Bengel, 
quoting Theophylact, says it was of wood. 

41 Who then is this?— Wycl., " Who, thinkest thou, is this ? " 
following Vulg., Quis putas, est iste? Tynd. and Genev., 
" What fellow is this ? " Auth., " What manner of man is tliis ? " 
omitting the particle &pa (which the Vulg. attempts to express Ijy 
putas), and translating tIs (who ?) as if it were voTos (Avhat manner 
of man ?). 

74 ST. MARK— Y. 


1 Gerasenes.— For " Gadarenes" (Auti.), by change in Gr. text. 

See Note on Matt. viii. 28. 

4 Had strength. — The Greek verb requires a more distinct and 
expressive rendering than "could" (Auth.), which is used for 
r)Svi'aTo in verse 3. 

11 On the mountain side.— For Auth., "nigh unto the moun- 
tains," by change in Gr. text. 

15 Even him that had the legion.— Following the order of 
the Gr. text, in which this clause is added, as an after-thought, 
at the end of the sentence. 

19 Go to thy house. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., following 
Tynd., " Go liome;" " his house," the proper place for one who 
had long been houseless, dwelling among the tombs. 

21 By the sea. — The Gr. signifies not " nigh unto " (Auth.), but 
" by the side of," on the sea-shore. 

30 That the power proceeding from him had gone forth.— 

The presence of the Gr. article, overlooked in all English ver- 
sions, requires this change in the construction and meaning of 
the sentence. Power is the proper and usual meaning of the 
word, which here is rendered " virtue "' in Aixth. and previous 
versions, foUowiug Vulg., '' virtutem." 

36 Not heeding. — Margin, " Or overhearing,'' by change in Gr. 
text, for Auth., "when Jesus heard." See Matt, xviii. 17. 

39 Why make ye a tumult. — Auth., with Tynd., " Why make 
ye this ado ? " The word in Greek is the cognate verb to the 
noun translated " tumult " in the preceding verse ; and the 
idiomatic rendering of Tynd, therefore gives way to the 
claims of uniformity. 

ST. MAEK— YI. 76 


The greater part of the changes in this chapter are due to the 
emendations which have been made on the' authority of ancient 
writers in the Gr. text. 

8 Wallet.— For Auth. "scrip," obsolete in this sense. See Matt. 
X. 10. 

9 And, said he, put not on.— There is here, according to the 
amended Gr. text, a change from the third person to the second, 
and the verb is in the imperative mood. 

14 Had become known.— OomjDare note on iv. 22. 

19 Set herself against him.— Auth., " had a quarrel against 
him." The unusual word iv^^xev denotes rather a secret spite or 
grudge, than an open " quarrel," or cause of enmity. Yulg., 
insidiabatur illi. 

The same verb is used in the LXX. version (Gen. xlix. 23). In 
classical Gr. it is found only in Herodotus, with the addition of 
X^^ov. See Herod, vi. 119 : ivexeiv is an elliptical expression, 
as ewexeii^ {suhaudi vovv). — Field. 

20 Kept him safe. — i.e., against Herodias (Bengel). So "Wycl., 
following Vulg., custodiebat eum ; and this is the meaning of crw- 
T7)piw in all the places in which it occurs in the New Testament. 
Compare Matt. ix. 17, "both are preserved"; Luke ii. 19, and 
v. 38. Auth., "observed him," following Tynd., "gave him 

21 Chief men. — Literally, "first men." Auth., following Tynd. 
" chief estates," for which, as the italics show, there is no equiva- 
lent in the Gr. 

25 Forthwith. — Auth., with Tynd., " by and by," which in modern 
usage points to a time not so immediate as the Gr. e|auT^s, 

27 A soldier of his guard. — Auth.. "an executioner." Wycl., 
strangely, " a man-queller ; " Tynd., " the hangman." This, as 
also gf?-«&af wm, " a bed " (verse 55 of this chapter), St. Mark 
has used, in a Greek form. The Latin was spicidator (as in 
Vulg.) or speculator, and if derived from spictdtim, " a jave- 
lin," would mean " one of the body guard," who carried such 
weapons ; if from speculari, " an executioner." 

43 Broken pieces.— See Note on Matt. xiv. 20. 

76 ST. MARK— VI. 

46 After he had taken leave of them.— Anth., following 
Tynd. and Vulg., " when he had sent them away." The Gr. 
word has not the same meaning as that wliich is rendered 
" sendeth away " in the preceding verse ; it is coiTectly translated 
in Luke ix. 61, " Suffer nie to bid farewell to them." (Auth.) 

48 Distressed in rowing.— Auth., "toiling,"as Vulg., lahorantes, 
and Rhem., " labouring." See Note on Matt. xiv. 24. 

49 An apparition.— Auth., " a spirit." See Note on Matt, 
xiv. 26. 

52 They understood not concerning the loaves.— So Wycl., 
Tynd., and Rhem., following Vulg., nonintellexsrunt de panibus. 
The characteristic brevity of St. Mark's style, which is so 
apparent here, becomes obscured by the insertion made (in Auth.- 
only) to ease the sentence and expres.s the meaning, " they con- 
sidered not the miracle of the loaves." 

"They did not understand concerning the loaves," how the multi- 
plication of them proved their Master's power over Nature, and 
should therefore have prevented them from being troubled when 
they saw Him coming to them over the water, or amazed at the 
sudden dropping of the wind as soon as He joined them. Their 
hearts were " hardened " against conviction, not by wilful un- 
belief, but by diJness of perception. 

53 Moored to the shore.— Auth., " drew to the shore." Tjaul. 
and Cranm., " drew up into the haven." The Greek, wliicli does 
not elsewhere occui in the New Testament, signifies not " ap- 
proacliing," but " making fast the boats to the shore." Vulg., 

56 The market-places.— The Gr. requires this rendering, what- 
ever may have l^cen the places answering to this appellation in 
the open coimtry (Gr. ay^iuvi). AH Engl, versions have "streets," 
after Vulg., plateis. 

ST. MARK— VII. 77 


2 Defiled. — Tlie Gr., literally " commou," is used in the New 
Testament to signify that which is ceremonially " unclean," as in 
Acts X. 14; Rom. xiv. 14. 

3 Diligently. — All Engl, versions, " oft," following Yulg., crebro. 
The Gr. is a rare word, and of uncertain meaning. 

4 Wash, chemselves.— Margin, " Gr. baptize." The use of this 
word iudicates that the ceremonial washing on their return from 
worldly business in the market-place extended to the dipping of 
the whole person, and that the yesscls were also, as a religious 
purification, dipped in water. The marginal note shows that 
there is some strong authority for the reading, " and couches " 
(i.e., the couches on which they reclined at meals), for which the 
Auth., follomng Tynd., lias " and of tables." 

7 Precepts. — Auth., " commandments," which rej)reseuts a diffe- 
rent word in the next verse. Compare Matt. xv. 9. 

8 Ye leave. — So Wycl. "Vulg., relinquentes. Auth., " laying 
aside." The word is usually rendered " leave," as at chap viii. 13 

10 Speaketh evil of. — Auth., " curseth." See Notes bearing on 
this and the following verses in the parallel passage of Matt. 
XV. 1. 

11 Given to G^ocZ.— Auth., "a gift." "A gift or oblation to 
God " is one meaning of the Hebrew word korban, which is also 
used in Matt, xxvii. 6 for the place in which the oJferings were 
received, "the treasury" of the Temple. The previous versions 
vaiy much in their renderings of this verse. Tynd. has it con-ectly 
" given God." The sentence as now i^unctuated and translated 
is clear, without the insertion of Auth., " he shall be free." 

19 This He said, making all meats clean: — Auth., with aU 
previous versions, '' j)urging all meats " (connected with " goeth 
out"). By a change of reading in the Gr. text (Kadapi^wv for 
Kaddpi(ov, the masculine for the neuter), " purging," or " making 
clean," is connected with " he saith " at the beginning of verse 18; 
and to make the meaning clear in translation, a new sentence is 
commenced at the end of verse 19 by the insertion of " This he 
said." And thus the great truth is for the fii'st time declared in 
this Gospel, that by the teaching of Christ the ceremonial unclean- 
nesses enforced by the law of Moses were abolislied. Tlie same 
was again declared to St. Peter in liis vision on the house-top, 

78 ST. MARK— VII. 

Acts X. 15, " Wliat God liatli cleansed make not thou common," 
where the same Gr. is used, iKaOdpuxe, " cleansed." These two 
passages, thus brought side by side, become an interesting liuk, in 
addition to those which have long been observed, between St. 
Mark and St. Peter. It is St. Mark alone who draws this infe- 
rence from the words of our Lord, though they are recorded by 
St. Matt. XV. 15. The commonly received reading and rendering 
of the verse scarcely admits of a satisfactory interpretation. 
The above explanation is that of Origen commenting on the parallel 
passage of St. Matthew, and of St. Chrysostom, who says that 
"according to Mark, by saying these words the Saviour made all 
meats clean." In like manner, at chap. iii. 30, he makes a com- 
ment on a saying of our Lord, where the same Avords, TJiis he 
said, may be suiiplied. " This he said, because tliey said he 
hatli an unclean spirit." 

Dr. Field, who advocates this intei-pretation, also gives an in- 
teresting history of it, in his comment on the passage {Otium 
Now., p. 2-4). The places of Origen and St. Chrysostom, he 
says, had escaped the notice of all critics and commentators till 
Matthaei noticed them in his editions of the New Testament, 
1788, 1803, in disparaging terms. From that time no further 
notice was taken of this interpretation tiU Dr. Field drew atten- 
tion to it in editing St. Chi-ysostora's Homilies on St. Mattheiv, 
torn, iii., p. 112 ; nor even then did any critic or expositor, En- 
glisli or foreign, take notice of it until Dr. Burgon, in his work on 
the last twelve A^erses of St. Mark, made favourable mention of 
Dr. Field's attempt to restore the true interpretation of the 
passage. He may I'casonably, therefore, have been gratified on 
. finding it soon after in the text of the Revised Verson, without 
even a marginal variation. 

26 A Greek.— Margin, "Or Gentile." The term "Greek" appears 
to have been in familiar use among the Jews as a synonym for 
" Gentile," even when the people so spoken of were not Greeks 
by race. This is especially the case in the Epistles of St. Paul, 
by whom Jew and Greek are often contrasted — Jew and Gentile 
only once, when lie is recalling words addressed by him to St. 
Peter before the Jewish Christians at Antioch, Gal. ii. 14. 

35 Bond. — So Wycl. ; and Yulg., vinculum, the Gr. being Sea/xSs. 
Auth., following Tynd., " string." 



4 Fill.— So WycL: Aiitli. witli Tynd., "satisfy." The Gr. is 
properly " fill fiUl." 
17 "Yet" (Aatli.) is omitted before "hardened," by change in Gr. 

19, 20. To the marginal note on these verses it may be added that in 
verse 19 the Gr. is, " how many baskets full of broken pieces," 
inverse 20 " the fillings or contents of how many baskets," "how 
many basketfuls," making it conceivable that in the former case 
twelve baskets were filled, in the latter, one basket seven times. 
This slight distinction is not observed in the parallel passage of 
Matt. xvi. 10. 

23 Brought— For Auth., "led," as in 13; Mark ix. 2, &c. 

Village. — The Gr. is usually so rendered in Auth. ; but here, 
" town." 

24 I see men; for I behold them, as trees walking.— 

So Tjnd. Auth., with Vulg. and Wycl., follows another reading 
of the Gr. text, wliich gives the less graphic rendering, " I see 
men as trees, walking." 

25 He looked stedfastly . . . and saw all things 
clearly. — By changes in Gr. text for Auth., " he made him look 
up . . . and saw every man clearly." 

26 Do not even enter into the village.— By change of Gr. 
text, for Auth., " Neither go into the town, nor tell it to any in 
the town." 

27, 33, 34. See Notes on the parallel passage of Matt. xvi. 13, 
23, 24. 


3 Glistering.— So Rhem. Yvlg.,splendenUa; Auth., "shining," 
following Tynd. The Gr. requires a word expressive of dazzling 

Exceeding white.— The comparison " as snow," which is in 
all English versions and Vulg., may have been imported into 
some 01 the MSS. at an early period from Dan. vii. 9. 

80 ST. MARK— IX. 

6, 7 Became sore afraid— there came a cloud— there came 
a voice. — The same word is repeated in the Gr. Auth., " they 
were sore afraid " — " there was a cloud " — " a voice came." 

9 Save when. — So Yulg., nisi aim, and Wycl., " but when." 
Auth., with Tynd., " till." 

12 And how is it written of the Son of man . . . ?— 

The strict reuderiug of the Gr. requires tliat this should be put 
as a question (compare verse 28 and Note there), and the con- 
nection of thought appears to be as follows : — The disciples desire 
an explanation of the saying of the sci'ibes that " Eli j all must first 
come." Our Lord answers, " He is coming, and is to restore all 
things ; and now I ask you how it is that it is written of the 
Son of man, that he is to suffer ?" The answer to that question 
is, that as Elijah, though he came and suffered in fulhlnient of 
prophecy, is to come again and restore all things, so the Son, 
though He is to suffer, shallcome again in his kingdom, and fulfil 
that Avhich is written of Him. The latter part of the cnm[)arisou, 
however, is not expressed, but loft to be inferred from the former 
part', or made clear by future events. 

18 Dasheth him down.— So V/ycl., "hurtleth down," after Vulg., 
allidit. Auth.. following Tynd., " beareth," (with margin, " Or 
dasheth him'") ; but at Luke ix. 42, " threw him down." The Gr. 
fi-fiyvvixi has usually the sense of " tear," as in Matt. to. 6 and in 
classical wi'iters; l)ut in later Gr. sometimes is "to fell," "to 
knock do\vu," and so in the LXX. version of the Old Testament. 
" Tare " is the rendering of another word at verse 20. 

Grindeth his teeth. — Auth., "gnasheth with his teeth," 
which represents another Gr. word. 

23 If thou canst. — Auth., " if thou canst believe, all things," 
&c. By the omission of " believe," consequent on a change in 
the Gr. text, the saj-ing of our Lord becomes a reiteration of the 
father's words, with the implied meaning, '' how canst thou speak 
so doubtingly ? for thee this may be done, if thou hast faith ; aU 
things are possible to him that believeth." 

The definite article, prefixed to this saying in the Gr., cannot 
without being cumbrously over-translated, he given in English. 
Compare Matt. xix. 18 ; Gal. v. 14, where, as here, it marks the 
words which follow as a well-known saying or command. 

24 It is to be regi-etted that the omission of " with tears " ( A.uth.) 
is ruled by modern criticism to be necessary, notwithstanding the 
evidence of " many ancient authorities." 

ST. MARK— IX. 81 

28 Saying, We could not cast it out.— It is an inten-ogation 
in fact, thougli not in grammatical construction (like " the scribes 
say," at verse 11) — an expression of surprise and disappointment, 
inviting, though not asking an explanation, which, however, is 
given in the next verse. 

29 And fasting. — (Auth.), omitted by change in Gr. text. 

33 What were ye reasoning in the way? — Auth., "what was 
it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way ? " The word 
in Gr. is not the same that is translated in the next verse " dis- 
puted." By his use of it our Lord appears not to impute to the 
disciples more than an amicable discussion. 

34 Who was the greatest. — So Wycl. and Rhem. ; and Yulg., 
quis eorum major esset. The inserted words in Auth., " who 
should he the greatest," point to a future precedency, which is 
not the question here. 

35 Minister. — So Wycl. and Rhem., after Yulg. Auth. in this 
place (following Tynd.), has " servant; " but in chap. x. 43, Matt. 
XX. 26, and usually in the Epistles " minister." The Gr. word 
appears in the Ei)istles twice in an English form, " deacon," and 
in that form has given name to one of the orders of the Christian 
ministry. The cognate verb is usually translated " to minister." 

40 Is for us.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., with Tynd., " on our 
part." In the Gr. the contrast is made by the two prepositions. 

41 Because ye are Christ's. — Tliis follows from the change of 
Gr. text, which, as shown in the margin, is literally, " in name 
that ye are Christ's." Auth., "in my name, because ye belong 
to Christ." With this passage may be compared 1 Cor. iii. 23, 
" Te are Christ's, and Christ is God's." 

42 — 50 Compare the parallel passage in Matt, xviii. 6, and Notes 

43 Having thy two hands. — The article in Gr., as in French' 
may often be best rendered in English by the possessive pronoun. 
In Auth. it is omitted. 

The unquenchable. — Auth., "the fire that never shall be 
quenched," as at verse 45. In the Gr. the adjective is used in 
this place, the verb at verse 45. 

50 Be at peace. — AU Engl, versions, " have peace," as in John 
xvi. 33, where it is an exact translation of the Gr. phrase. 
The Gr. is here a single word, as in 1 Thess. v. 13, where Auth. 
has " be at peace." 

82 ST. MARK— X 


1 Come together. — Autli., " resort," whicli signifies " frequent 
coming," not, as the Gr., "flocking together." 

12, 13, 16, 19. The variations from Auth. are consequent on changes 
in Gr. text, as also the omission of " take up the cross " in verse 

22 His countenance fell. — Auth., " He was sad." Wycl., " He 
was full sorry." Tyud., " He was discomforted." Rhem., " He 
was stricken sad." The same Gr. word is used in Matt. xvi. 3, of 
the heaven "lowering," in Ezek. xxvii. 35 (LXX. version), of 
kings " troiibled in their countenance." It denotes the outward 
signs of gloom, whether physical or mental. " His countenance 
fell " is said of Cain, Gen. iv. 5. 

He was one that had. — Auth., " he had." See Note on 
Matt. xix. 22. 

35 Come near unto Him. — Auth., "come unto Him." The 
word thus translated occiu-s in the LXX. version of Exod. xxiv. 
14, but not elsewhere in the New Testament. 

43, 44, Minister— servant. — The margin bids us notice the dis- 
tinction which there is in the words of our Lord. He who would 
be great among the disciples must make himself their servant, 
their minister ; he who would become first of all must descend 
to the lowest depths of hiunility, and make himself the bond- 
servant — the slave of all. 


4 The open street. — The Gr. &fi(t)oSos, mnphodos, is so inter- 
preted Viv Hesychius, and this appears to be meant by the rendering 
of the Engl, versions, derived from Yulg., bivmm, "a place 
where two ways meet," as distinguished from a road that was not 
a thoroiighfare, via vicinalis. 

8 And others branches, which they had cut from the 
field. — By change of Gr. text for Auth., " and others cut 
down branches off the trees and strawed them in the way." Th« 

ST. MARK— XII. 83 

meaning is the same, unless the rendering in Margin be taken, 
which would substitute "layers of leaves " for the palm-branches; 
and so apparently Vulg., which ha,s frondes. 

17 Shall be called a house of prayer for all the natious. — 

Auth., " shall be called of all nations a house of prayer." The Gr. 
admits of either rendering. In tlie passage Isa. Ivi. 7 the words 
are as now given in the text. See Note on " robbers," Matt. xxi. 

19 Every evening. — By change of Gr. text for Auth., " when 
even was come." The same thing is said more distinctly in 
Luke xxi. 37. See marginal note. 

26 This verse is omitted by change in the Gr.text, having been intro- 
duced from Matt. vi. 14, where it stands as an exposition of the 
petition for forgiveness in the Lord's prayer. 

32 They feared the people. — The broken construction is another 
example of the abrupt style of St. Mark's Gospel. 


1 Another country. — Aiith., "a far country." See Notes on the 
parallel passage of Matt. xxi. 33, &c. 

13 That they might catch him in talk.— Auth., "in his 
words." The Gr. is not the same as that which is rendered 
" ensnare him in his talk," Matt. xxii. 15. 

14 Of a truth — i.e., assuredly. The Gr. phrase is elsewhere so 
rendered in Auth., as in Luke iv. 25; Acts iv. 27; x. 34, "of 

' a truth I perceive." Here all Engl, vei-sions have " in truth," or 
" truly," connected with "thou teachest." In Matt. xxii. 16, " thou 
teachest the word of God in truth," both the words and the order 
of the Gr. are different. 

26 In the place concerning the bush.— Wycl. "how in the 
book of Moses on the bush," following Yulg., in libro Moysi 
super rubuni, qiiomodo dixerit illi Deus. Auth., with Tynd., "in 
the bush;" the Gr. is, literally, " at the bush." The section of the 
book of Exodus, chap, iii., concerning the burning bush, was 
probably distinguished by that name, as the lamentation of 


David for Saul and Jonatlian is thouglit to have been called 
" tlie Bow," i.e., the song of the bow, from the mention made in 
it of Jonathan's bow, together with the introductory words in 
2 Sam. i. 18, " David bade them teach the chiklren of Judah 
the bow," the words " the use of" (Auth.) being an insertion of 
the translators by way of explanation. 

29 The Lord our God, the Lord is one.— This, the mar. 
ginal alternative, and the Auth., " the Lord our God is one Lord," 
are, each of them, admissible renderings of the Gr. The Auth. 
follows the text of the i^assage of Deut. 

32 Of a truth. Master, thou hast well said.— See Note on 
verse 14. Auth., " Well, Master, thou hast said the truth," 
making " Well, master," a separate exclamation. The sentence, 
however, is aU one : " well " is to be connected with " thou hast 
said;" "of a truth," as in other places, is a mode of asseveration. 

35 In the Holy Spirit.— Auth., "in the Holy Ghost." The 
name " Holy Ghost" is not used in the Engl, version of the Old 
Testament. We read in Ps. li., " Take not thy Holy Spirit from 
me " (Auth.) ; but the Holy Ghost in His divine personality was 
not yet revealed. 

38 Desire. — Auth., " love," which does not give the true sense of 


44 Superfluity. — Auth., " abmidance," which does not denote so 
clearly as does the Gr, the " having more than enough." 


4 Are all about to be accomplished.— Auth., " shall be 
accomplished." The inquiry relates not to the time of the 
accomplishment, but to the time when it is at hand. 

8 Travail. — Auth., " sorrow." See note on Matt. xxiv. 8. 

9 For a testimony unto them. — So all versions except Auth., 
" against them." By that testimony governors and kings, and 
their subjects, were to be converted ; and they who gave it, and 
laid down their lives ia confirmation of it, were emphatically 
called " martyrs," witnesses. 


10 Preaclied. — Autli., " published ; " the Gr., which properly 
meaus " to proclaim as a herald," is usually in the New Testament 
rendered " to preach." 

14 Standing where he ought not. — The participle is mascu- 
line, according to the change in tlie Gr. text made on the 
authority of the best MSS. ; and it refers probably to a statue of 
the Roman Emperor placed in the Temple. 

16 Cloke. — The long outer garment which the working man would 
leave at home when he went to his labour in the field. Compare 
Note on Matt. xxiv. 18. 

23 I have told you all things beforehand.— So Tynd. 
Auth., following Wycl. and Rhem., "I have foretold you all 
things," which does not give the meaning with its full emphasis. 
They have now been fore-warned, and must be on the watch for 
the fulfilment of his predictions. This is his answer to their 
question, verse 4 : " When shall these things be ? and what shall 
be the sign," &c. He does not say " when," but tells them what 
are " the signs." 

25 The stars shall be falling from heaven. — So Rhem 

The Gr. is iaovrai Tr'nrTovTes ; falling by a continued movement, 
not by a sudden convulsion of the firmament; dropping off 
like the petals of a flower, as Bengel suggests, referring to 
James i. 11, " the flower thereof falleth "(e'leTreo-e). Auth., "the stars 
of heaven shall fall." In the parallel passage of Matt. xxiv. 29 
the Gr. is different, and is correctly translated " the stars of 
heaven shall fall." 

The heavens. — In the latter part of the verse the plural 
is used, the singular " heaven " in tlie former. So "Wycl. only. 
The distinction is observed in Matt. xxiv. 29 (Auth.). See Note 
on Matt. iii. 17. 

26 In clouds.— So Wycl. only. "The clouds* (Auth.) woidd 
mean the ordinary clouds of nature. The Gr., by its indefinite- 
ness, " in clouds," leaves us at liberty to conceive a supernatural 
nimbus or glory. Nor are the words in Matt. xxiv. 30, " coming 
in the clouds of heaven," adverse to such a supposition, if we 
consider how much may be comprehended in the word "heaven." 
See Note on Matt. iii. 17. 

28 See Notes on Matt. xxiv. 32—36. 

34 It is as when a man.— The Gr., " as a man," is very abrupt, 
and needs an insertion of some words to complete the sentence. 

86 ST. MARK— XIV. 

Sojourning in another country.— Auth., '■ taking a far 
journey," following other English versions, and Viilg. peregre 
profectus. The Gr. signifies not foreign travel, but residence in 
a foreign land. 

35 The lord of the house. — So Wycl. and Tynd. An unusual 
expression, but quite appropriate when said by our Lord of Him- 
self, being " as a Son over God's house," Heb. iii. 6. Auth., 
with Tynd., "the master of the house." The phrase is found 
only in this parable, which is peculiar to St. Mark ; but similar 
to it are " the lord of the harvest" and " the lord of the vineyard " 
in the other Gospels. 


1 The unleavened bread. — Is not to be connected with " the 
feast of," as in Auth., " the feast of the Passover and of un- 
leavened bread." Wycl. and Tynd. follow the construction of 
the Gr., " Easter, and the days of sweet bread." 

With subtilty.— Auth., " by craft." See Matt. xxvi. 4 (Auth.) 

7 Te can do them good.— Not merely '■ ye may " (Auth.). 

8 She hath anointed my body aforehand.— The Gr. is 

literally, " She hath before-taken, anticipated (rrpoeAa/Se), to anoint." 
Auth., " She is come aforehand to anoint," following Vulg., 
prcevenit ungere, and so Rhem., " prevented," in the archaic 
Biblical sense. 

10 He that was one of the twelve.— For " one of the twelve " 
(Auth.), consequent on the insertion of the article before " one " 
in the Gr. text ; " the one of the twelve," apparently referring to 
the words of our Loi'd at verse 18, " One of you shall betray me," 
recorded also in Matt. xxn. 21, and John xiii. 21. 

14; My guest-chamber. — " My " is added by change in Gr. text. 
So Vulg., refectio mea. The Gr. is the same word that is ren- 
dered " inn," Luke ii. 7 : " there was no room for them in the inn." 
In 1 Samuel ix. 22 (LXX. version) it stands for the Hebrew word 
which in Auth. is " harbour," the room for the entertainment of 
guests. Rhem. here, "refectory." 

ST. MARK— XIV. 87 

15 Furnished and ready. — Auth. for " ready " has " prepared." 
The Gr. is iu both parts of the verse the same, adjectival iu the 
first place, the verb iu the second. The word rendered '• fur- 
nished " is properly " spread with carpets ; " the last thing done 
in preparing a room for guests was to cover the couches with 
carpets. {Field, Note.) 

18 Even he that eateth with me. — (Following the Gr. order.) 
These words apparently are added to designate particularly that 
"one of them" who was to betray him. Autli., "one of you 
that eateth with me shall betray me." 

19 And another said, Is it I ? — (Auth.) Omitted by change iu Gr. 
text. The changes in the verses 22, 23 are due to the same 

25 I will no more drink.— So Wycl. and Rhem., following 
Vulg., jam non bibam. Auth., with Tynd., " I Avill drhik no 
more of." Bytliis return to the collocation of the Gr., "no 
more " is connected exclusively A^-ith the verb to which it pro- 
perly belongs. 

80 Thou, to-day . . . — The emphatic " thou " is added by 
change in the Gr. text. It is, however, given in Vulg., tu, 
hodie, in node hdc. 

Even this night. — AU English versions, " even iu this night." 
In is omitted by change in Gr. text. The terrible concise- 
ness of the sentence might have been still more nearly given 
by the omission of the inserted even, "thou to-day, this 
night, &c." 

36 Kemove. — The Gr. word, literally " make it pass by," is only 
found twice in the New Testament — here, and in tlie parallel 
passage of Luke xxii. 42, where it is " remove " iu Auth. 

38 Willing.— Auth., "ready." The same word is rendered 
" willing " in Matt. xxvi. 41. 

49 But this is done that the Scriptures might be fulfilled. 

— So Wycl. and Tynd., following Vulg. The Gr. is literally 
" but that the Scriptures may be fulfilled." Auth., " but the 
Scriptures must be fulfilled." 

54 In the light of the fire.— Avdh., "at the fire." The Gr. is 
wphs t5 (pws. This correction is of importance, explaining that 
by coming to the fire to warm himself he became exposed to re- 
cognition from the light of the fire falling upon him. The looser 
translation which nms through the English versions came from 
Vulg., sedebat ad ignem et califaciebai se. 

88 ST. MARK— XV. 

65 Received Mm.— By cliauge of Gr. text for "struck him" 
(Auth.), signifying that with this wanton violence the officers of 
the court took him again into their custody after his arraignment 
before the high priest. 

69 The maid— i.e., the same person as before. All English ver- 
sions, " a maid," overlooking the article in the Gr. Several 
changes in this and the two following verses due to changes 
in the Gr. text. 

72 When he thought thereon.— See margin. Another inter- 
pretation, which has much to be said for it, is that of Theophylact, 
" he covered his head and wept." This rendering of iirt&aAciv is 
supported with much learning by Dr. Field ; and it introduces an 
additional action on the part of St. Peter, and is therefore more 
graphic than the other renderings. 


6 No more answered anything. — So. Wycl. and Rhem., after 
Vulg., amplius nihil respondit. The Gr. is the same, oir/ceVt, as 
at chap. xiv. 25, "I will no more drink," &c., " no more" — i.e., not 
as he had answered Pilate when questioned by him (verse 2). 
Auth., " yet answered nothing," which would mean, " notwith- 
standing the appeal made to him by PUate " in verse 4. This, 
though also true, is not the meaning conveyed by the Gr. 

7 With him — .(Auth.) Is omitted by change of Gr. text. The 
omission is in this respect a gain, that the clause, " who liad com- 
mitted murder," has not the appearance of refening to Barabbas, 
as it has in the Auth. 

8 Went up — i.e„ to the Prsetorium, the governor's palace. So 
Vulg. Anth., with Tynd., follows another reading of the Gr. 
text, " crying out." 

21 Compel to go. — Compare Note on Matt, xxvii. 31. 

23 They offered him.— The verb is the same as that rendered 
" gave " in Matt. xxAdi. 34 ; but the tense is different. 

32 The Christ. — He had been condemned before Caiaphas for 
claiming to be the Christ, before Pilate for asserting that he was 
the king of the Jews. The chief priests combine the two charges. 

ST. MARK— XVI. 89 

Pilate in the superscription recognised only tliat of which he had 
cognisance himself. 

39 Which stood by.— Anth., " which stood." The Gr. requires 
this addition. The centurion stood near, and in front of Him. 

43 A councillor of honourable estate.— Auth., " an honour- 
able counsellor." The Gr. word does not refer to the personal 
character, but to the condition in life of him or her whom it de- 
scribes. Compare Acts xiii. 50 ; xvii. 12. 

Looking for, — Auth., "waiting for." The same word is used 
of Simeon and Anna in Luke ii. 25, 38, and in the latter place is 
rendered " looking for " in Auth., as it is here by Tynd. 

Boldly went in ... . and.— Auth., '' went in boldly." 
This slight inversion of the order shows that " boldly " apj)lies in 
the Gr. to the whole action of Joseph, and not to his " going in " 
only. It would perhaps be more exactly rendered " took courage, 
and went in unto Pilate." 

45 Corpse. — For Auth., " body," by change in Gr. text (irrwyua for 
<ra)fj.a). The same word is used with respect to the body of St. 
John the Baptist (chap. vi. 29). In this place, harshly as it 
sounds in our ears, it is appropriate, in its sense of " dead body " 
(properly caro casa, "carcase "), as there has just been a question 
as to the life being extinct. In the next verse, when the body 
has been given over to the care of Joseph, the Evangelist speaks 
not of " it," but of " Him." We may suppose the former word 
to have been that of Pilate and his soldiers, the latter that of 
Joseph and Nicodemus. 

46 A linen cloth.— So Wycl. and TjTid. The Gr., sindon, is so 
rendered in Auth. at Matt, xxvii. 59 ; here, " fine linen." 

Tomb. — Auth., " sepulchre." Compare Notes on Matt, xxvii. 


2 When the sun was riseni— So "Wycl. and Tynd. Vulg., 
orto jam sole. The verb is in the past tense (the aorist). Auth., 
" was rising." 

4 Rolled back.— For Auth., " rolled away," by change in Gr. text. 

90 ST. MARK— XVI. 

Arrayed in a white robe. — Auth., " a loug wliite garment." 
The Gr. (stole) is translated "robe" in Luke xv. 22, and often 
in the Apocalypse. 

6 Trembling and astonishment had come upon them. 

— So Rbem., preserving the Biblical phrase, following Vulg., 
invaserat enivi eas timor et pavor. Auth., with Tynd., " they 
trembled and were amazed." 

11 Disbelieved. — Auth., "believed not." Here and in verse 16 
the Gr. hincrriu} is rendered "to disbelieve," implying the reject- 
ion of a statement as incredible — a stronger expression than ovk 
(TTlffTivffav, " believed not," which implies incredulity not amount- 
ing to absolute rejection. The eleven utterly disbelieved the first 
story which reached them, the report of Mary Magdalene (verse 
11). It seemed to them as an idle tale (Luke xxiv. 11). The nan-a- 
tive of the two disciples returning from Emmaus was told them 
afterwards, but not even that was believed by them ; they did not 
" disbelieve," but they " believed not." 

12 He was manifested.— So WycL, " was showed," following 
Vnlg., ostensus est. Auth., with Tynd., " appeared," which an- 
swers to several Gr. words ; but (pavip6u in Auth. is usually and 
properly rendered " to manifest," as in chap. iv. 22. By showing 
himself after his resurrection he "manifested forth his glory," as 
he did by his first miracle at the beginning of his ministry 
(John ii. 11). 

14 Unto the eleven themselves. — Auth. omits " themselves," 
following Vulg., illis (not ipsis) anclecim. 

16 To the whole creation. — This is the coiTect rendering of 
Kricris, as in Auth. (cliaps. x. 6 ; xiii. 19). In the Epistles of St. 
Paul — where, as in this place, it denotes not the creative act, but 
the i-esult of it, the created world — this word is in Auth. trans, 
lated " creature," to the serious injury of the sense. The Vulg. 
in all such cases has creatura, which means any created being, 
animate or inanimate. Hence Wycl. in this place, "to each 
creature." Tynd., " to all creatures." The Gr. is irda-ri rrj kt'ktu. 

20 Confirming the word by the signs that followed.— The 

change is necessary to give expression to the article. Tlius was 
fulfilled the promise, " these signs shall follow them that believe " 
(verse 17) 




1 To draw np. — Autli., " to set forth in order." Tyud. " to 
compile." Vulg., orditiare. The Gr. does uot occur else- 
where in the New Testament. "Set in order" is the rendering 
of other words: "draw up" approves itself here as express- 
ing the same work, by almost the same figiure of speech as tlie 
Gr., both words containing the idea of " marshalling " the succes- 
sive details, the order of march, so to speak, of a continuous 

A narrative. — So Rhcm. after Yulg., narrationem. Auth. 
following Cranm., " a declaration." Tyud., " ati-eatise." Genev., 
" to write a history." Though the Gr. has other derivative senses, 
its proper meaning, as defined by Plato, is " the relating of 
events past, present, or to come." 

Which, have been fulfilled. — The Gr., when used in reference 
to things, means " fully accomj)lished, or established," as in 2 Tim. 
iv. 5 ; when referring to persons, " filled full of knowledge or 
assurance," as in Rom. iv. 21. Here the Vulg. has coonpletce, 
which is correctly followed by Rhem., "accomplished ; " Tynd., 
" which are siu'ely known," whence Auth., " surely believed." 

3 Having traced the course of all things.— The proper 
meaning of the Gr. is " to accompany side by side." " I have 
walked by the side of the stream, as it were, from the foimtain 
head " (Woi'dsworth). Hence, generally, " to follow," as in 
Mark xvi. 17, " These signs shall foUow them that believe." 
2 Tim. iii. 10. Auth., "Having had pei'fect understanding of 
all things from the very first," which points not so much to the 
close companionship as to the ultimate knowledge resulting from 
it. The previous versions vary much in their treatment of this 

92 ST. LUKE— I. 

word, but ill general adopt tlie interpretation, " as soon as I bad 

searched out diligently." Vulg., assecuto omnia a principio 


Accurately. — E-atlier than Auth., " diligently." See Note on 

Matt. ii. 7. 

It is not unlikely that St. Luke, a Hellenistic Jew, and a native 
of Antioch a centre of Grecian culture, may have been acquainted, 
as St. Paul appears to have been, with some of the masterpieces 
of classical literature ; and in that case, the resemblance may not 
have been accidental which is traced between the opening verses 
of his Gospel and a sentence in the introduction to the histoiy of 
Thucydides : " I lived through the whole of the war, and I took 
great pains to make out the exact truth." (Jowett's translation.) 

4 Wherein thou wast instructed.— Or, "ivhich thou ivast 
taught hy word of inoiith." This Marginal rendering is added 
because the proper meaning of the Gr., which under the form 
of " catechize," we have in EngHsh, is " to iustruct orally ; " and if 
that sense be given to it here, St. Luke's purpose would appear 
to be that his frieud Theophilus should have exact iuformation in 
writing of the things which had already been taught him less 
consecutively, or with less precision, in a colloquial way. But in 
other places of the New Testament the word means simply " to 
iustinict;" and it is so used by St. Luke himself, Acts xviii. 25, 
xxi. 21, 24. 

5 He had a wife.— For Auth., " his wife was" by change iu 
Gr. text, avT((i for auToD. 

9 To enter .... and burn incense. — This inversion of the 
Gr. order gives the sense of the Gr. better than Auth., " to burn 
incense when he entered." 

13 Supplication. — The word in Gr. is not that which is commonly 
used for " prayer " (Auth.). 

17 Shall go before his face. — This lively Hebraism is not 
given in any Engl, version except Genev., "go before in his 

To loalk in. — The insertion appears to be necessary, the pre- 
position in the Gr. beiug " in," not " to," as in. the preceding 

To make ready for the Lord a people prepared for 
him. — This appears to be the full meaning of the Gr., and it is 
after the manner of St. Luke to place a word, as here, " for the 
Lord," between two others, with either or both of which it may 
be connected. Comp. Acts i. 2. 

ST. LUKE— I. 93 

19 To bring thee these good tidings.—" To bring " tidings 
is a move appropriate and usual phrase than " to show " ( Auth.) ; 
and "good" tidings is more close to the Gr. than "glad" 

The Gr. word, in Engl. " to evangelize," is used more than twenty- 
times in St. Liike's Gospel and the Acts, and is one of the many- 
words which remind us of his intimate acquaintance with St. 
Paul, as one of the fellow-travellers of the Apostle. It is found 
in no other Gospel excei:)t that of St. Matthew, which has it 
once in a passive sense, and once only in the Epistles of St. Peter, 
while it is of frequent ocem-rence in the Epistles of St. Paul 
(Wordsworth). On the other hand, the cognate noun " evan- 
gelion," "gospel," though often used by St. Matthew and St. 
Mark, is not in the Gospels of St. Luke and St. John, and is 
only twice used in the Acts, while it is a very frequent word with 
St. Paul. 

20 Silent. — All Engl, versions " dumb," the ordinary rendering of 
another word, KoxpSs, which follows in verse 22. 

22 He continued making signs.— Auth., " he beckoned." The 
word here used does not occur elsewhere, and requires a different 
rendering from " beckon," which in Auth. answers to several 
words in the original. In the Gr. the continued action is denoted 
by "was " with the participle, "was making signs." 

27 Betrothed. — Auth., following Tynd. and Cranm., " espoused." 
See note on Matt. i. 18. 

28 The Marginal note shows that the words " Blessed art thou 
among women," which are in the text of verse 42, are not genuine 
here, though supported here also by many ancient authorities. 
At the beginning of the next verse there is another change of 
reading in the Gr. text. 

30 Favour. — Gr., X"/"^ (charis) ; the same word is often translated 
" grace." 

35 Which is to be born.—" Of thee " (Auth.) is omitted by 
change in the Gr. text. 

37 For no word from God shall be void of power.— This 

is the literal rendering of tlie Gr. ; " from God" being substituted 
for " with God," by change in Gr. text. Auth. (following Tjoid.), 
" for with God nothing shall be impossible," making " no word " 
to be the same as " no thing," and rendering tiie Gr. aSwaTi^crei 
("without active power"), which in connection ^vit]l "word "' is 
appropriate and expressive, by " impossible," wliich is suitable to 

94 ST. LUKE— I. 

"thing," but not to a "-vrord." The Gr. for " wovcl " (^^/wo) hero 
used by the angel, is in the next verse repeated by Mary. 

38 The handmaid. — The Gr., as noticed in the margin, is "bond- 
maid," the feminine of " bond-servant," slave (SoivAtj), and expresses 
the absolute obedience of the Blessed Virgin more strongly than 
the word which all the English versions have, and which has be- 
come in this place too sacred to be disturbed, " handmaid." 

42 She lifted tip her voice. — The Gr. which occurs nowhere 
else in the New Testament, properly is " to shout," not as Auth., 
to " speak." Previous versions have " cried ; " YiJg., exclamavit. 

With a loud ctry. — By change of Gr. text for " with a loud 
voice" (Auth.). The salutation of Elizabeth was preceded by a 
loud exclamation of joy. 

52 He hath put down princes from their thrones. — Auth. 

with Tynd., " he hath put down the mighty from their seats." 
The Gr. Qp6vos, "thronos," is almost always '-throne," in Auth.; 
and the Gr. for "the mighty" (Auth.), wliich is of rai'e occur- 
rence, means " one endued with princely power," and is ren- 
dered "potentate" in 1 Tim. vi. 15. 

54 That he might remember mercy.— So (in part), Genev., 
"that he might be mindful," &c. ; the construction of the Gr. 
showing the p^irpose of his helping Israel. Auth., " in remem- 
brance of his mercy." His is not in the Gr., as is shown by the 
italics in Auth. 

55 Toward. — For Auth., '• to ; " making it plain, as it is in the Gr.. 
that the words which follow are not to be connected with those 
which immediately precede. The meaning is not " as he spake to 
our fathers, to Abraham," &c., but " that he might remember 
mprcy toward Abraham," &c. 

58 Had magnified his mercy towards her.— So Wycl. and 
Rhem. The word in the Gr. is the same tliat is used at the be. 
ginning of the Magnificat. Losing sight of this connection, the 
Auth. turns the Gr. by the elegant paraphrase, " had showed 
gi-eat mercy upon her" (following Tynd.) 

59 They would have called him. — To give the inchoate sense 
conveyed by the imperfect tense of the Gr. verb, " they were for 
calling her." All English versions, " they called him." 

63 A writing tablet expresses the Gr. better than Auth. (with 
TjTid.), " a table." The latter word, however, iu old English had 
the same meaning, as we are reminded by the two "tables" of 
stone in Exodus ; and this is the meaning of the Latin idbula. 

ST. LUKE— II. 95 

66 What then shall this child be?— The question was, 
" What wiU he be in the future, when he is a man ? " not as Auth., 
following Wycl. and Tynd., " what manner of child shall he be ? " 
Vulg., Quis, putas, puer iste erit ? 

68 Wrought redemption.— So Wycl. and Rhem., after Vulg. ; 
Auth., with Tynd., " redeemed." . The Gr. noiin is projjerly " a 
ransommg," that being in Old Testament phrase the mode of de- 
noting "deliverance," primarily where a price was paid, and 
specially from bondage, then from sin or any evil, with or without 

71 Salvation from. — Taking up the word from verse 69. So 
Wycl. ("health from") and Rhem., after Yulg. Auth., with 
TjTid., " that we shoidd be saved." 

72 To show mercy towards our fathers.— Auth., with 
Tynd., " to perform the mercy promised to ovu' fathers." The 
Gr. is literally, " to do, or work mercy, with our fathers ; " and 
so Wycl. and Rhem., following Yulg. There is here neither 
the definite article nor any suggestion, as there is in the Magni- 
ficat, that the mercy had been "promised." 

75 All our days.— For Auth., "all the days of our life," by 
change in Gr. text. 


1 The world. — The Gr., meaning properly " the inhabited earth.'" 
that part of the world which was " dwelt in " by settled inhabit- 
ants, not by nomad tribes, was the usual phi'ase designating the 
Roman Empire ; and from it in early Christian times the word 
oecumenical was derived, as a description of those Church Councils 
which were attended by representatives from every province 
of the Empire. 

Enrolled. — So Rhem. ; Auth., following Tynd., "taxed ; " Yulg., 
ut describeretur. The enrolment appears to have been made for, 
the purpose of ascertaining the population of the Empire — a 
census; and there is no mention of any taxing connected 
with it. 

2 This was the first enrolment made.— Auth., " this taxing 

96 ST. LUKE— II. 

was first made." If " first " were to be taken as an adverb, the 
Gr, should be not Trpcorrj, as it is, but irpooroi/. St. Luke, in Acts v. 
37, refers to another enrolment, which took place ten years after- 
wards, in the time of the same governor, Quirinius : and he dis- 
tinguishes the earlier from the later, by saying that this was the 
" first " eni'olment, the eai'lier of the two, made, &c. 

Quirinius. — A Latin name, given in Auth., more nearly as it 
was represented in Gr., " Cyrenius." 

4 Family.— So Rhem. with Yulg. Auth., with Tynd., " lineage." 
"We have the same Gr. in Ephes. iii. 15, " Of whom every family 
in heaven and earth is called." 

11 Christ the Lord.— Margin, " Or Anointed Lord. Tlie Mar. 
ginal note is appended, because neither of the words in the Gr. 
has the definite article, and therefoi'e " Christ " might ho under- 
stood in its proper meaning, " anointed," not "the Messiah." 
This, however, is noticed as a possible, not as a j)robablo, 

li And on earth peace among men in whom he is well 
pleased. — With two marginal notes (1) explaining that the Gr. 
of the words following " peace " is literally " among men of good 
pleasure" {i.e., of God's good pleasure) ; (2) showing that there 
is another reading of the Gr. text, which is followed by Auth., 
after Tjoid., " peace, goodwill {i.e., God's good\vill) among men." 
The difference in the Gr. text consists in the addition of a 
single letter, by which "good pleasure" becomes the genitive in- 
stead of the nominative case. The genitive is supported by the 
text of the three best MSS. : — the Sinaitie, the Vatican, and the 
Alexandrine; by the general testimony of the Latin Fathers, 
liturgies, and versions ; and by a passage of the anteniceue Gr. 
father, Origen; the nominative is found in uncial MSS. of iuferio.- 
though good authority, and in the Fathers and versions of the 
Eastern Church. The evidence as to text is amply discussed in 
the second volume of Westcott and Hort's Greek Testament. 

The change of the text, slight as it is, involves a great change of 
rendering and interpretation, and throws some obscurity on one 
of the most joyous passages in the Bible. Yet even the loss of 
a familiar rhythm and a dehglitful assurance may be more than 
compensated by the belief that we know better than we did what 
was the real utterance of the heavenly host, and the exact mean- 
ing of the joyful tidings which they proclaimed. And we may 
remember tliat by accepting it we are only adopting the form 
which has always been current in the version and liturgy of 
the Western Church. " On earth peace among men in whom ho 

ST. LUKE— II. 97 

is well pleased " — i.e., God's peace auioug all to Avliom tliefse glad 
tidiugs shall come, and who, iu recemug them, become his dear 
childreu, the objects of his good pleasure. 

21 Which, was so called. — Auth., for variation, has "so named." 
The Gr. has the same word iu both parts of the sentence. 

22 The days of their purification.— So Tynd. and Cranui. 
Auth., with Vulg., WycL, and Rhem., " her." Tlic difference 
arises out of a difference in the Gr. text. According to the read- 
ing, " their purification," the infant Saviour is associated with 
his Mother in the cei*emony of purification prescribed by the law 
of Moses, and begins, even from his bii-th, '"to fulfil all righteous- 

25 Holy Spirit.— For Auth., " Holy Ghost," because "the Spirit" 
is the word which must of necessity be used in verse 27, and 
there should be no possibility of doubting whether the same 
Divine Being, the Person of the Godhead, is signified in both 
verses. See Note on Matt. i. 22. 

29 O Lord. — The Gr. is not Kyrie, but Despota, "' Master," which 
is unusual in an address to God, but appropriate here, as the 
correlative of " bond-servant," or " slave " [dov\ov), the term 
which Simeon applies to himself. 

32 For revelation to the Gentiles.— So Rhem., " to the reve- 
lation of the Gentiles," following Vulg. The Gr. is apocalypsis. 
Auth., " a light to lighten," as if rendering a verb cognate to the 
noun (pS>s (phos). 

33 His father. — As in verse 48, by change of Gr. text for 
*' Joseph " (Auth.). 

37 Even for. — By change of Gr. text (ews foi ir). Auth., " of 
about," pointing to the extraordinary length of her widowhood. 

"Worshipping.— Auth., "but served." The Gr. is a par- 
ticiple of XuTpevai, which is properly, as used in the New Testa- 
ment, to serve God by worship or sacrifice. 

38 Coming up at that very hour. — Auth., "coming in that 
instant." The Gr. is the usual word for " hour." 

40 In spirit. — (Auth.) Omitted by change of Gr. text,. 

43 Boy. — He is now no longer called ' ■ {.•Inld'"' (iraihioy), as He luis 
been prior to his first going up to Jerusalem (see verse 40), but 
Ta7s, "boy." Tlie transition from childhood to boyhood, wliieh 
was marked outwardly about the age of twelve by change of dress, 
and which is indicated by this change in the Greek, seems 

98 ST. LUKE— II. 

proijerly to be observed here in the English, tliough in other 
places the Gr. iraTs may be sufficiently rendered "child." 

47, 48 Amazed . . . astonished, — These changes are made 
in order to keep for each of the two Gr. words the rendering 
which it has in other places. 

49 In my Father's house.— Auth., following Tynd., "about my 
Father's business." Wycl. is literal, but ambiguous, " in those 
things that be of my father," as Yvlg. in his quce patris mei 
sunt. The Gr. is iv to7$ toC irarpSs fj.ov. In arriving at their 
decision on this passage, the Revisers were much influenced by 
a learned dissertation of Dr. Field, of Norwich, which he printed 
and circulated among them, and which it is to be hoped he will 
see fit to publish. From tliis it appears that the phrase is capa- 
ble of either interpretation, but far more likely to have been 
used by our Lord in the sense which has been adopted — 1st, 
because rd nvos, which properly means a person's things or 
belongings, came to be used specially of his house ; as in other 
languages, ancient and modern, the word house is omitted in 
colloquial speech — e.g., " I am going to my father's." 2nd, 
because clear examples of iv to7s nvos thai, " to be in a person's 
house," are found in the LXX. version of the Old Testament, as 
well as in classical and patristic Gi*. Compare Esther vii. 9, Job 
"viii. 19, Gen. xli. 51, with the Hebrew. See also John xiv. 32, 
and Acts xxi. 6., where the plural adjective is used, ri tSta, for 
his or their home. On the other hand, no example has been pro- 
duced in classical or biblical Gr. of the entire phrase eli/ai eV to7s 
Ttvos, "to be about a person's business; " the nearest approach to 
it in the New Testament is 1 Tim. iv. 15, ff tovtois tadi, " Give 
thyself Avholly to these things." 3rdly, as to the ancient versions, 
the Vulg., Arabic, and Ethioijic are not decisive either way; the 
Syriac is clear for "in the hoixse of my Father." Of Gr. Com- 
mentators, Origen of the 3rd century, Epiphaniiis of tlie 4th, 
Theodoret of the 5th, Theophylact of the 11th, and Euthymius 
of the 12th, are authorities in favour of this, the local sense. 

62 Advanced. — Auth., " increased," following Tynd. and Genev. ; 
Wycl., "profit etl; " Rhem., " proceeded." The proper meaning 
of the Gr. is "to advance," to "make progress," and it is so 
rendered in other places, as Rom. xiii. 12, "the night is far 
spent" (Auth.), and the cognate noun is in Phil. 1. 12, "the fur- 
therance " of the gospel (Auth.) 

Stature. — Margin, " Or age." The Gr. {vXiKla) bears both mean, 
ings, and is here rendered " a^e " in all the earlier versions 
(following Vulg., oetate), except Genev., which has "stature," from 
Beza, staturd. " Age " would not be inappropriate in this place, 

ST. LUKE— III. 99 

as it includes " stature ; " but in some j)assages it could not well 
be so translated, especially in chap. xii. 25 of this Gospel, '' wliicli 
of you can add one cubit to his stature ? " and xix. 3, Zacchseus 
was " little of stature." These passages, occurring in this Gospel, 
appear to decide the meaning here. 


3 Compare Notes on the parallel passage o£ Matt. iii. 3, &c. 

1-i Soldiers also asked him. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., 
following Tyud., "the soldiers also demanded of him." The 
word " demand," according to its usage in the Authorised Yersion 
of both the Old and New Testaments, has a peremptory signifi- 
cance, which might fittingly apply to the deportment of Roman 
soldiers in tlieir intercourse with a Jew ; but it is not implied in 
the Gr., eTrTjpoJTcoi/. Compare Matt. ii. 4, and Note there. 

15 Reasoned. — The Gr. usually has this meaning, and denotes a 
more active consideration than is implied by " mused " (Auth., 
foUomug Cranm. and Genev.) Vulg., cogitantibus omnibus. 

17 Throughly to cleanse.— For Auth., " and he will thoroughly 
pm-ge ; " by change of Gr. text from future to infinitive. 

23 When he began to teach, was, &c. — Auth., " began to be 
about thirty years of age," following Cranm. and Genev. The 
Gr. may be rendered literally, "was, when he began, of about 
thirty years," and so Tynd. The proper Avord to be supplied after 
"began" is "to teach," as apj)ears from other places in which 
St. Luke speaks of our Lord's commencement of his ministry, as 
Acts i. 1., " all that Jesus began both to do and teach, until the 
day," &c., and i. 22 ; and here the Evangelist evidently has in 
view the time when, having been bapti/.ed by John, and having 
received the unction of the Holy Ghost, He entered on his public 

100 ST. LUKE— IV. 


1 In the wilderness. — For " iuto " (Auth.) by cliauge of Gr. 
text, tlie true reading liaviiig probably been altered in order to 
assimilate this passage to Matt. iv. 1. The verb here is in the 
imperfect, denoting a continuance of the leading, not in the 
aorist, denoting a finished act, as in Matt. iv. 1. Combining tlie 
two accounts, therefore, we learn that the Lord was led up into the 
wilderness to be tempted, and that while He was there the Divine 
Comforter continued to be his leader and guide throughout the 
temptation ; and by liis example we may be encouraged to believe 
that He who brings us into trial and temptation -will in like 
manner continue mth us while it lasts, and bring us out of it 
safely, if we will follow his guidance. 

4, 5, 8. The words omitted in these verses, but given in Auth., 
were probably inserted in some MSS. from St. Matt, with the 
purj)o^e of assimilation. See Note above on verse 1, and Notes on 
the parallel passage of Matt. iv. 1, &c. 

10 To guard thee. — Auth., " to keep thee." The Gr. signifies 
properly " to guard as a sentinel." Such guards were the 
" keepers " of Peter in the prison, Acts xii. 6, 19. 

18 To preach good tidings. — The passage of Isaiah is so rendered 
iu the Auth. (chap. Ixi. 1) ; and the word, to " evangelize," would 
not convey to the hearers of our Lord the same meaning wliich 
" to preach the gosi^el " now conveys to us, or which it did j)ro- 
bably convey, when He had finished His work to those who heard 
His Apostles, when they went forth " to preach the gospel to the 
whole creation " (Mark xvi. 15). There is a propriety, therefore, in 
rendering the Gr., ^<rav evayye\iC6fj.(voi, " they preached the 
gospel," in Acts xiv. 7, though that i-endering would be an ana- 
chronism at this early period of the Lord's ministry. 

To heal the broken-hearted. — (Auth.), omitted by change in Gr. 

18, 19 To proclaim. — ^Auth., " to preach." The Gr., usually so 
translated iu Aiith.,is properly to "proclaim as a herald." 

20 The attendant. — ^Auth., " the minister," which in this place 
might be supposed to mean the " ofiiciating minister " of the 

22 The words of grace. — i.e., of divine grace. So Wycl. and 
Rhem. ; Yulg., verbis gratice. Auth., with T^Tid., '" gracious words " 
■which does not to a modern English ear denote the Divine source 

ST. LUKE— I Y. ml 

of the loving-kindness that spake in his words. The Gv., x<*P'J, 
charis, " grace," and its cognate verb, so frequently used by St. 
Luke and St. Pavd, are not found in the Gospels of St. Matthew 
and St. Mark, and charis, the noun, is found once only iu the 
Gospel of St. John (i. 14), and once in his second Epistle, 
whereas it is a contiuually-recnrring word in St. Peter's first 

24 Acceptable.— Auth., with Tynd., " accepted," following Yulg., 
acceptus. The Gr. is not a participle, but a verbal adjective of 
the form represented by the Latin termination -&i?is, and the 

29 Cast him forth.— Auth., " thrust him out." The Gr. does 
not necessarily imply tlie use of violence. The word at the end 
of the sentence, literally " to throw, or cast headlong," does not 
occur elsewhere in the New Testament. 

32 His word was with authority. — As it is said at the end of 
the Sermon on the Mount, Matt. vii. 29, " He taught them as one 
having authority." See also verse 36 of this chap. Auth., "with 

36 Amazement came upon alL— Auth., '-they were all amazed." 
Tynd. and Rhem., " fear came upon all." The phrase is charac- 
teristic of St. Luke. Comp. chap. i. 65. 

What is this word?— So Wycl., following Yulg., quod est 
hoc verbum ? Autli., " What a word is this ! " The Gr. is not an 
exclamation prompted by their amazement, but a question, "What 
is the meaning of this word ? " 

38 Holden.— Auth., " taken." See note on Matt. iv. 24. 

41 Christ. — (Auth.), omitted by change in Gr. text. 

42 Would have stayed him. — The Gr. verb is in the imperfect 
tense. Auth., " stayed him," which, as the next Averse shows, they 
did not succeed in doing. See note on chap. i. 59. 

43 The good tidings.— See note on verse 18. 

102 ST. LUKE— Y. 


3 Asked him. — Antli., with Wycl. and Tynd., "prayed him." 

The Gr. is properly to " ask a question," but in the New Testa- 
ment more often " to make a request." The one sense, by an 
easy transition, leads to the other, as the case has been with our 
word " to ask." The request would probably be made, by way of 
courtesy, in an interrogative form, as when we say, " will you 
have the kindness to do so-and-so?" especially would the request 
be made in this form, where the person making it was equal or 
superior to the person addressed. St. John alone uses it of 
prayer made to God, and he only in the case of the co-equal Son 
addressing the Father. Comp. John xiv. 16 ; xvi. 26. 

Put out. — Auth., following Tynd., " thrust out," but in verse 4, 
"launch out." The Gr. is the same in both places, and as 
applied to a vessel means " put out from the shore to the sea." 

6 Their nets were breaking. — i.e., began to break, the im- 
perfect tense. Auth., following Tynd., " their nets brake," which 
would imply the actual bursting of tlie nets, and escape of fish. 
In the next verse the inchoate meaning of the present tense of the 
verb is well expressed by Auth., " they began to sink." 

10 Thou shalt catch men. — With marginal note, " Gr. tahe olive." 
The words in Gr. are in literal meaning and order as follows : 
" Henceforth men shalt thou be catching alive." The use of the 
words " catch alive" in this place by the Lord of life is probably 
not without its significance. Archbishop Trench (" On the 
Miracles," p. 13-i) enlarges on the thought, explaining the word to 
'mean " thou shalt catch men and take them for life, and not for 
death " ; and he observes that our Lord thus by anticipation 
" tui'us the edge of Julian's malignant sneer, who said the 
Galilean might well call his apostles fishers, for tliey drew their 
victims from the waters in which they lived and were free, and 
delivered them over to an element in which they could not 
breathe, and must presently expire." 

12 In one of the cities — i.e., of Galilee. So Wycl. and Rhem., 
following Vulg., and in accordance with the Gr. Auth., follow- 
ing Tynd., " in a certain city.'' In like manner at verse 17, " On 
one of those days," i.e., at that time, instead of Auth., " on 
a certain day," which leaves the time entirely indefinite. 

13 Be thou made clean. — Auth., " Be thou clean." The Gr. is 
the same verb, in the j)assive voice, as in the last verse, " thou 
canst make me clean." 

ST. LUKE— YI. 103 

17 It came to pass . . . that he was teaching, and there 
were. — Auth., " it came to pass ... as he was teaching, that 
there wei-e." The Gr. is literally, " it came to pass . . . and lie 
was teaching, and there were ; " the use of " and " as the con- 
necting link, instead of " that," being a characteristic of St. 
Luke's style. Comp. chap. "di. 37. 

Was with him to heal. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., 
" was present to heal them." 

26 Amazement took hold on all.— Auth., " they were all 
amazed." Comp. chap. iv. 36, and note there. It is by a lively 
figure of speech that we regard the state of our minds as ob- 
jective, e.g., "a panic seized them." ''I was struck with such 
a thought ; " "I feU into a passion." It is well to be made aware 
that this mode of speaking is not a thing of yesterday, but at 
least as ancient as the first age of the Gospel. 

27 At the place of toll.— Comp. Matt. ix. 9, and note there. 

36 In this verse the Auth. has been altered in several particulars, 
the chief being due to the addition of "rendeth" in the Gr. 
text, making the piece put upon the old garment to be a piece 
rent from the new one : if this be done, a rent is made in the new, 
and the old has an unseemly patch. " He will rend the new " is 
required alike by the Gr. and by the sense, instead of "the new 
maketh a rent " (Auth.) : with this change the meaning of the 
sentence, which in the Auth. is obscure, becomes clear. See Notes 
on the parallel passage of St. Matt. ix. 16. 

38 " And both are preserved." — (Auth.), omitted by change in Gr. 
text ; probably interpolated from Matt. ix. 9. 


7 Might find how to accuse him.— For Auth., " might find 
an accusation against Him." 

9 To do harm. — See note on Matt. xii. 10. 

17 A level place. — Auth., " the plain." The Gr. indicates that 
it was not the plain lying at the foot of the mountains, but a 
plateau or level place to which they came in the descent ; and so 

104 ST. LUKE— VI. 

it is in some of tlie older Engl, versions : "Wycl., " a fieldy 
place " ; Tynd., " the plain field " ; Genev., " the champain 
country " ; Rhem., " a plain place " ; Vulg., in loco cawpestri. 

19 Power.— An th., " virtue,'' and so in chap. viii. 46. Comp. Note 
on Mark v. 30. 

34 To receive again as nmch. — i.e., to receive back as much. 
• Auth., " to receive as much again," which now is in colloquial 

langixage the same as " to receive twice as much." 

35 Wever despairing.— All Engl, versions, '• hoping for nothing 
again." Yulg., nihil inde sperantes. This agrees well with the 
context, but is not according to the meaning of the Gr. aTreK-rri^u), 
as used in classical wi-iters, and in the Apocrypha, " to give up 
hope." The word does not occur again in the New Testament. 
As it stands, it gives this sense, " Lend, and though appearances 
may be unfavourable, despair not of being repaid ; " because you 
are lending, not to man only, but to the Lord, who will assm-edly 
repay what you have laid out. 

37 Release, and ye sliall be released.— So Yulg., dimittite 
et dimittemini. All Engl, versions, " Forgive, and ye shall be 
forgiven." The Gr., airoAvw, never has the sense of " forgive " 
in the New Testament. It is often used, and always signifies 
"let go," " release," as in reference to Barabbas, especially in the 
Gospel of St. Luke and the Acts, in both of which books it 
frequently occurs. 

41 Considerest.— So Tynd. Auth., " perceivest," but "con- 
siderest " in the parallel passage of St. Matt. \\i. 3, where see 

44 Each, tree is known by its own fruit.— Auth., "cA-ery 
tree." " Each " is the better rendering of the Gr. tKaa-Tos, and 
" every " of irus, as in verse 47. Comp. Matt. xv. 13 (Auth.) 
" Every tree that my Father hath not planted," &c. 

48 Digged, and went deep.— AU Engl, versions " digged 
deep," following Vulg., fodit in altum. In the Gr. there are two 
words, literally, " digged and deepened." 

Laid a foundation upon the rock. — The Gr. has not the 

article with the former word, but has it with the latter. Auth., 
with Tynd., has "the" with the former, and "a" with the 
latter. Similarly in Matt. vii. 24, 25. "Wycl. here has " it was 
founded on a sad stone " (" sad," i.e.. firm, steady). 

Brake against.— According to the literal meaning of the Gr. 
Auth., " beat vehemently." 

ST. LUKE— YII. 105 

49 It fell in— Auth., "it fell." The Gr. is, Uterally, "it feU 
together," into a heap, " collapsed." 


1 In the ears. — So Wycl. and Rhem., following Vulg., in aures 
plebis. Auth., after Tynd., "in the audience," as in many places 
both of the Old and New Testament : but this word no longer 
means "the hearing," except in the phrase " grant an audience," 
and in common ixsage is a noun of multitude designating the 
hearers themselves in the aggregate. 

2 Margin, "Or boy." The Gr., ■n-aTs, properly means "boy," and 
was applied to domestic servants, for the same reason that the 
corresponding words in French, and (in one or two cases) in our 
own language, are similarly used, because the servants were, or 
were supposed to be, younger than their masters. 

Dear. — Margin, " Ov precious." The Gr., ivrifios, properly has 
reference to price or value. Compare 1 Peter ii. 4, 6 ; and in that 
sense we speak of the "precious blood;" but " precious " has 
almost entirely lost its primarj'- meaning, and become limited to 
its secondary sense ; " dear" is equally used in both. 

At the point of death. — Auth., following Tynd., " ready to 
die," which, in one sense, we should all wish to be, in the midst 
of life and health ; but in the sense intended here, that of being 
moribund, " about to die," the phrase is an archaism. Wycl. has 
" drawing to the death." 

3 Come and save. — Auth., " come and heal." The petition was 
not that he would heal, but that he would save from death. Gr., 

4 Earnestly. — Auth., with Tynd., "instantly." This word also, 
in its old sense of " urgently," has become an archaism, having 
acquired a temporal sense, like the cognate noun " instant " m. 
this Gospel and in Isa. xxix. 5, " It shall be at an instant sud- 
denly." The adjective, in the sense of " insistent," is almost 
obsolete, but not having acquired the temporal sense is not of 
diibious meaning, and is well understood in 2 Tim, iv. 2, " Be 
instant in season, out of season." 

106 ST. LUKE— VII. 

5 Himself built us our synagogue.— Auth., " he hath built 
us a synagogue." The effect of the Gr. pronoun and article, 
both of which are overlooked in all the English versions, is to 
make it emphatically apparent, that the peojile of Capernaum, 
according to the statement of their own chief men or " elders," 
were indeljted to this Roman Centurion, this heathen soldier, for 
their only place of worship, which he had built liimself . 

6 Worthy. — Margin, " Gr., sufficient.'" The word is not the 
same as that which is translated " worthy," in verses 4, 7. Com- 
pare the parallel j)assage in Matt. viii. 8. 

8 See Note on Matt. viii. 9. 

10 " That had been sick." — (Auth.) omitted by change in Gr. 

12 He drew near. — Auth., " came nigh," which in verse 14 is the 
rendering of another word. The Gr. in this place would be 
exactly represented by " he neared." 

One that was dead. — The Gr. does not say that he was " a 
man' ' (Auth.). From verse 14 we learn that ho was " a young 

14 The bearers. — This, besides being the appropriate English 
phrase, avoids the insertion of /ifm. Auth., " they that bare 

15 He gave him to his mother. — So Wyel. and Rhem., follow- 
ing Yulg., cledit. Truly, as the Gr. says, it was a gift. Auth., 
with Tynd., " he delivered him to his mother." The word 
" deliver " was probably used by our translators here in remem- 
brance of the similar passage in 1 Kings x\'iii. 23, where Elijah, 
after restoring the widow's son to hfe, " delivered him to his 
mother." But there the word in the LXX. version, which 
doubtless was that which the Evangelist had in mind, as in tliis 
passage, fSuKe, " gave." 

19 Sent them to the Lord. — By change in Gr. text, for Auth., 
" sent them to Jesus." It is worthy of notice that St. Luke, 
both in his Gospel and in the Acts, designates the Saviour by this 
title, " the Lord." " So also does St. John in his Gospel ; but 
so do not St. Matthew and St. Mark, writing as they did more 
especially for Jewish Christians, who had Joeen accustomed by 
that title, when they used the Gr. language, to designate " the 
Lord " of the Old Testament, the Lord Jehovah. 

24, 25 To behold ... to see. — Represent two different Gr. 
words ; the first, " to behold," as a sj)ectacle, the second, simply 

ST. LUKE— YII. 107 

"to see." Anth. has "to see" in both places. "Behold" is 
also used in verse 25, 27, to represent another Gr., iSov, an excla- 
mation of frequent occurrence throughout the New Testament, 
and occasionally rendered by " Lo ! " which is an abbre^-iatiou of 
" Look ! " 

28 None greater than John. — For Auth., " not a greater prophet 
than John," by change in Gr. text. 

30 Rejected for themselves the counsel of God.— Auth., 
" rejected the counsel of God against themselves." By this 
order of the words, together with the rendering " against them- 
selves," God's counsel is represented as being against them, and 
therefore rejected by them ; whereas the true meaning is that 
they rejected, in reference to themselves {els eavrovs), the counsel 
of God : merciful as it was, they woiild not apply it to them- 

31, &c. See Notes on Matt. xi. 16, &c. 

37 And when she knew. — " And " inserted in Gr. text, as at 
chap. V. 17. See Notes on Matt. xxvi. 6, &c. 

38 To wet his feet.— Auth., with Tynd., "to wash." Wycl., 
" to moist." Vulg., rigare. The Gr. is literally " to sprinkle," 
as with rain. Compare Matt. v. 45, " He sendeth rain on the 
just," &c. ; that sense is also more apposite here than "wash." 

41 A certain lender. — So Wycl. and Tynd., following Yulg. 
fceneratori. Auth., following Rliem., " a certain creditor." The 
Gr. does not express the relation in wliich the lender stands to the 
borrower as does " creditor," but means one who is a money- 
lender by occupation. 

42 When they had not ivherewith to pay.— So "Wycl. and 

Rliem., •following Vujg., non hahentibus iliis uncle reclderent. 
Auth., after Tynd., " they had not to pay," which, though an 
exact rendering of the Gr., has not the same meaning, and at 
least in colloquial English would be imderstood to mean that 
they had nothing to pay, were not required to pay. 

Forgave. — So all versions previous to Auth., which has " frankly 
forgave." The Gr. needs no strengthening, and elsewhere is 
simj)ly rendered " forgive " in Auth., as 2 Cor. ii. 7, Col. ii. 13. 

" Tell me." — (Auth.) omitted by change in Gr. text. 

44 Her hair. — For Auth., " the hairs of her head," by change of 
Gr. text. 

108 ST. LUKE— VIII. 


3 XTnto them — i.e., Unto the Lord and his discij)les, by change in 

Gr. text for Auth., " unto him." 

4 See Notes on Matt. xiii. 2, &c., and Mark iv. 1, &c, 

6 Grew. — Auth., " sprung up." The Gr. is not the same as in 
Matt xiii. 5. 

10 The rest. — So Rhem., correctly following Vulg., cceferis. Auth., 
less comprehensively, " to others." 

12 Taketh away the word from their heart.— Auth., " out 

of." The Gr. is airS, not sk ; and " from " is more appropriate 
than " out of," which implies that the word had been " in " their 
hearts, whereas they had been hearers only. 

That they may not.— All English versions, "lest they 
should," expressing the same motive in a negative, not, as the Gr., 
in a positive form. 

15 Hold it fast. — The Gr. requires a stronger rendering than 
Auth., " keep " (following Tynd.). Yulg., retinent. 

16 Lamp. — Auth., " candle." See Note on Matt. v. 15. 

18 He thinketh he hath.— Auth., following Genev., "he 
seemeth to have." The Gr. may be either. 

23 Were filling ivith ivater. — The Gr. is the passive imperfect, 
which may be often represented in English by the imperfect of 
the active voice, as we say the house is " building " (or a-building) 
i.e., beiug built. Auth., " they were filled," which would repre- 
sent the Gr. aorist, and signify that the vessel was full. 

25 Who then is this ? — Auth., " What manner of man is this ? " 
Compare chap. iv. 36, ix. 9, xxiv. 13. 

26 Compare Matt. viii. 28, &c ; Mark v. 1, &c., and Notes there. 

28 The Most High God.— Auth., with Tynd., " God most 
high." The change is required by the Gr., aud has its signifi- 
cance, shewing that the adjunct, " Most High," is not merely 
added in reverence, but to distinguish the supreme God from the 
inferior deities of the heathen world. So Wycl., " the highest 

29 Kept under guard. — Auth., "kept." Compare Note on 
chap. iv. 10. 

Breaking asunder.— Auth., "he brake." The force of the 

ST. LUKE— VIII. 109 

preposition is given elsewliero in Auth. by " rent," as Matt. xxvi. 
65, " He rent his clothes," in which place, as in this, it needs to be 
expressed. It is understood, without being expressed^ in such a 
case as the nets breaking (Luke v. 6). 

31 The abyss. — Auth., following Tynd., " the deep," which from 
the context might be understood to mean the sea. Wycl., " liell." 
The literal meaning of the Gr., abyssos, is " the bottomless gulf ; " 
and in Scripture it is used to denote the abode of evil spirits. 
Compare Rev. ix. 1, &c. 

32 That he would give them leave. — Auth, " suffer ;" but 
in Mark v. 13, " gave them leave," where the Gr. is the same. 

37 All the people of the country. —The Gr. is literally " the 
whole multitude," as at chap. xix. 37. There the words following 
are " of the disciples ;" but it woidd not be in accoi-dance with 
English idiom to say, "the whole multitude of the coimtry." 

40 Welcomed him. — Auth., " gladly received him," inserting 
gladly, which is implied in the Gr. aTreSt^aro. That word is 
used by St. Luke only ; in this one place of his Gospel, and in 
several places of the Acts {e.g., chap. ii. 41). 

45 "And sayest thou . . . ." — To the end of the sentence 
(Auth.) omitted by change in Gr. text. 

46 Some one did touch me . . . .—This in the Gr. is all 

throAvn into the past. Auth., " some one hath touched me." 

48 " Be of good comfort," and verse 54, " Put them out." (Auth.), 
are omitted in Gr. text, also in Wycl. and Rhem. 

65 That something be given her to eat.— Auth., following 
Tynd., " he commanded to give her meat." The English idiom 
here so closely agrees with the Gr. tliat it is strange Tynd. should 
have deviated from it, especially as Wycl. has " give her to eat." 

no ST. LUKE— IX. 


1 The twelve. — Autli., "the twelve disciples." The last word 
is omitted in the Gr. text. 

2 He sent them forth.— Auth., " he seut them." From the 
Gr. is derived the word "apostle," siguifyiug "oue sent 

3 " Apiece." — (Auth.), omitted by chauge in Gr. test, and not found 
in the previous versions, or in the Yulg. 

6 Preaching the Gospel.— See Note on Matt. xi. 5. 

7 " By him." — (Auth,), omitted by change in Gr. text. 

9 He sought to see him.— Auth., "he desired." This ex- 
presses more than a desire, an endeavour. 

10 " Into a desert -place. " — (Auth.), omitted by change in Gr. text, 

11 Welcomed.- Auth., " received." See Note on chap. viii. 40. 

14 In companies about fifty each. — So Wycl. and Rhcm., 

nearly. Auth., less perspicuously, and less literally, but with 
the same meaning, "by fifties in a company," following Tjoid. 

Compare Matt xiv. 15 and Notes there ; also Max'k vi. 35 ; John 
vi. 1 ; for this one miracle is related by all the Evangelists. 

18 See Matt. x\i. 13, and Notes there. 

22 Be killed.— Auth., with Tynd., "be slain." The Gr., which 
occurs about seventy times in the New Testament, is in all places 
except four, of which this is one, rendered "kill" in Auth.; and 
thei'e appears no reason why it slioidd not have the same rendering 

25 Or forfeit his own self.— The Gr. is literally, "or be 
mulcted of liis o^aii self." Tynd., " or run in damage of him- 
self." Auth., " or be cast away," a j)araphrase which avoids the 
harshness, but also conceals the nigged force of the original. 
Compare Matt, x-^-i. 26, &c. ; Mark viii. 36, where we have " for- 
feit his own soul ; " and see Notes there. 

36 Held their peace. — So Rhem., following closely the Gr. and 
Vulg. Auth., after Tynd., " kept it close." 

37 Mountain. — So Genev. and Rhem. Auth., with Tynd. and 
Craum. . hei-e has " hill," but "mountain " for the same Gr. in verse 
28. Compare Matt. xvii. 14 ; Mark ix. 14, and Notes tlierc. 

ST. LUKE— X. Ill 

38 Multitude.— Autli., " company ; " but " multitude," iu verse 37. 

43 Majesty.— So Auth. for the same Gr. iu 2 Peter i. 16; here, 
with Tyud., " mighty power." Wycl., "greatness," following 
Vulg., magnitudine. There is no note of "power" or "might" 
in the Gr. word, which occm-s only three times iu the New 

45 Concealed.— Auth., "hid," with Wycl. and Tynd. ; Rlicm., 
" covered." The Gr. is properly " covered with a veil," and is 
not found elsewhere in the New Testament. 

51 When the days were well nigh come.— Rhem., after 

Vulg. and Wycl., " whilst the days were accomplishing ; " Auth., 
with Tynd., " when the time was come." The Gr. denotes the 
near apin-oach, not the arrival of the time ; literally, " when 
the days were being fulfilled." The same phrase is used by St. 
Luke, in Acts ii. 1, where see Note. 

54 " Even as Elias did." — (Auth.) omitted by change iu Gr. text. 

56 The Mai-giual Note shews that words, which appear in Auth., 
resembling John iii. 17, wei'e added hei'e in some MSS. 

60 Leave the dead, &c. — Compare Matt. viii. 22, and Note 

Publish abroad.— Auth., with Tynd., " preach," which is used 
as the rendering of several words, but not elsewhere of this, the 
proper sense of which is " to announce " as a messenger. Vulg., 


1 Was about to come.— Auth., " would come," denotes the 
intention of coming, which the Gr. e/xeAAe does not. 

11 To our feet. — Not in Auth., added by change in Gr. text. 

15 Shalt thou be exalted unto heaven ?— By change in Gr. 
text, for Auth., " which art exalted to heaven." Capci-naura 
api^ears to have been a flourishing city at this time ; and its 
inhabitants may have been anticipating for it a still higher degree 
of prosperity. The site of it is now uncertain. See Dictionary 
of Biblical Geography, and Farrar's Life of Christ, i. 182. 

Hades.— Auth., " hell." See Note on Matt. xi. 23. 

112 ST. LUKE— X. 

16 Rejecteth.— Auth., "despiseth" here, but " rejecteth" for the 
same Gr., iu chap. vii. 30, and elsewhere. The Gr. does not 
imply contempt, but rejection, from whatever motive that act 
may proceed. 

18 I beheld Satan fallen— Auth., " I beheld Satan faU." The 
Gr. is the j)articiple of the aorist, denoting a completed event or 
action : "I saw him when he was fallen out of heaven ; " like light- 
ning, both in the rapidity of the fall and iu the brightness of 
the angelic nature. Compare Isa. xiv. 12, to which there appears 
to be a reference in these words of our Lord, " How art thou fallen 
from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning ! " So A Lapide 
(a.d. 1620), ''pro cadentem, Grrcece est Trea-SvTa, id est lapsuni, 
in prceterito. See also Theophylact, quoted by "Wordswortli, and 
Alford's Note. 

The participle of the praater-perfect would express the condition 
ensuing on a fall, the lying prostrate : coraj). Acts xv. 16, " the 
tabernacle of David, Avhich is faUeu," and Rev. ii. 5; ix. 1; 
xviii. 3. 

19 Authority.— Auth., "power." The Gr. is not tlie same as Lu 
the following clause. On the other hand, m verse 20, Auth. has 
"that" and "because," where the Gr. is the same in both 

21 Rejoiced in the Holy Spirit.— According to the Gr. text, 
followed by Vulg., Wycl., and Rhem. ; for Auth., " ui the spirit.'' 
Comj)are the parallel passage. Matt. xi. 25. 

29 Desiring.— Auth., " ^^^lling." The Gr. BeKoov expresses a more 
active feeling than that of willmguess. " Where there is a will," 
says the proverb, not " where there is willingness," " there is a 

30 Which both stripped him and beat him.— Auth., after 

" strij)ped him," adds " of his raiment " (following Tynd.), 
which is not recpiired by the Gr. For beat, Auth. has 
"wounded." The Gr. is literally "laid blows upon him;" 
" ^vovmds " iu verse 34 is the rendering of another word, of 

rpavfiara, not irArjyois. 

34 Pouring on them.—A]l English versions " poixring iu," fol. 
lowing Yulg., inf lindens. The minute accuracy with which the 
treatment of tlie wounded man is described reminds us of St. 
Luke's worldly calling as a physician. The wine and the oil 
each had their proper function iu the liealing of wounds, the wine 
to cleanse them, the oil to assuage the pain, according to Pliny, 

ST. LUKE— XT. 113 

Nat. Hist. xxix. 9. Compare also Pliny xxxi. 7, and seo the 
Notes of "Wordsworth and Alford ; and Trench " On the 

35 " Wlien he departed." — Auth., omitted by emendation of Gr. 
text, is not found in Wycl. and Rhem. 

I, when I come back again.—" I " is emphatic in the Gr. 
Auth., " When I come again, I will," &c. 

36 Which of these. . . proved neighbour.— Auth., "which 
of these . . . was neighbour." An idiomatic use of " prove " 
has been introduced to express the Gr., which is literally " which 
of these seemeth to thee to have become neighbour? " 

42 For Mary. — By change in Gr. text for " and Mary," as Auth. 
The change is slight, but renders it necessary mentally to supply 
that for which the reason is thus given — e.g., " One thing is 
needful ; and I will not ash Mary to do what tho^i desirest, 
for she hath chosen," &c. 


2 The short form of prayer which is here given was delivered, as 
the previous verse makes evident, not in the Sermon on the 
Mount, but on another occasion, when the Lord had been in 
prayer ; and the additions to it, found in " many ancient author- 
ities," and adopted in Auth. — some of them, being in the Vulg., 
which is itself an " ancient authority " as regards the original 
text — are an illustration of the endeavours that were made at a 
. very early period to assimilate some passages of this Gospel to the 
parallel passages of St. Matt. See Notes on Matt. vi. 9, &c. 

11 Of which of you that is a father shall his son ask, 

&C. — All English versions, following Yulg., turn this sentence 
by treating the interrogative pronoun at the beginning, " which 
of you," as indefinite, equivalent " to any one ; " " If a son shall 
ask bread of any of you that is a father," &c. ; which comes to 
the same thing, as regards the general meaning ; but the Gr. 
rendered literally, is, " Of which of you, being the father, shall 
the son ask bread, and will he give," &c. 

The two parables, in which bread is the subject, may have been 
recalled to the mind of the Evangelist by the petition for daily 


bread in the Lord's Prayer (verse 3) ; at any rate tbey follow 
appropriately after it, iu illustration of the blessing to be obtained 
by prayer. 

12 Give — Anth., "offer," following Tyud. Wycl., "areche " 
(reach). Vulg., jiorrigcd. The Gr. is the same as in the last 
verse, biit the translators apj)ear to have thought it inconceivable 
that a scorpion should be actually " given." Comp. Matt. xii. 22 
— i5, and Notes there. 

14 Which was dumb.— Aiith., " and it was dumb," according to 
the Gr. text of some MSS., in which, probably the change waa 
made by one who had observed how the manner of St. Luke is 
to link together sentences, and parts of sentences, by "and." 

21 PuUy armed.— Auth., " armed." The Gr. (a compoimd verb) 
denotes one armed cap-a-j)ie. His armour is called his panoply, 

travoTrXia, in verse 22. 

Court. — So Rhom., following Vulg., atrium, as in Matt. xxvi. 3, 
&c. Auth., " palace." Comj). John x. 1, where the same word is 
iised for the sheejjfold. 

33 In a cellar. — Auth., " a secret place." By a shght change in 
Gr. text the word has a feminine instead of a neuter termina- 
tion ; and iu that iovm. {KpinrT-q, whence the English " crypt ") it 
designates an underground vault or ceUax*. 

34 The lamp.— Auth., " light." Comp. Matt. vi. 22. Thy body 
. . . thine eye, for Auth., " the body . . . the eye," by change 
of Gr. text. 

iO Ye foolish ones. — All Engl, versions, "ye fools." Vulg., 
stulti. The Gr. is an adjective, and has not in the New Testament 
the blunt severity of the English noun. Comp. Luke xxiv. 25. 
It is several times used by St Paul, e.g., Rom. ii. 20 ; 1 Cor. xv. 
36 ; and once by St. Peter ; not elsewhere in the New Testament. 

41 Give for alms those things which are within.— So Genev. 
Auth., " but rather give alms of such things as ye have " 
(following Tynd. and Cranm.), from which no very clear sense is 
to be obtained. Our Lord compares the Pharisees to their own 
vessels, and means that they should make clean the inward parts 
of the material vessels and of their own selves, and give in mercy 
to the poor that which is within the vessels, the material food, 
and that which is within themselves, the loving heart. 

43 The chief seats.— Auth., "The uppermost." The Gr, is, 
literally, " the first." See Matt, xxiii. 25, &c. 

ST. LUKE— XII. 115 

53 And when he was come out from thence.— By change of 
Gr. text for Auth., " and as he said these things unto them.' 

54 "That they might accuse him."— (Auth.). Omitted in accord- 
ance with change in Gr. text. 


1 The many thousands of the multitude.— Auth., following 
Tynd., "an innumerable multitude of the people," which, though a 
paraphrase, is scarcely a more hyperbolical phrase than the 
original, and is more close to it than Yulg., mxdtis turbis. But bj-- 
the omission of the article we lose the idea which it conveys, that 
a vast concourse of people accompanied or gathered about Him 
whithersoever He went. 

2 Covered up.— Auth., "covered;" "up" being added to give 
the force of the Gr. preposition, (tvv. St. Luke's style, both in 
the Gospel and the Acts, is characterised by the use of long com- 
pound verbs. 

3 The inner chambers.— Auth., "closets." The Gr. is the 

same as in Matt. vi. 6 ; xxiv. 26. 

6 In the sight of God.— Aiith., "before," with Wycl. and 
Rhem. Vulg., coram. The Gr. iuannov is veiy frequently used 
by St. Luke, but does not occur in the first two Gospels, and 
once only in St. John's ; it is very frequent in St. Paul's Epistles 
and in the Apocalypse; iix-wpoa-Bev, which is, literally, "before," 
is common in all. In verses 8 and 9 both the words occur, .and 
though the meaning is not different, faithfulness requires that 
they should be distinguished in translation. 

11 BiUlers. — So Tynd. Ynlg., magistrcdus, whence Wycl. and 
Rhem., and Auth., "magistrates," a word which denoted high 
officers of state in Latin and old English {e.g., in the litany of 
the Church), but is now limited to officers discharging judicial 
functions. The Gr. is apxds. 

Authorities.— Auth., "powers." Wycl. and Rhem., "potes- 
tates," adopting the very word of the Vulg., which also appears 
in Auth. (1 Tim. vi. 15), in a slightly altered form, "potentates." 
Gr., i^ovaias. 

116 ST. LUKE— XIT. 

12 In that very hour.— Autli., "in the same hour." The Gr. is 
yery emphatic, avrp ttj wpa. This expression, frequent in the 
Gospel and the Acts, is not found in the other Gospels, which 
have ry wpa iKfii'fj, "in that hour," instead, nor in the rest of the 
New Testament. 

15 Keep yourselves from. — All Engl, versions, "beware," fol- 
lowing Tulg., cavete. " Beware " is the rendering of other words, 
e.g., of /SAeVere and 7rpo(r€X€Te, as in Matt. vii. 15, &c. The Gr. 
here is, literally, " guard yourselves from," <pv\dfffffoQe. 

18 My corn.— By change of Gr. text for "my fruits" (Auth.). 

20 Thou foolish one.— See Note on xi. 40. 

And the things which, &c.— So Rhem. This is the Gr. 
order, and it is more emphatically scornful than that of Auth., 
" then whose shall those things be," &e. (following Tynd.). 

Prepared. — The Gr. is usually so rendered in Auth., which 
here, following Tynd., has " provided," a word better answering 
to Trpovoec}, as in Rom. xii. 16, Similarly below, verse 33. 

22 Comp. Matt. vi. 25, &c., and Notes there. 

83 Purses. — Tlie Gr., which only occurs in St. Luke's Gospel, is 
thus translated elsewhere in Auth., but here "bags" (with 
Tynd.). See chap. x. 4 ; xxii. 35. 

Draweth near. — Auth., " approacheth," as Rhem. See Note 
on chap. vii. 12. 

Destroyeth. — So Wyel., giving the preposition with which the 
woi'd is compoiinded its proper force. And so Auth., in Rev. 
viii. 9 ; here with Tynd., " cornipteth," following Vulg., cor- 

56 Looking for. — Auth., " that wait for," as in chap. ii. 25. 

39 Left. — Auth., " suffered," which leads to the supposition that 
the house has been broken into with the master's permission. 

42 Comp. Matt. xxiv. 43, &c., and Notes. 

46 Expecteth. — Auth., "looketh not for him." The Gr. is not the 
same which is rendered " looketh for," at verse 36. 

The Tinfaithful. — So Wycl. Yulg., infidelibus, whence Tynd. 
and subsequent versions have " imbelievers," or, as Rhem., "in- 
fidels." Tlie Gr. may have either sense ; and here " imfaithful " 
appears preferable, as " hypocrites " is the corresponding word in 
the parallel passage of Matt. xxvi. 51. 

ST. LUKE— XIII. 117 

48 Did things.— So Wycl. and Rhem., following Yiilg., fecit. 
Autli., with Tyiid., " did commit." The Gr. is sufficicutly 
rendered by "did," and "commit" is used afterwards in this 
verse in a different sense. 

49 To cast fire.— So Rhem., with the Gr. Auth., with Wycl., 
Tynd. and Cranm., " to send," following Yidg., mittere. Genev., 
" to put fire." He came to cast the sparks of a fire, in which, 
when it was kindled, He was himself to be the first that should 

65, 56 The marginal notes sufficiently explain the changes in the 
Gr. text of these two verses. The Gr. for " scorching heat " 
is the same that is used in the parable of the labourers in the 
vineyard, Matt. xx. 12. Interpret.— Auth., " discern," which is 
used for woi'ds implying discrimination, as in the parallel passage 
of Matt. xvi. 3, for hiaKpivo>, and in 1 Cor. xi. 29, " not discerning 
the Lord's body" (Auth.). 


1 At that very season.— See Note on chap. xii. 12. 

4 Offenders.— Auth., " sinners," with Tynd. The Gr. is not the 
same as in verse 2, and is, literally, " debtors," as in Wycl. and 
Rhem., following Yulg., debitores. 

7 Why doth it also cumber the ground ?— All Engl, 
versions omit " also," which is fxxll of significance. The tree is 
not only unfruitful itself, but " also " occupies the ground so as 
to prevent another tree from gromug there and bearing fruit. 
The Gr. for " ciunbereth " properly means " makes idle," " steril- 
izes," a frequent word in the Pauline Epistles, e.g., Rom. iii. 3, 
but not found elsewhere in the New Testament. 

15 The stall.— The Gr. is properly " the manger," and is so 
rendered in chap. ii. 7. 

17 "Were put to shame.— This is the proper meaning of the Gr., 
denoting, not the conviction of the conscience, as Auth., " were 
ashamed," but the sense of being dishonoured before men. 

19 A tree. — " Great " (Auth.), is omitted by change of Gr. text. 

118 ST. LIJKE— XIA^ 

24 The narrow door.— Auth., "the strait gate." See Note on 
Matt. vii. 13. "Door" has been taken here instead of "gate," 
though "gate" has been retained in the parallel passage of St. 
Matt., because it is the more convenient word in the verses which 

31 He would fain.— The Gr. is ee\u, "he willeth," not "he will" 

32 I perform cures.— Auth., "I do cures." TheGr., oTroTtAai, ig 
not found elsewhere in the Gospels, but several times in the 
Epistles of St. Paul ; it is derived from the same word, reKos, as 
that which is rendered in this verse, " I am perfected." 

33 I must go on my way.— The Gr. is usually so rendered, not 
" walk," as all Engl, versions here, following Vulg., ambulare. 
Our Lord speaks of the journey which He has to accomplish 
through this world, not of his walking up and down among men. 

34 Which killeth.— See Note on Matt, xxiii. 37. 


1 One of the rulers of the Pharisees. — So Wycl. and 

Rhem. " A prince of the Pharisees," according to the Gr., and 
Yulg., cnjusdam principis Pharisoeorum. Auth., with Tynd., 
" one of the chief Pharisees." 

5 A well. — Not " a pit," as in the parallel passages of Matt. xii. 2 
and 4, and as all Engl, versions here. 

Draw up. — Is the proper rendering of the Gr., not "pull out," 
as Auth., with Tynd., nor " lift up," as in Matt. Wycl. and 
Rhem. have '' draw him out," followaug Vulg., extrahat. 

7 The chief seats.— Auth., with Tynd., " rooms." The Gr. is, 
literally, " the first couches." 

9 The lowest place.— So Wycl. Auth., " room," which in old 
English is synonymous with " place," e.g., Ps. xxxi. 8, " Thou 
hast set my feet in a large room," and still is so in more than 
one use of the word ; e.g., " there was no room for them." 

10 Glory.— So Rhem. and Yulg. Auth., "vvith Tynd., " worship," 
which in its present use implies an outward act of reverence. 

ST. LUKE— XV. 119 

II Humbled. — AutL. here, " abased," aud foi* the same word in the 
latter part of the sentence, " humble th." 

23 Constrain. — So "Wycl. This is the usual rendering of the Gr. 
word. Auth., with Tynd., " compel," following Yulg., compelli. 

31 As he goeth to encounter . . .—This expresses the Gr. 
participle more clearly than " going to," which, according to 
English idiom, might mean " being about to." 

To encounter ... in war.— This points, as does the Gr. 
ffv/j.Pa\f7v, to the actual conflict in battle, whereas " to make 
war " (Auth.) is a general term for hostilities. 

S3 Renoxinceth.— So Rhem., after Vulg., renuniiat. The Gr. is, 
literally, " taketh leave of." Auth., foUoAving Tynd., " for- 


12 The portion of tliy substance.— So Vulg., snhstantup ; 
and so Auth., with Tynd., in the next verse, but here Auth., with 
Tynd., has "goods.' The Gr. is ovcrlas. The Gr. article is 
properly represented by thy (comp. chap. xyi. 8, "his Lord,") 
though it would also be according to colloquial usage in English 
for a son to speak to his father of " the in-operty," meaning the 
family estate. So Tynd. here, " the goods." 

16 The husks.— Propei-ly the pods or fruit of the carob tree, called 
also St. John's bread, from the tradition that it was the Baptist's 
food in the wilderness. They were in shape like a beau pod, 
curved as a sickle, and thence called by the name given them in 
the Gr. text, "little horns." The tree is common in Spain, 
Africa, and the East. In this country it is to be seen only as an 
exotic shrub in gardens (Trench " On the Parables," p. 398'). 

Would fain have been filled.— So the Gr. is sufficiently 
rendered in Matt. xiv. 20 and all other places ; though the liomely 
phrase of Auth., " would fain have filled his belly," derived fi'om 
Vulg., cujpiebat iinplere ventrem suum, is very expressive and 
appropriate in this case. 

18 In thy sight. — The Gr. is the same as iu verse 21. 

120 ST. LUKE— XVI. 

22 Quickly.— Added by change in Gr. text. So Rliem. after Vulg., 
cito proferte. 

26 "What these things might he.— So Rhem. after Wycl. 
Auth., not so literally, " what these things meant," following 

29 A commandment of thine. — This English idiom fitly re- 
presents the Gr., which is literally, " a commandment of thee," and 
expresses particularly what is said in Auth. hi general terms, " thy 

30 When. — The Gr. is simply thus, not " as soon as " (Auth.). 

31 All that is mine ip bhine. — This is the literal rendering of 
the Gr. Auth., " all that I have is thine." 


1 He was wasting. —The Gr. participle being in the present 
tense denotes a still-continuing peculation. Auth., "he had 

2 "What is this that I hear of thee ? — Auth., with Tynd., 
less literally, and not more idiomatically, " how is it that I hear 
this of thee P " 

Canst. — Auth., "mayest." The Gr. is Swp. 

3 I have not strength. — So the Gr. and Vulg., non valeo. 
Auth., with Tynd., " I cannot." 

6 Thy bond : the legal document (Gr., ypdfifiara), by which thou 
art bound. — Auth., with Tynd., and Cranm., " thy bill." Genev., 
" thy obligation. Vulg., cautionem. 

8 His Lord. — This rendering of the Gr. article removes the sup- 
position, which is not an unlikely one on the part of an unlearned 
reader or hearer, that " the lord " (Auth.) refers to Him who is 
so often designated by that title. 

Are for their own generation wiser. — All English 
versions have " in," not " for," taking the Gr. preposition us to 
have the meaning of iv, nor do they make it clear that the pronoun 

ST. LUKE.— XVI. 121 

in Gr. is reflective, "their own." The meaning of the sentence 
as thus corrected is, that the sons of this world, worldly men, 
men who boimd their ^dew by tlie term of this earthly life, are 
with regard to their o^vn generation — i.e., with regard to men 
like themselves, and with regard to wordly interests, wiser than 
are the sons of light, those who profess to live for heaven, with 
regard to their own generation — i.e. their Heavenly Father, and 
their eternal interests. 

9 Make to yourselves friends by means of the mammon. 

. . . — Auth., following Tynd., "make to yourselves friends of 
the mammon," &c. (Vulg., de mammo wo), which is now likely to be 
understood as a command to make friends of mammon, to make 
mammon our friend ; though in the time of Wycl. and Tynd. 
" by means of " may have been the obvious meaning. With this 
slight correction the sense of the passage comes out clearly. 
*' By means of the mammon of unrighteousness, worldly pelf — 
which like the world to which it belongs, is tainted with sin — by a 
right use and good application of it, make to yourselves friends 
in heaven." 

That when it (the mammon) shall fail.— By change in Gr. 
text for " when ye fail," which all former versions have with the 
meaning, "when ye die." The sentence then continues, they 
(the heavenly friends) may receive you into the eternal 
tabernacles. So Rhem. : Auth., with Tynd., " habitations," thus 
missing the true force of the Gr. The tabernacles of earth, 
whether they be tents or cities, are but for a time. The taber- 
nacles of heaven, like the city that hath foundations, are 

13 ITo servant can serve. — The margin, " Gr., hoiiseliold ser- 
vant," directs us to notice that there is a difference between tlie 
verb and noun, which is not represented in the English, " No 
domestic can be slave to two masters." 

14 Lovers of money. — This is the literal meaning of the Gr. 
(See 1 Tim. vi. 10 ; 2 Tim. iii. 2). All English versions, " cove- 
tous," which is not limited to those who are greedy of gain, and 
in Auth. commonly represents another Gr. word. 

Scoffed at him. — The Gr., both here and in chap, xxiii. 35, the 
only two places in which it is used, requires a stronger word than 
" derided." Auth., with Rhem, from Vulg., ieridebant eutn. 

15 That which is exalted. — Auth., with Tynd., " highly es- 
teemed." The Gr. v^r]\6y, " lofty," does not in itself contain any 
notion of esteem. 

122 ST. LUKE— XVII. 

16 The gospel of the kingdom of God is preached.— Auth., 

" the kingdom of God is j)reached." The Gr. is literally, " the 
kingdom of God is evangelized" — i.e., is preached as good tidings, 
as a gospel. 

Entereth violently.— Auth., " presseth ," which does not give 
the Gr. with sufficient force. 

19 Faring sumptuously.— See Margin. The literal rendering ol 
the Gr. woiUd be " making merry splendidly." 

21 " Crumbs." — (Auth.) The word is omitted in the Gr. text. 

Tea, even the dogs came. — Auth., " moreover, the dogs." 
Such was the misery and helplessness of the beggar, that the dogs 
which, as usual, were allowed to eat the crumbs that fell from the 
table, came out and licked his sores. 

24 In anguish. — The Gr. is not the same that is rendered "in 
torments " in verse 23. 

26 That they . . . may not be able. — Auth., "so that." 
The purpose of the gulf is signified by the Gr. Sirus, not the effect 


3 " Against tlicc." — (Auth.). Omitted by change in Gr. text. See 
Note on parallel passage of Matt, xviii. 15. 

7 Straightway. — Is to be connected with what follows, being 
sej)arated from the preceding clause by the insertion of "to him" 
in the Gr. text. 
9 " I trow not." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

17 Were not the ten cleansed ?— The article with "ten" in 
the Gr , which the Latin Vulg. could not represent, and which 
consequently has been overlooked in the English versions, shows 
the question to be not, as in Auth., as to the number being ten, 
but whether the ten were not all cleansed. 

18 Were there none found. . . ? — The Gr. may be either 
an interrogative, or a direct assertion. It is taken as the latter 
in the English versions, but as the former in the Vulg. ; and 
as a question, it follows appositely after the other two questions. 


23 Lo here !— The Gr. is the same as in verse 21. 

31 His goods.— The Gr. is literally " his vessels ; " and so Vulg., 

vasa ; Auth., with Tyud., " his stuff." 

33 To gain his life. — So, by change of Gr. text, for " save " 


5 Wear me out.— Margin, ''Or bruise." Auth., ''weary me." 
The Gr. is one of the many words used in the New Testament 
only by St. Luke and St. Paul (1 Cor. ix. 27, " I buffet my 
body "), and is a term borrowed from the pugilists, who struck 
the face under the eyes {^ir^iriov), and thence it came to mean 
metaphorically, " to worry," "to fret." Analagous to it, though 
not exactly parallel, is in English " to brow-beat." Like the un- 
just judge, the disciples would have their Master send away the 
Syrophcenician woman, because she cried after them. Matt. 
XV, 23, 

6 The unrighteous judge.— The Gr., as indicated in the Mar. 
gin, is a Hebraism. 

7 And he is long-suffering over them.— By change of Gr, 
text (verb for participle). Auth., "though he bear long with 
them." St. Luke's predilection for the copula " and," already 
noticed, is sliown in this broken construction. 

Over them. — i.e., his elect; for Auth., "with them" — i.e., 
with men in general. The change is helpful to the sense, which 
is somewhat strained according to the Auth., and it is required 
in order to give its proper meaning to the Gr. preposition eVi. 

9 Set at nought. — This is the literal meaning of the Gr., and 
so it is rendered in Auth., Luke xxiii. 11, Acts iv. 11 ; here all 
English vei'sions have '' despised." 

12 All that I get. — The Gr, verb is to " acquire," not to "pos- 
sess," as all English versions, following Vulg., possideo ; except 
the prseter-perfect, " I have acquired " — i.e., " I possess." 

13 Margin, " Or the sinner," giving expression to the Gr. article. 
This alternative rendering brings out more distinctly what ia 

124 ST. LUKE— XIX. 

probaUy meant by that iu tlie text, tliat the publican implicitly 
contrasts himself, as a sinner, with the self-righteous 

15 Their babes.— (The Gv. has the article.) So Tynd and G-enev. ; 
and the Gr. is so translated in the first and second chapters of 
this Gospel, as applied to the infant Jesus. Auth., foUowiug 
Rhem., " infants " (omitting the article). 

25 To enter. — (Twice) So in the Gr. In Auth., the word is varied, 
" go through," and " enter into." 

27 Our own. — Or "our own homes " (as in Margin), by change of 
Gr. text ; for Auth., " all." 

32 Shamefully.— Auth., " spitefully." See Note on Matt. xxii. 6. 


7 To lodge. — So Genev. ; Auth., " to be guest with." The proper 
sense of the Gr. is "to loosen the harness," "to put up," and 
thence " to lodge." So at chap. ix. 12. 

8 Wrongfully exacted. — As at chap.iii. 14, where the Gr. is the 
same. The word, however, implies what is expressed in Auth., 
that the wi'ong is done " by false accusation." 

13 Trade ye. — So Yulg., negotimnini ; Wycl., " chaffer ye ; " 
Tynd. and Genev., " buy and sell ; " Cranm., Rhem., and Auth., 
" occupy." The Gr. is literally " do business." The rendei'ing 
of Auth. must have been intended in the sense of " be occupied," 
" follow your occupation." 

Till I come. — By the use of the indicative (i'ais epxa/xai) instead 
of the usual indefinite (tws &v eAOu), the certainty of his coming 
is implied. Compare John xxi. 22, 23, and 1 Tim. iv. 13. 

14 An ambassage — So Auth., at chap. xiv. 32; here "a mes- 
sage," foUowiug Cranm. and Genev. Yulg., legationem. 

18 Hath made.— Gr., eVotrjo-e, as in Matt. xxv. 16. Auth., "hath 
gained." The English idiom here tallies with that of the Gr. 

ST. LUKE— XIX. 125 

28 Going up.— As at Matt. xx. 17, &c. A.uth., here, with Tynd. 
and Cranm., "ascending," which elsewhere in Auth. is used only 
of the going up into heaven. Yulg., ascendens. 

35 They threw. — All Enghsh versions, " they cast." The Gr. 
word is not used again in the New Testament ; it signifies a 
more rapid and tnmnltuary action than " cast." Vulg., jactantes. 

40 Shall.— For "should" (Auth.), by change of Gr. text; "im- 
mediately " (Auth.) is not in the Gr. 

42 In this day. — By change of Gr. text, for Auth., " at least in 
this thy day." Compare the fervid brevity of this exclamation 
with the Lord's answer to Peter (Mark xiv. 30), " Yerily I say 
unto thee, that thou to-day, even this night, before tlie cock crow, 
shalt deny me thrice." 

43 A bank. — The Gr. word, x«P«l, includes both the palisade and 
the nioimd on which it was placed. By the excavation necessary 
for raising the embankment, a trench was also formed ; but that 
was not included in the word. Auth. has " trench," following 
Genev. and Rhem.; WycL, "pale ; " Tynd. and Cranm., " bank; " 
Vulg., vallo. 

44" Shall dash thee to the ground.— Auth., " shall lay thee 
even with the ground." The Gr. verb does not occur again in 
the New Testament, but is used sevei'al times in the LXX., as 
in Ps. cxxxvii. 9, where the Auth. has " dasheth thy little ones 
against the stones." 

48 The people all hung upon him.— So Genev. only. Auth., 
" all the people were very attentive to hear him." Tynd. and 
Cranm., " stuck by him, and gave him audience." Vulg., sus- 
pensus erat, audiens ilium, whence Bhem., "was suspense, 
hearing him." The word does not occur again in the New Testa- 
ment, and once only in the LXX„ Gen. xliv. 30. The same 
metaphor is used by Virgil, ^n. iv. 79, " pendetque iterum nar- 
rantis ab ore," one of the j)^sages which may be adduced to 
show that St. Luke had an acquaintance with classical literature. 

126 ST. LUKE— XX. 


7 They knew not.— So Wycl. and E-hem. Autli., following 
Tynd., " they could not tell," apparently for the sake of the 
rejoinder in the next verse, "neither tell I you." 

17 Was made. — Auth., "is become." The Gr. is the passive 
aorist, denoting a thing done and past. 

18 It will scatter him as dust. — Auth., folloiving Tynd., " it 
will grind him to powder." Comp. Matt. xxi. 44, and Note 

20 Speech. — Auth., " words." The Gr. is in the singular, K6yov, 
" word." 

To the rule and to the authority.— The concurrence of the 
two words which are thus translated occurs at chap. xii. 2, and is 
characteristic of St. Paul. See 1 Cor. xv. 24, &c. 

21 Of a truth teachest. — An asseveration, "verily, thou 
teachest." Auth., " thou teachest the way of God truly." See 
Note on Mark xii. 14. 

28 He be. — For " he die " (Auth.), by change of Gr. text. 

35 To attain to. — Auth., " to obtain," which is the rendering in 
Auth. of various words, but is not suitable for this {rvxe'ii'). 

37 In the place concerning the Bush. — See Note on the parallel 
passage of Mark xii. 26. 

46 Chief seats. . . . — See notes on chap. xiv. 7 ; Matt, xxiii. 6. 


4 Superfluity. — Auth., " abundamce." See Note on Mark xii. 44 

The gifts. — The Gr. is the same as in verse 1. Auth., " offer- 
ings." In verse 5 " offerings " represents another word which is 
not used elsewhere in the New Testament, avaOrt/j-ara. 

" Of God."— (Auth.) Omitted by change of Gr. text. 

9 Immediately. — The phrase in Auth., "by and by," is now 
applied rather to the middle distance than to the foreground of 
the future. The Gr. is ti/Bews, generally rendered " straiglit- 

ST. LUKK— XXI. 127 

11 There shall be terrors.— So Rhem., after Yiilg., ierrores. 
Auth., " fearful sights " (Tyncl., " fearful things,"), which is the 
meaning, but weakened by its expansion into two words. Comp. 
Ps. Ixxxviii. 15, " Thy terrors have I suffered with a troubled 

16 Even by.— Auth., " both by," which would be correct if only 
two classes were specified, but as there are four, the Gr., Kal, is 
properly rendered by " even." 

19 Ye shall win your souls.— Auth., " shall possess." Comp. 
chap, xviii. 12, and Note there ; and as to the sense, Matt. xvi. 

Te shall. — The future for the imperative by change in Gr. 
text., i.e., "in your patience, and by means of it, ye shall win for 
yourselves the eternal life." 

21 In the country.— i.e., in coimtry places. So Genev. Auth., 
"in the countries," following Wycl. and Rhem. Tynd. and 
Cranm., "in other countries." 

25 In perplexity for the roaring of the sea.— By change 
of Gr. text for Auth., " the sea and the waves roaring." 

Billows. — The Gr., (rd\ov, is not the usual word for " waves," 
and being in the singular number, is equivalent to what is called 
by mariners, " a heavy sea," " a swell." 

26 Expectation.— Auth., " looking after." The Gr., ■rrpoa-SoKla, is 
used only by St. Luke here and in Acts xii. 2, where it is " expec- 
tation" in Auth. "Looking for" (not "after") represents 
another Gr. word. 

86 At every season.— So Wycl., "in each time," after Vulg., 
omni tempore. Auth., " always," which now means " without 

128 ST. LUKE— XXII. 


2 Put him to death.— Autli., "kill." The Gr. ia one of several 

words wliicli are rendered " kill " in Auth., but is in chap, xxiii. 
32, "put to death." 

3 Who was called. — So Wyel. Auth., following Tynd., " sur- 
named." " lecariot " was not, properly speaking, his surname, 
but a local name, as appears from several places in St. John's 
Gospel (vi. 71, xii. 4, xiii. 2, 26), where he is called " Judas, son 
of Simon, an Iscariot," " Judas, the Iscariot," i.e., probably a 
native of Kerioth, mentioned in the Book of Joshua as being in 
Juda (Alford). 

4 Deliver him. — Auth., " betray him." The Gr. is the same as 
in verse 21 (7rapa5i5ai/ii). Like many other words, it takes its 
colouring from the context : here, in the narrative of the traitor's 
communing with the chief priests, the ordinaiy rendering seems 
adequate. In verse 21, used by our Lord of the traitor's act, 
and by Him used absolutely without such words as " unto the 
chief j)riests," " betray " is more appropriate. 

6 He consented. — So Tynd. Auth., "he promised," following 
Vulg. and Rhem. The promise was on their part ; He, according 
to the Gr., agreed thereto. 

14 " Twelve ; " and 16, " any more ; " 18, " from henceforth ; " 31, 
" And the Lord said " (Auth.), omitted by changes in Gr. text. 

17 A cup. — AU Engl, versions, " the cup." The Gr. is without the 

32 When once thou hast turned again. — i.e., "from thy 
desertion and denial of me." Auth., with Tynd, " when thou 
art converted," omitting " once " (Gr., irore). On " converted,'' 
see Note on Matt. xiii. 15. 

Stablish. — Auth., " strengthen." The Gr. is more than 
" strengthen — fix immoveably," and is usually rendered in Auth. 
by " stablish," as in Rom. i. 2. " Strengthen " (verse 43) repre- 
sents another word. 

33 With thee I am ready.— Auth., "I am ready to go with 
thee." Tlie order of the words ia the original is too emphatic to 
be lost sight of in translation, 

36 He that hath none. — i.e., no purse. Auth., "he that hath no 
eword," supplying or drawing back that word from the end of 

ST. LUKE— XXII. 129 

the sculeuce, where it is expressed in the Gr. The former con- 
struction is the simpler, and the more natiiral, connecting this 
clause with the preceding. 

37 Hath fulfilxnent. — All Engl, versions " have an end," a literal 
translation (the Gr. beiug tsKos), but obscure, from the uncertainty 
as to the meaning of " an end," standing so by itself, whether it 
be a "termination," or "a purpose." "That which concerneth 
me (that which is written, or, the counsel of God concerning me) 
is in course of fulfilment, and soon I shall say of it, ' It is 
finished.' " Thus may the saying be understood and unfolded by 
us who look upon it in the light thrown upon it at the crucifixion. 

39 Went as his custom was.— Auth., with Tynd., " went as he 
was wont," which, besides not being a happy combination of 
words, is not an exact translation. 

46 Pray that ye enter not.— So Auth. in verse 40 and Matt. 
xxvi. 41 ; but here, " pray lest." " Pray that " expresses, as does 
the Gr., the object asked for in prayer. " Pray lest " denotes the 
purpose of praying, but does not specify the thing desired. 

52 Against him. — Auth., "to him." The Gr. preposition is the 
same in both parts of the sentence. 

53 The power of darkness. — On the sense of i^oua-la, here ren- 
dered " power," elsewhere " authority ; " see Note on Col. i. 13. 

54 They seized him. — The Gr. requires for its expression a word 
more suggestive of violence than "took" (Auth.). 

55 Sat down together and sat here represent two different Gr. 

56 Looking stedfastly. — Auth., " earnestly looked." The Gr. 
denotes the fixed gaze, not, as Auth., the strong feefing or sus- 
picion which prompted the gaze. 

61 This day.— Added in the Gr. text. 

64 "Struck him in the face and" — (Auth.). Omitted ia the Gr. 

65 Reviling him. — So the same Gr. is translated in Matt, xxvii. 
39, here, " blaspliemously spake they." The Gr. word to " bias- 
pheme " (for so it is, very nearly, in Gr.) is not limited to what we 
commonly understand by " blasphemy," the expression of con- 
temj)t or hatred of God ; and here that meaning would not aj)ply 
to the Roman soldiers, nor indeed to the Pharisees, who did not 
believe Jesus to be divine. 


68 " Nor let me go."— (Auth.). Omitted iu the Gr. text. 

69 From henceforth.— Auth., \nih. Tynd., " hereafter." The Gr. 
phrase is the same as at chap. i. 48, " From henceforth all gene- 
rations shall call me blessed." Compare also John i. 51, whex*e 
the Gr. &iTapTi has the same sense given to it. 

Shall be seated.— So the Gr., " shall be " with the participle, 
not the future tense of the verb, and so Wycl. and Rhem., fol- 
lowing Yulg., erit sedens. Auth., following Tynd., " shall sit." 
The Lord spoke of himself in his human nature " the Son of 
man," as He will appear, not standing before an earthly judge, but 
sitting on the heavenly throne, united with the majesty of the 


1 Brought him. — As Auth. in Matt. x. 18 ; the English phrase 
is " brought " before a judge, not " led." 

2 This man.— Auth., following TjTid., " this fellow." This op- 
probious term, though consistent with the treatment which our 
Loi'd received throiighoiit from his accusers, is hardly waiTanted 
by anything in the Gr., either here or in the other places in which 
it has been intx'oduced. 

5 The more urgent. — Auth., with TjTid., "the more fierce," 
which overdoes the Gr. iiriaxvov, "literally, "they grew stronger 
against him." So Wycl., " they waxed stronger," after Vulg., 
invalescehant. The Gr, eVio-x"^" is used actively (chap. xxii. 43), 
" sti'engthening him." Both words are peculiar to St. Luke. 

6 " Of Galilee."— (Auth.) Omitted in Gr. text. 

11 Apparel- — So the Gr. and Tynd. Auth., "robe," with Yulg., 
veste alba. 

12 The incident of Pilate's sending Jesus to Herod is recorded by 
St. Luke only, and by him with much detail ; the conclusion of it 
lias a special emphasis when the phrase and order of the Gr. are 
observed, as inverse 12, "became friends together that very day," 
" for " tlie same day were made friends together " (Auth). 

15 E3 sent him unto us —So Wycl., following some 


ancient Latin MSS., though Yulg. has remisi vos ad ilium, which 
is according to the reading of the Gr. text followed by Tynd., 
Rheui. and Auth., " I sent you to him." 

Nothing worthy of death hath been done by him.— 

All English versions, " to him." The Gr. has the same ambiguity 
as in Matt. v. 21 (where see Note), and the proper meaning in 
such a case must be gathered from the context. Here the render- 
ing of Auth., " nothing worthy of death is done unto him," yields 
no adequate sense ; while admitting " by him " to be right, we 
have Pilate saying, "Behold, he is sent back to us by Herod; 
evidently, therefore, in Herod's judgement he has not committed 
any crime worthy of death." 

19 Insurrection.— So Tynd. Auth., with E-hem. and Vulg., "se- 
dition," but " insurrection " for the same Gr. in Mark xv. 7. 

22 It is worth noticing that the idiomatic " why," of Auth. was fii-st 
introduced by Rhem., expressing the idiomatic "ydp of the Gr., and 
emm of the Latin, Avhich Wycl. gives thus, "For what evil hath he 
done ? " It is omitted by Tynd. 

Kelease him. — So Aiith. for the same Gr. in verses 16, 20, 25 ; 
here "let him go." 

23 Asking. — The Gr. is usually so rendered in Auth. ; but in 
this one passage, perhaps because a stronger word would here 
seem more appropriate, Auth., folloAving Tynd., has " requiring," 
in verse 25 the milder word, " desired." 

" And of the chief priests." — (Auth.), omitted in Gr. text, 
also in Vulg. and Wycl. 

27 A great multitude of the people — i.e., of the Jewish 
people. Auth., omitting the article, " a great company of people." 

And of women who bewailed and lamented him.— The 

outward expression of grief was shown by the women only, 
according to the Gr. It might appear otherwise from the punc- 
tuation in Auth. "Also " (Auth.), is omitted by change in Gr. text. 

32 Two others, malefactors.— The change of " other " (Auth.) 
to " others," makes it plain in the English, as it is in the Gr., 
that the word " malefactors " is applicable only to the " two." Of 
late years this limitation of the word has been indicated by a 
comma after "other," "two other, malefactors," but it was not so 
in the Auth. of 1611 ; nor in Vulg., ducebantiir alii duo ne- 
c^iam cum eo ; nor in Wycl., " also other tweie-wicked men." 
Tynd. and Cranm. omit "other," "there were two evil-doers led 
with him." Genev. carefully marked the distinction, " there were 


two others, wliicli were evil-doers, led with him." It is evident 
from verse 33 that this was the meaning of the Evangelist. 

33 The place wliicli is called The skull. —All English 
versions, "Calvary," following Vnlg\, locum qui vucatur, 
Calvarice. Gr., Kpaviov. St. Luke, writing for Latins who were 
acquainted with Greek, does not give the Hebrew, " Golgotha," 
which we find in the first two Gospels with the interpretation 
added in Greek, "Golgotha, that is to say, the j)lace of a skull." 
Calvaria (Yulg.) is the Latin translation of Golgotha. 

84 And Jesus said, &C. — This is omitted, as shown in the Mar- 
gin, by " some ancient authorities," the chief of which is the 
Yatican MS. (Codex B.) The reader may cousiilt Westcott and 
Hort's Note in Vol. ii. of their Gr. Testament for a fidl investi- 
gation of the evidence; concluding with these observations: 
" Few verses of the Gospel bear in themselves a surer witness to 
the truth of what they record than this the first of tlie words 
from the cross ; but it need not therefore belong originally to 
the book in which it is now included. "We cannot doubt that 
it comes from an extraneous source. Nevertheless, like xxii. 
43 /., Matt. xvi. 2 /., it has exceptional claims to be permanently 
retained, with the necessary safe-guards, in its accustomed place." 

35 Scoffed at him.— See Note on chap. xvi. 14. 

The Christ of God, His chosen.— By change of Gr. text, 
for Auth., " Christ, the chosen of God." 

39 " Written ... in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew." 
— (Auth.) The omission of these words in the Gr. text renders 
unnecessary the suggestions made by Commentators in order to 
account for the different order in which the three languages are 
mentioned by St. Luke and St. John. 

Art not tliou the Christ?— By change in Gr. text for 
Auth., " If thou be Christ." The interrogation is even a 
sharper mode of railing than the hypothetical " if." 

42 In thy kingdom.— In thy majesty. All English versions, 

and Vulg., following the reading which is noticed in the Margin, 

have " into thy kingdom." 
44 Over the whole land.— So Tynd. and Geuev. Auth., with 

Wycl, Cranm., and Rhem., " the whole earth," but in Margin 

" land." 

Came over.— So Tynd. and Genev. Auth., with Cranm., 

" there was." Gr. iyivero i-Ki ; Wycl. and Rhem., " there was 

made," after Vulg., tenebrcB facice sunt. 


45 The sun's light failing.— Literally, " the sun failing : " the 
Gr. by change of Gr. text, is the same word as "being 
eclipsed " in English. All English versions, following another 
reading of the Gr. text, have " the snn was darkened." 

46 And when Jesus ha^d cried with a loud voice.— The 

alternative reading given in the Margin is admissible, as the Gr. 
participle may be so taken, in combination with the verb follow- 
ing ; and it might have appeai'ed the more probable, were it not 
that St. Matthew and St. Mark speak of his crying with a loud 
voice " My God, my God, why," &c. (Matt, xxvii. 46, Mark xv. 
34), and to that exclamation St. Luke may be thought here to 
refer. But after that, before or at the moment of giving up the 
ghost, he uttered another loud cry (see Matt, xxvii. 50, Mark 
XV. 37). It must, therefore, still be considered doubtful whether 
the text or margin is to be preferred. 

48 Returned, smiting their breasts.— Auth., with "Wycl. and 
Tynd. , " smote their breasts, and returned ; " as if they first did 
the one thing and then the other. Rhem. following Vulg., has 
" returned, knocking their breasts." 

50 A councillor. — One of the council, the Sanhedrin ; not what is 
now understood by a " counsellor," Auth. So Mark xv. 43. 

A righteous. — Auth., " a just." The change is consequent on 
the use of the same Eng'lish for the same Gr., in verse 47, " Cer- 
tainly this was a righteous man." 

52 Asked for.— Auth., " begged." Compare Matt, xxvii. 58, and 
Note there. 

53 A linen cloth.— So Auth., in Matt, xxvii. 59 ; but hero, and 
in Mark xv. 46, " linen." 

Tomb.— Auth,, " sepulchre," See Note on Matt, xxiii. 29. 

Had yet lain.— Auth., "was laid," which is the rendering of 
Auth. for another word, for which it is more ajipropriate, in 
verse 55. There the Gr. is irtdr], here it is ^v Keifitvos. • 

54 The Sabbath drew on.— Literally, as in the Margin, " began 
to dawn." But the literal rendering is not to be enforced here, 
as the Jewish sabbath began in the evening ; and the word is 
correctly used by St. Luke, in conformity with the Rabbinical 
practice of speaking of the sunset conventionally as the dawn of 
a new day. (Alford.) 

134 ST. LUKE— XXIV. 


1 At early dawn.— Literally, at " deep dawn." Autli., not so 
precisely, " very early in the morning.'' 

" And certain others with them." — (Auth.) Omitted by change 
in Gr. text. 

4 While. — Anth., " as." Tlie connection of the two clauses is one 
of time, not of cause and effect — dum, not quia. In verse 5 it is 
otherwise, and " as " is there correct. 

Dazzling. — Auth., " shining." The Gr. is the same word that is 
used of lightning in chap. xvii. 24. 

10 And the other women with them.— Auth., connecting 
" and," &c., with the previous clause, " and other women that were 
with them, which told." The omission of the relative " which " 
in the Gr. text makes necessary this change in the translation. 

11 Idle talk. — Auth. (alone), "idle tales;" a good rendering, 
excei)t that, being in tlie plural, it does not represent the con- 
tinued outpouring of words without sense, which is implied by 
the Gr., Xvpos. Rhem., "dotage." 

12 And he departed to his home, wondering. . . — Auth., 
" departed, wondering in himself." The Gr., ' to himself," irphs 
kavrlv, admits of either rendering ; but the sense appears to be 
determined by John xx. 10, relating to the same occasion, " the 
disciples went away again unto their own home," where the Gr. 

is the same, irpbs eavrovs. 

15 Questioned together.— Auth., reasoned." The Gr. is pro- 
perly, "sought together." 

17 And they stood still, looking sad. — By change in Gr. 
text for Auth., " as ye walk and are sad." The new rendering 
expresses a very natural action on the part of the two friends, 
stopping short in their walk, on being accosted with such a 
question by a stranger. 

18 Dost thou alone sojourn in Jerusalem, and not know? 

— Auth., with Tynd. and Rhem., " Art thou only a stranger in 
Jerusalem p " which gives the same meaning if " only " be con- 
nected with " thou," and not taken for an adverb and joined with 
the word following, " only a stranger." Vidg., tu solus pere- 
grinus es. The alternative rendering in the mai'gin seems not 
improbable, " Dost thou sojourn alone ? " 

ST. LUKE— XXIV. 135 

Sojourn. — Represents the Gr. more exactly tlian " art tliou a 
stranger p " which is the translation of another word in Auth. 

22 Amazed us. — This is the usual rendering of the word which is 
here in Auth. translated "made us astonished." See chap. ii. 47 ; 
Acts viii. 9. 

25 O foolish men.— Auth., " fools." See Note on chap. xi. 40. 

26 Behoved it not the Christ.— So Wycl., and so Auth. at 
verse 46, "Thus it behoved Christ to suffer; " but here, "ought 
not Christ to have suffered," with Tynd. and Rhem., making the 
question relate to the justice rather than to the necessity of 
Christ's sufferings. 

27 Interpreted.— So Tynd. and Rhem., following Yulg., inter- 
pretabatur. The Gr. word is not used again in the New Testa- 
ment ; the cognate noun is rendered " interpreter," 1 Cor. xiv. 28 

35 They rehearsea.— All Engl, versions, '-they told," which 
represents other and more common words ; elrjye'o^at, is used 
five times by St. Luke, and once by St. John, and not elsewhere 
in the New Testament. 

The things that liaji'pened by the way. — It is necessary 
to insert something in translating the elliptical phrase of the Gr., 
but it can hardly be said that any things " were done " by the 
way, as Auth. 

In the breaking of the bread. — Auth., "in breaking of 
bread." The article has a significance which is lost in Auth., 
leading us to associate the act of our Lord at the supper at 
Emmaus with what he had done four days before at the supper in 

39 As ye behold me having. — Auth., " as ye see me have." 
" Behold " and " see " are interchanged several times in this 
passage, conformably with the variation in the Gr. 

41 Anything to eat. — Auth., " any meat." The Gr. is, literally, 
" any eatable." 

44 My words. — " My " is added in the Gr. text. Auth., " the 

49 Until ye be clothed.— So Wycl. Auth., following Tynd., 
" until ye be endued." " Endue," etymologically, is the same in 

136 ST. LUKE— XXI Y. 

meaning as " clothe," but is now used exclusively in a metaplior- 
ical sense, and is not an equivalent of the Gr; evSvo/xai (enduoinai), 
which is frequently used both by St. Luke and St. Paul, e.g., 
Eph. vi. 11, " Put on the whole armour of God." It is not else- 
where rendered " endue " in Auth. 

50 Until they were over against Bethany.— For " as far 

as to Bethany " (Auth.) ; not actually to the village, but until 
they could look down upon it from the ridge of the Mount of 
Olives, which lies between it and Jerusalem. 

51 He parted from them. — Auth., " he was parted." The Gr. 
has not a passive sense. It is used in the New Testament by St. 
Luke only. Previous versions have, " he departed." Vu'g., 
recessit ab eis. 

63 " Praising." — (Auth.). Omitted by change in Gr. toxt. 




3 The Margin shows that the Gr. is " all things were made throngli 
him," the Gr. preposition being 5td, " through," not Ctto, " by ; " 
but the literal rendering here, as in Matt. ii. 5 (where see Note), 
would scarcely have been intelligible to the English reader. It is 
otherwise in Heb. i. 2: " God . . . hath spoken to us in his sou 
, . . through whom also he made the worlds," where " throngli 
whom," as denoting instrumentality, is explained by the context. 

5 Apprehended it not. — All Engl, versions, " comprehended 
it not," following ^''^^g- "Apprehend" is the rendering of the 
same Gr. in Phil. iii. 12, 13 (Auth.), and has been here adopted 
as better expressing the metaphorical sense of the word, " to seize 
mentally, to perceive," than the Anth., " comprehend," which in 
its metaphorical sense is to " embrace, or grasp fully " with the 
understanding. This meaning is also in accordance with what 
is said in verse 11, " his own received him not." 

The alternative rendering in the Margin, " the darkness overcame 
it not," " did not overtake and conquer it," is consistent with the 
usage of the word in John xii. 35, " that darkness overtake you 
not," and elsewhere in the New Testament, but would here be 

6 There came a man— i.e., came into being, as in Mark i. 11, 
" a voice caine out of the heavens," and in other passages, where 
the Gr. is the same, 4yeveTo -. it is here preferable to " was " 
(Auth.), which is liable to be joined with " sent," as if the mean- 
ing were that which is given by WycL, " a man was sent from 
God." Had tliat been intended, the vei-se would have begun like 
chap. iii. 1, " There was a man," ^Hj/ U avepccnos. The necessary 

138 ST. JOHN— I. 

and proper use of "came" in the next verse, as tte literal transla- 
tion of ^xde, may be thought an objection to its employment here 
in another sense, and for a different Gr. word. The answer must 
1)6, that the two words of the Gr., though they differ in literal 
meaning, in sense are not here widely apart ; the one properly 
"became," "was made," as at verse 2, the other " came," i.e., to 
men, for witness. If there existed an English equivalent to the 
Gr. yiyvea-eai, in all its applied uses, undoubtedly it woidd have 
been found very convenient in the translation of the New Testa- 

7 Came for witness — i.e., for testimony, as Rliem. Auth., fol- 
lomng Genev., "for a witness," which, though a correction of 
Tynd., " came as a witness," is open to the interpretation that he 
came to be in his own person "a witness," a giver of testimony. 

8 But came. — Auth., following Craum., " was sent," which sup- 
plies more than is needed for the sense. Wycl., Tynd., and 
Rhem. give the sentence -without any insertion, "He was not that 
light, but to bear witness," which if intelligible is abrupt and 
harsh. The proper connecting liiJi is " came," suggested by the 
preceding verse. 

9 There was the true light. — Auth., " that was the true 
liglit." Wycl., " there was a very light." TjTid., " that was a 
true light." Ci'anm., " that light was the true light." Genev., 
" that was that true light." Jlhem., " it was the true liglit." 
AH these, except Wycl. and Rhem., by throwing the em- 
phasis on " true light," diminish the importance which attaches 
to the first word of the sentence in Gr., ^y, when it is viewed in 
connection with eytvero, said of John in verse 6, and ^v, said of 
the " Word" in verses 9 and 10. John " came into being," came 
to men for witness ; there was always the true Light, and He was 
always in the world, though unknown to it, tiU He "came" in 
the likeness of human nature ; and then He was not received. 

Even the light which Ughteth every man, coming into 

the world. — Auth., "which lighteth every man that cometh 
into the world." So, with slight variations, aU the Engl. 
versions, and Vidg., Erat hix vera, qitce illuminat omneni homi- 
nem venientem in Mine imtndum. An ambiguity is caused in 
tlie Gr. by the participle, wliich is of doubtfid gender, and appli- 
cable, if masculine, to "man;" if neuter, to " light ;" and the 
context will accommodate itself, more or less easily, to either 
alternative. The comma placed in the text after " man," and the 
reading of " coming into," for " that cometh into," are intended 
to sever the participle from " man " which immediately precedes 

ST. JOHN— T. 139 

it, and to connect it with "There was the true light "at tlie 
beginning of the sentence ; but on consideration of wliat has 
been said in the former Note on this verse, and of the words in 
verse 10, " He was in the world," it may be thought that to say 
here, " He was coming into the world," is somewhat at variance 
with what precedes and follows ; moreover, if this had been 
intended, "There was " would not have been so far separated 
from the dependent participle, " coming." The Revised Yersion 
shows a decided preference for this interpretation, but does not 
preclude the other, which is that of the ancient fathers, versions, 
and expositors, as well as of the Engl, versions, and according to 
which the great truth is here declared, that before the coming of 
John there was in the world the true light (shown in the next 
verse to be Christ himself) which enlightens eveiy man born into 
the world : every man, wliether he have knowledge of Christ or 
not, on coming into tlie world receives light from Him. " To 
come into the world " is a common Hebrew idiom for " to 1)6 
bom," according to Yorst, de Hebraismis, p. 713, quoted by 
"Wordsworth in Note on this place. 

11 He came unto his own, and they that were his own 
received him not. — All Engl, versions except Wycl. have, 
" He came unto his own, and his own received him not," over- 
looking the difference in gender of the same adjective in the two 
clauses of the sentence. In the former the Gr, is, " unto his own 
things," meaning that " he came unto his own home," the land of 
Israel ; in the latter, " they that were his own," his own peculiar 
people, the Israelites, " received liim not." The distinction 
iDetween the neutei*, to XSta, and the masculine, oi ifSiot, is pre- 
sei'ved in Wycl., " He came to liis own things, and liise {sic) 
received him not," following Yiilg., in propria venit, et sui eum 
non receperunt. 

12 Gave he the right. — All Engl, versions, "gave he the 
power." Yulg., potestateni. The Gr. i^ovaia is usually 
" authority," in virtue of which a person exercises power or rule 
over others who are placed under him; but where, as in this place, 
the word indicates a certain relation between him who receives 
and him who gives it, the English equivalent is " a right," rather 
than an " authority," or " power." 

Children. — All Engl, versions, " sons." The Gr. is reKva. 

14 The Word became flesh. — Auth., "was made flesh," with 
all Engl, versions, except Cranm., " became." This is the proper 
sense of the Gr. iyepero, and not to be departed from, where that 
word is used in speaking of the mystery of the Incarnation, though 

140 ST. JOHN— I. 

" was made " may safely be taken to represent it in verse 3. The 
Word became flesb by His oyra will ; the world became the world, 
was made, by the will of God, through the Word. 

14 Dwelt among us. — The Gr., ia-K-fivtaa-e, " tabernacled," may 
signify either that He sojom-ned among men as in a temporary 
teut or tabernacle (so Bengel), or that our flesh was to Him what 
the tabernacle in the wilderness was to the Shechiuah, the Divine 
glory, His abode, His holy j)lace. (So Chrysostom and Words- 
worth.) The former and simpler of these two interpretations is 
to be preferred, "He dwelt, or sojoui-ued, in the midst of us, 
and we, among whom he lived, beheld," &e., and taking it thus, 
we may understand that in the 16th verse, " we all receiA'cd," &e., 
" all " is added in order to include, besides the actual eye- 
witnesses, the whole Christian brotherhood. (Westcott.) 

The only begotten from the Father. — All Engl, versions, 
" of the Father." The full meaning is, " the glory of the only 
begotten, sent to us from the Father." (wapa narpos.) 

15 John beareth witness of him and crieth.— So Wycl. and 
Cranm., following Vulg. Autli., " bare witness of him, and 
cried," with Tynd., Genev., and Beza. Tlie past tense seems 
to have been adopted because the Gr. perfect, KtKpaye, was sup- 
posed to require a past rendering, whereas it speaks of an act 
still continuing in its effect, " he hath cried," and his voice is 
stiU sounding. Ajid so of the former vex-b, which is in the 
present tense, fiaprvpe?, he " beareth witness," his testimony 
stands as if it were this day delivered. Comp. Note on Matt. 
i. 22. 

Is become before me. — Auth., following Genev., " is pre- 
ferred before me," as Beza, mihi antepositus est. Tlie previous 
versions vaiy much. Wycl., "is made before me," following 
Vulg., ante me fadus est. Tynd., " was before me, because he 
was yer (ere) than I." Cranm., "which though ho came after 
me, went before me, for he was before me." Rhem., '' He that 
shall come after me is made before me, because he was before 
me." None of these yield either a satisfactory meaning or a 
faithful rendering. Even when a clear perception of tlie true 
rendering and meaning has been obtained, there is much diffi- 
culty in translating the words with precision and xierspicnity. 
The Anth. is misleading, as the sense in which " preferred " is 
now used is not contained in the original. Tlie literal transla- 
tion, which lias been adopted, gives the true sense, though in 
• awkward plu*ase, " He that cometh after me is become before me," 
hath his place before me, hath precedence of me, " for he was," 


in time, " before me." So, as regards the meauiug, Beugel : " is 
come-to-be befoi'e me," would very "well express iu Euglisli idiom 
tlie Gr. for wliieli we have " is become before me," but would be 
ambiguous ; for taken in connection with " he that cometh after 
me," it might bo understood to mean " is come in order to be 
before me." 

16 For of his fulness.— "For," instead of "and" (Auth.), by 
change in Gv. test. " His fuhiess " has reference to verse 14, 
'•■ full of grace and truth," the testimony of John iu verse 15 being 
parenthetical. (Westcott. ) 

18 The only begotten Son.— The reading in the Margin, God 
only begotten, 0EO2, for TI02, is found in the two MSS. which 
are of the highest authority, the Sinaitic and tlie Vatican, and in 
many others, several of which are of great value ; it is also sup- 
ported by the testimony of some of the most ancient versions and 
some of the Greek Fathers. The reading iu the text lias on its 
side several of the early MSS., as the Alexaudi-ine, and the great 
majority of the later ; also the Latin and other ancient versions, 
some of tlie Gi'eek Fathers, as Eusebius and Athanasius, and, so 
far as is known, all the Latin Fathers. The reading, " God only 
begotten," has been adopted by several of the principal editors 
of the Greek Testament, as by Tregelles, and by Professors 
Westcott and Hort. But where tlie ancient authorities are so 
diAaded, it has been thought better in the version to follow the 
revised text, rather than to adopt a reading which is not illus- 
trated by any like expression iu the Holy Scriptures. 

19 The witness of John. — Auth., with Tyud., here has "record," 
but for the same Gr., " witness," usually, as at vei-se 7. 

24 And they had been sent from.— By change of Gr. text for, 
" and they which were sent were of the Pharisees." 

26 In the midst of you standeth one.— More emphatic in 
iang-uage, as well as collocation, than Aiith., " There standeth one 
among you." The Gr. is /xea-os v/xuv. 

27 The changes in this verse are due to changes in Gr. text. 

28 Bethany.— By change of Gr. text for Auth., " Bethabara," 
which appears to have been substituted for the true reading in 
the MSS., on the suggestion of Origen in the 3rd century, who 
was not aware of there being in the time of our Lord another 
Bethany besides that on the Mount of Olives, the residence of 
Lazarus and his sisters. 

142 ST. JOHN— I. 

33 Abiding. — As in verse 32. Atith., following Rliem., "remain- 
ing," the proper meaning of wliicb, and the meaning which it 
has in Auth., is "staying behind," or " sm'viving." 

35 Was standing. — AU Engl, versions, " stood." This participial 
rendering, to exx^ress the imperfect, has several times been 
adopted in this Gospel. 

39 Ye shall see. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., '• Come and 

Where he ahode. — Auth., " where he dwelt." The word in the 
Gr. is the same, three times repeated, but in Aiitli. is varied to 
avoid the iteration, which, as a feature in the style of the original, 
is to be preserved at whatever sacrifice of elegance. 

41 rindeth first.— For Auth., "first findeth," by change of Gr. 
text, the accusative for the nominative {irpuTov for Trpwros) ; which 
suggests that another was found afterwards. 

42 By interpretation, Peter — i.e., in the Greek language 
(Petros). Auth., " a stone," the interpretation in English, more 
correctly given in the Margin, " That is, rock, or stone." 

48, 50 Under . . . underneath— represent diifereut Gr. words, 
uvra vnh ttjc ffvKrjv, denoting his being gone thither ; vnoKdrw rfjs 
crvKTis, his being there. 

51 " Hereafter."— (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

The heaven opened. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., "heaven 
oj)en," with Tynd. The Gr. is the participle, auecfiySra. The 
opening or rending of the heavens is a Scriptural symbol of the 
intercourse between God and man, fii'st met ^A'ith in Isa. Ixiv. 1. 
" Oh that thou wouldest rend the heavens, that thou wouldest come 
down ! " (Comp. Matt. iii. 16.) The Psalms have a similar ex- 
pression, " Bow the heavens," xviii. 9, cxliv. 5. 

ST. JOHN— 11. 143 


2 Bidden. — Auth., " called," but elsewhere " biddeu," for tlie same 
Gr., iu the sense of " invited." 

3 When the wine failed.— So Tynd., with "VVycl. and Vulg., 
deficiente vino. Auth., '' when they wanted wiue." 

6 After the Jews' manner of purifying.— More perspicuous 

than Autli., " after the manner of the purifying of the Jews." 

8, 9 The ruler . . . the ruler. — The Gr. is the same in both 
places. Auth. ," the ruler . . . the governor;" a notable instance 
of studious variation, made even at the risk of perplexing tlie 

9 Now become wine. — Auth., "that was made wine," following 
Wycl., Rhem., and Auth., aqiumi vinum factam. Gr., yeyevn/jLeiov. 

10 Setteth on — i.e., on the table. Wycl. and Rhem., "setteth." 
Auth., following Tynd., " setteth forth." The Gr. is Tie-qai ; " set 
forth " would represent irpoTldrtai. 

First. — Auth., with Tynd., has the paraphrase " at the begin- 

Have drunk freely. — Auth., vnth Genev. and Rhem., " have 
well drunk." Tynd. and Cranm., " when men be drunk," follow- 
ing Yulg., cuvi inebriati fuerint. This last is the exact meaning 
of the word here used by the jociuid ruler of the feast. 

11 This beginning of his signs. — Wycl. has " signs," follow- 
ing Yulg., sij/Jicf. Avitli., with Tynd., "miracles." The use of 
this word, Gr. a-nixiiov, is characteristic of St. John, who has not 
the ordinary word of the other Evangelists, ivva^jus, for " a 
miracle," either in his Gospel or 4113 Epistles. On the other hand, 
in the fii'st three Gospels, o-n/j.i'tov is rarely found iu the sense of a 
miracle, as in Luke xxiii. 8. St. John views the miracles of 
Christ as " signs " of His Godhead, the other Evangelists as mani- 
festations of His mighty power. The word " miracle," in its 
original meaning, expresses neither of these ideas, being properly 
" a wonder." 

His signs. — " His " represents the article, which is overlooked 
in Autli. 

13 The passover of the Jews — as Wycl., is a more perspicuous, 
as also a fuller rendering of the Gr., than '"the Jews' passover," 
Auth. and Tynd. 

144 ST. JOHN— IL 

15 Cast out. — Autli., "di'ove out," with Wycl. and Tyiul. The 
same Gr. is rendered " cast out" iu Auth. in the similar passage 
of Matt. xxi. 12. 

Cast all out . . . both the sheep and the oxen.— 

Auth., '• drove them all out . . . and the sheep, and the oxen." 
It appears from tlie Gr. that this applies to the animals only, not 
to the men {Travras being governed as to gender by fioas rather 
than 7rp6^araj. 

17 Shall eat me up.— By change of Gr. text for Auth., "hath 
eaten me up." In the Psalms (Ixix. 9) the j)ast tense is used. 

20 Haise it up.— So Wycl. and Ehem. Auth., with Tynd., "rear 
it up." The Gr. is the same as in verse 19. 

22 Was raised from the dead.— The same Gr. verb, in the 
active voice, is used in the preceding verses of "raising up" tlie 
temple. The connection is obscured in all the Engl, versions by 
the varied rendering " when he was risen," foHowhig Yulg., cum 

24 Did not trust himself. — Auth., following Cranm. and Rhem., 
"did not commit himself." Tynd., "put not himself in tlutir 
hands." The Gr., in(mvw, thus used transitively, expresses trust, 
as it does in its ordinary intransitive use in verse 23. Comp. 
Rom. iii. 2. 

For that he knew all men, and because he needed 

not.— So Rhem., and similarly Wycl., foIlo\ving Vulg., eo quod 
ipse nosset omnes, ct quia. Aiith., with Tynd., "because he knew 
all men, and needed not." Two reasons are given, separate 
though connected, the one being consequent on the other. 

25 He himself knew.— The Gr. pronoun, aMs, occurs four times 
in these two verses. Twice it is emj)hatic as nominative case to a 
verb, but in the 24th Averse, " Jesus did not trust himself," it 
coidd not, without needless tautology, have been expressed in 

ST. JOHN— III. 145 


3 Eom anew. — Mixrgin, " Or, from above." The Gr., &vco9ev,hcis 
both meanings, that in the Margin being proper to it, the other 
dei'ivative, "from above," from tlie beginning, or source, as in 
Gal. iv. 9, " Te desire to be in bondage over again." In this 
place, expositors from the time of Chrysostom have been divided 
between the two alternatives, either of which fits the context, 
and is true. The chief reason for giving preference to the mean- 
ing in the text is that it appears to have been so understood by 
Nicodemus in the next verse ; otherwise the usage of St. John 
would determine in favour of " from above," as in verse 31 of 
this chap., and in chap. xix. 11. 

8 The wind . . . the spirit. — The same Gr. word, nyevfia, is 
used in both parts of the verse, and is rendered " spirit " in both 
places by Wycl. and Rhem., following Yulg. But it is certainly 
used for " wind " in other places, as Heb. i., and in the LXX., 
and the context seems to require both senses here : for there is 
manifestly a comparison between the natural element which blows 
or breathes (irvet) and is heard, and the supernatural power ; both 
are invisible, both, in their origin and course, past finding out. 
The word ■Kvev/j.a, as distinguished from &ve/u.o?, denotes a gently- 
breathing wind, producing the " still, small voice." 

Voice.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., with Tynd., " sound." 
The Gr., (pcov-fj, usually signifies an articulate sound, as in 1 Cor. 
xiv. 7. 

Enowest not.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., "canst not 
tell :" one of the many idiomatic but inexact renderings which are 
due to Tynd. 

15 See marginal Note : " believeth " stands by itself, as in several 
other places of this Gospel. (Comp. chap. iv. 42.) 

17 The Son.—" His" (Auth.) is omitted in Gr. text. 

17, 18, 19 Judge, judgement.— For Auth., "condemn, condemna- 
tion," the Gr. being /cpiVw, Kpi<ns, not KaraKpivu, KardKpicns. 

20 Doeth ill. — So Rhem. only. AU other versions, "doeth evil." 
The Gr. is a word denoting, not as in verse 19, things positively 
evil, but negatively so, "mean," "base." 

25 A questioning on the part of John's disciples with a 

Jew. — Auth., "a question between," &c. The Gr. denotes, not 
a question, but the discussing of a question, and shews that it 


146 ST. JOHN— IV. 

originated witli the disciples of John, " on their part " (^«). " A 
Jew" is by change in Gr. text for Auth., " the Jews." 

31 Is of the earth.— (Repeated.) So Tynd., following the Gr. 
Auth., with Cranm. and Genev., "is earthly." Rhem. has 
relieved tlie monotony and strengthened the emphasis by revers- 
ing the order of the second clause — " He that is of the earth, of 
the earth he is : " he is true to his origin, he does not soar 
above it. "Earthly " (Auth.) means, not as the Gr., " springing 
out of the earth," but " belonging to the earth." 

33 Hath set his seal to this.— Auth., " hath set to his seal," 
an archaic use of " set to." 

34 For he giveth not the Spirit by measure. — The limit- 
ing words, unto him, have no i^lace in the Gr., and were first 
inserted by Cranm. The omission of the defining word at the 
beginning of the clause, " God," which stands in all the English 
versions, is due to change in Gr. text ; it is uncertain, but also 
immaterial, whether "he " shoidd he referred to God or to 

36 Obeyeth not.— Auth., "believeth not." The Gr. is not the 
same as in the former part of the verse, and may mean either 
" disobey " or " disbelieve." 


6 Sat thus by the well— i.e., as any weary man might sit. 
Compare chap. xiii. 25. 

" Tlie well " is called here and in verse 14 " a spring," but in 
verse 11 " a well." It still goes by both names, thougli seventy, 
five feet deep, and dry. (Westcott.) 

15 All the way. — An addition consequent on change in Gr. text. 

22 Ye worship that which ye know not. — So the Gr. and 

Wycl., following Vulg., vos adoratis quod nescitis. Auth., " Te 
worship ye know not what." The true meaning is, " Te worship 
a deity of whom ye have a conception, but ye know him not." 
According to Auth. it would be " Te worship ye know not 

ST. JOHN— IV. 147 

what — sometlung undefined and indistinct, even in your own 

23 For such, doth the Father seek to be his worship- 
pers. — Autli., " to worship." The Gr. participle denotes a 
class, the class spoken of again in verse 24, "they that worship 
liim." The rendering of Anth. points, not to the class, but to the 
act of worshipping. 

25 Declare. — Auth., " teU." The Gr. is especially said of one who 
makes an announcement by Divine authority, as at chap. xvi. 13. 
" He (the Spirit) shall declare unto you the things to come." 

27 With a woman. — So Rhem. AH other versions, " with the 
woman." The article, though not in the Gr., might after the 
preposition be imderstood. But the position of the words shows 
them to be emphatic. The Jewish rabbis despised women, and 
did not willingly converse with them in public. (Lightfoot and 
Schoettgen, quoted by Wordsworth.) 

29 Can this be the Christ ?— Auth., " is not this the Christ?" 
(following Tynd.). The nearest idiomatic rendering would be, 
" This man is not the Christ, is he ? " 

34 To accomplish. — The Gr. word, signifying to " complete " or 
" perfect," is found chiefly in the Gospel and Epistles of St. 
John, and the Epistle to the Hebrews, and in Auth. is most com- 
monly rendered " make perfect ; " here, " finish." 

38 Ye have not laboured. — Auth., following the paraphrase of 
Tynd., made for the sake of variety, " Ye bestowed no labour." 

42 Because of thy speaking.— Wycl., "thy speech." Yulg., 
tuam loquelam. Auth., with Tynd., " thy saying," which sug- 
gests that they were convinced by some single saying of the 
woman, as by what she said in verse 29, " He told me all things 
that ever I did ; " but there is nothing in the Gr. to support 
such an interpretation. 

148 ST. JOHN— V. 


3 The passage given in the marginal Note, being part of verse 3 
and the whole of verse 4 in Auth., is omitted on the authority of 
f onr out of the five leading MSS. ; it is also marked as spurious 
in many others. The majority of modern editors of the Gr. 
Testament have rejected it. It is, however believed to be a very 
early interpolation, giving probably the popidar Jewish explana- 
tion of the troubling of the water, which would now be regarded 
as a natural phenomenon, the salutary pool being supplied by an 
intermittent spring of mineral water. 

5 Had been ... in his infirmity. — Auth., following 
Tynd., "had an infii-mity." The Gr. phrase is the same here 
and in tl:e next verse. 

10 To take up.— So Cranm. and Rhem. Auth., with Tynd. and 
Genev., "to carry." The Gr. is the same as in verses 8 and 11. 

18 Called God his own Father.— All English versions omit 
" own," the proper rendering of the Gr. tStov, expressed in Vulg. 
by sumji. The omission is the more remarkable, as of the foui-- 
teen places in this Gospel in which the word occurs, this is the 
only one in which it is not in Auth. rendered "his own " — e.g., 
chap. i. 11, 41. Compare Rom. viii. 3, " God sending his own 
Son." The restoration of this word to its place in the English 
text makes it manifest that, according to the view of the Jews 
themselves, as recorded by St. Jolm, our Lord spoke of God as 
His Father, not as any God-fearing person might take that rela- 
tion to himself, btit in a sense implying personal Fatherhood and 

24, 29 Judgement. — Auth., "condemnation," " damnation," though 
the same Gr. is the ruling word throughout this passage. 

27 The Son of man. — The article, which is in the Gr. in verses 
12, 23, is here omitted ; as it is also in xix. 7, " He made himself 
the Son of God." The title, " the Son of man," is often used in 
the four Gospels ; and this is the only place where it is written 
without the article. But it does not ap^iear that any difference in 
meaning is to be inferred from the omission in a phrase of such 
frequent occurrence. 

29 The two Gr. words here rendered " have done " may be distin- 
guished in English by " done " and "practised," as in Rom. vii. 
15, 19 ; but in this passage there was more to be lost by inter- 
cepting the parallelism of the two parts of the sentence than was 

ST. JOHN— V. 149 

to be gaiued by markiug a tlistinetiou wliicli lias no strong signi- 
ficance. St. Pan! in 2 Cor. v. 10 uses irpdffcrw, " to practise," in 
the same connection. 

34 The witness which I receive is not from man. — It is 

tlius affirmed that He does receive witness, tlioiigli not from man. 
All English versions, " I receive not testimony from man." This 
rendering is simply a negation, without any implied affirmative, 
and is due to neglect of the article with " witness " in the Gr. 

35 He was the lamp that hurneth and shineth.— WycL, 

"a lantern burning and shining," and so Rliem., following Vulg., 
hicerna ardens et splendens. Auth., with Tynd., " the light 
that burneth and shineth," overlooking a material point in this 
description of the Baptist. He was emphatically the lamp that 
biirneth (6 Kaio/j-fvos, pi'operly, "that is made to burn ") and shineth, 
not himself the source of light, but the vessel containing and 
shewing it. " He was not tlie light " (chap. i. 8). The Jews 
were fain to rejoice, to bask, as it were, for awhile in the light 
which he shed around him, but not to follow its guidance in 
earnest when he would lead them on to Christ. 

37 His form. — All English versions, " shape." Yulg., speciem. 
" Form " does not apply so definitely as " shape " to the outline 
of a figure, and is, on tliat account, a better rendering of the Gr. 

39 Ye search the Scriptures. — All English versions have 
the imperative " search." The Gr. may be either. In the 
context reasons may be found for either rendering ; and 
consequently there have been interpreters of high autho- 
rity taking opposite sides, both in ancient and modern 
times. The Greek fathers, whose opinion in a question of 
Gr. ought to have great weight, ai-e for the imperative, with 
the remarkable exception of Oyi'il of Alexandria, who ai'gues 
strongly against the imperative as not being in harmony with the 
context (Comment, in Joann., vol. iv., p. 260, ed. Aubert, 1638). 
In recent times Erasmus, Bengel, Lllcke, and the majority of 
commentators, have been for the indicative ; and even those who 
cannot reconcile themselves to the loss of a familiar and truly 
scriptural precept must admit that with the indicative the sequence 
of thought rims easily along, " Ye search the Scriptures because 
ye think that in them ye have eternal life ; and it is those veiy 
Scriptures which testify of me, and direct you to me ; and yet ye 
will not come to me, to obtain the life which ye seek for in those 
Scriptm-es, and which they direct you to seek for in me." 

The identity in Gr. of the indicative and imperative of the second 

150 ST. JOHN— VI. 

person plural is the occasion o£ several ambiguities in the New 
Testament, and especially in this Gospel. See chaps, xii. 19 ; 
xiv. 1 ; XV. 18, 27, texts not so conspicuous, but quite as dubious 
as this. 

44 Gloiry. — ^uth., " honour," which represents tI/xt], rather than 

45 On whom ye have set your hope.— Wycl., "in whom ye 
hope." Auth., with Tyud., " in whom ye trust." The Gr. is 
literally, " in whom ye have hoped." 


3, 15 The mountain. — ("With the article in Gr.) The well-kuo^-n 
mountainous rim of the lake. . 

11 " He distributed to the disciples." — (Auth.) Omitted by change 
in Gr. text, probably interpolated from Matt. xiv. 19, as a ne- 
cessary link in the narrative. The co-operation of the disciples in 
the distribution may be understood, though not expressed. See 
Notes on the parallel passage of Matt. xiv. 13, &c. 

12 Broken pieces. — Auth., "fragments;" Gk.. KXacr/xara. These, 
as Ave learn from the other Evangelists (Matt. xiv. ; Mark xi. ; 
Luke ix.), were the pieces which He himself broke and distributed 
to the disciples. Tlie incident is presei-ved in all tlie four 
Gospels; and besides the plain and obvious warning that the 
gifts of God are not to be wasted, we may see in it a deeper 
meaning, a symbolical illustration of the saying of our Lord, 
recorded by St. John only, chap. iii. 34, " He givetli not the Spirit 
by measure : " His gifts of gi'ace, our spiritual food, are pro^-ided 
in superabundance, like the bodily food which He supplied to the 
five thousand : as it was said of the manna, none shall lack, and to 
none shall there be any over ; yet there is more than enough for 
aU. This truth St. Paid repeats again and again in language 
of his own, which cannot be deemed hyperbolical when we call 
to mind the saying of our Lord, and the illustration which 
it receives from His action in this passage. Comp. Rom. ii. 4; 
V. 17 ; 2 Cor. iv. 15 ; Eph. iii. 8 ; 1 Tim. iv. 14, where the Apostle 
delights to dwell on the " imsearchable riches of Christ," on " the 
exceeding abundance of His grace," &c. 

ST. JOHN— VI. 151 

15 Jesus therefore perceiving. — Auth., " when Jesus per- 
ceived," wliicli indicates a point of time when He became aware. 
It is well in such things (lesser things though they may be), rela- 
ting to our Lord, to adhere as closely as possible to the original. 

Withdrew. — Auth., " departed." The Gr. word has here the 
same proper and definite meaning in which it is so often used by 
St. Matthew. 

21 They were willing therefore to receive him. — Auth., 
less exactly, " they willingly received him ; " following Geuev., 
" they most willingly received him." 

24 They themselves (following the example of the disciples) 
got into the boats — i.e., into those which ai-e described in vei'se 
23 and here as " little boats," which came from Tiberias after the 
departure of that in which the disciples had gone away " alone." 
Auth., with Tynd., " took shipping," thus losing sight of the cou- 
secutiveness of the narrative, which, however, was obscured by 
the difference in the Gr. text between the " little boats " in verse 
23 and " boats " in verse 24. " Little boats " is now the Gr. in 
both places. 

27 Work not. — So Wycl. and Rhem. The Gr. is the word com- 
monly so rendered. Auth., " labour not," which represents 
KOTTidw. The endeavour after the spiritual hfe and its blessedness 
is usually designated a " work " ; a " labour " in scriptural lan- 
guage denotes spiritual travail and weariness : " Come unto me, 
all ye that labour and are heavy laden." 

The Father, even God.— So Rhem. ; an instance of the 
careful attention paid to the Gr. in the execution of that ver- 
sion. Vulg., Pater signavit Be^is. All other vei'sions, " God 
the Father," an expression which, though not infrequent in the 
Epistles, does not occur elsewhere in the Gospels, 

32 It was not Moses that gave you the bread out of 
heaven — i.e., the true, the heavenly bread. The manna which 
he gave was only a type of that. All Engl, versions, " Moses 
gave you not that bread from heaven ; " where, by rendering the 
Gr. article " that " instead of " the," a reference seems intended 
to the bread just before mentioned — viz., to the manna — and the 
real bearing of our Lord's answer is lost. 

33 Is that which cometh down. — SoWycl. and Rhem.; Auth., 
" is he who." Even if the Gr. admits of a doubt, the next verse 
shews that these words were understood by the Jews in reference 
to bread, and the meaning given in Auth. is in anticipation of 
what is distinctly said in verses 35, 38. 

152 ST. JOHN— VI. 

37 All that which the Father giveth me.— Autli., "Allthat 
the Father giA-eth me," which might be misunderstood as mean, 
ing, " All they that," &c. The Gr. is in the singular, irau '6. The 
whole body of the believers, " the mass," as Bengal expresses it, 
are the gift of the Patlier to the Son; and then the individual is 
mentioned, "him that cometh to me," &c. Compare chap, 
xvii. 2. 

42 Now (added in Gr. text) has a special significance. " How doth 
he now say what is so inconsistent with his parentage and child- 
hood, which are so well known to us ? " 

45 Every one that hath heard from the Father, and hath 

learned.— Supply, /?"07n. hun. Auth., "Every man that hath 
heard, and hatli learned of the Father." The meaning in this 
verse and the next is confused, by using " of " in two different 
senses for two different Gr. prepositions. (l)."They shall all 
be taught of (i.e., by) God ; " (2) " hath heard, and hath learned of 
(i.e., from) the Father ; " and again, " he which is of (i.e., from) 
God " — i.e., " the Sou." 

The position in the Gr. of " and hath learned," separated off 
from ' ' hath heard," is significant, showing that it is possible to 
" hear from God," by the teaching of His Spirit, without learning 
the heavenly wisdom which He teaches, and that he only who 
both hears and learns really comes to Christ. 

47 " On me." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

49 They died.— So Rhem. alone ; aU other Engl, versions, " they 
are dead," and so Vulg., viortui sunt. The sense of the aorist 
in this verb is not to be overlooked. It is true they " died ; " is 
it true that they " are dead " ? God is not the God of the dead, 
they all live unto Him. (See Rom. vi. 2 — 8.) 

51 " Which I will give."— (Auth., after "my flesh.") Omitted by 
change in Gr. text. 

52 Strove one with another. — Auth., " strove among them- 
selves," which does not make it so plain as it is in the Gr., that 
the " war '' of words [fudxoyro) was carried on between man and 

53 Ye have not life in yourselves — i.e.. Ye have not in your 
own selves the source and spring of the eternal life. All Engl, 
versions, " Ye have no life in you," which fails to bring out the 
deep meaning of the original. 

55 Margin, " Gr. true meat." This is added because the reading in 

the Gr. text is changed from " truly " to " true." 

ST. JOHN— VII. 153 

67 I live because of the Father.— Autb., " by tho Father," 
which would require the Gr. preposition Sid to be followed by the 
gcuitive, not, as it is, by tlie accusative. If we cannot see or 
cannot fully appreciate the difference, we are not the less bound 
to render the words with accuracy. 

66 Upon this. — Auth., "from this time." The Gr. admits of 
either a temporal or a causal sense ; the latter seems the more 
appropriate here, as also at xix. 12, " upon this Pilate sought to 
release him." 

67 Would ye also go away?— Auth., "Will ye." The Gr. is 
MT].Ka\ vix€7s 0e'A€T6 — " Ye would not, would ye ? " Compare Matt, 
xxvi. 22, and Note there. 

70 Did not I choose you the twelve.— All Engl, versions, 
misled by the absence of the article in the Vidg., " Have not I 
chosen you twelve." He chose them not merely " twelve " in 
number, but " the twelve," whd were to be the founders of His 
Church, and were to sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve 
tribes of Israel. It cannot be doubted that this name, " the 
twelve," by which they are so often designated in the Gospels, 
and once in the Epistles of St. Paul (1 Cor. xv. 5), was adopted 
by the disciples in consequence of its use by our Lord. 


1 Judsea. — Auth., following Tynd., " Jewry," the old English 
name for Judah, or the region inliabited by Jews. It occurs 
only once more in the Bible, Dan. v. 13, but is familiar to us 
from its use in the Psalter of the Prayer Book, Ps. Ixxvi. 1, " In 
Jewry is God known," where " Judali " is substituted in Auth. 
The prevalence of another English word with the same sound 
may account for its disuse. The Auth. here has " Judaea " in the 
next verse, and the A^ariety might lead an unwary reader to sup- 
pose that Jewry was not the same district as Judtea. 

2 The feast of the Jews, the feast of tabernacles.— 

Auth., "The Jews' feast of tabernacles." St. John, writing for 
Gentile as well as Jewish Christians, introduces the name of the 
feast with this special explanation. It was pre-eminently " the 
feast " of the Jews, the greatest and holiest of aU the feasts, 

154 ST. JOHN— VII. 

according to Joseplius and Pliilo. (See Dictionary of the Bible, 
" Tabernacles, Feast of.") 

4 For no man, &c.— In coUoqnial English this would be^ " No 
one doeth a thing in secret, and also seeketh to be known openly." 
The meaning is obscured in Auth. by the insertion of " he : " 
" there is no man who doeth anything in secret, and he himself 
seeketh," &c. 

5 For even his brethren did not believe in him. — The 

Gr. puts it thus, in stronger terms than Auth., " for neither did 
his brethren believe in him." 

8 The reading of " not " for " not yet " is noticed in the Margin. 
The difference caused by the omission of " yet " is immaterial ; 
for the verb beiug in the present tense, the meaning would then 
be " I go not up at present," and it would still be uncertain 
whether He intended to go up at a later day. 

11 The Jews therefore.— Auth., " Then the Jews." The Gr. 
particle, ouv, is causal, not temporal, and is fi-equently used in 
this Gospel as the connecting link in the narrative, where there 
is not so clear a sequence of cause and effect as in this passage. 
The 2'>ost hoc and the propter hoc are apt to be closely associated 
in our thoughts. 

12 The multitudes.— (Twice.) So Rhem. All other Engl, ver- 
sions, "the people." It is especially necessary in this Gospel to 
notice the difference, as St. John has " people " only twice, xi. 50 
and xviii. 14, where he is narrating and referring to the speech 
of Caiaphas, in whose mouth it means the Je^vish nation. It 
occurs also in the much- questioned passage, viii. 2. 

" The multitudes," in the j)lural (used once only by St. John and 
once by St. Mark), were the various gi-oups which had come up 
to the feast, such as the "company" returning from the Passover, 
of which we read in Luke ii. 44. 

17 If any man willeth to do his will. — Auth., "Avill do 
his will." The iteration in the Gr. is emphatic, signifying man 
has a mil of his own, and must exercise it in accordance with the 
will of God ; otherwise the rendering would be more elegant, 
though feebler, " If any man is miaded to do his wUl." 

I speak from myself. — Auth., " of " myself. Here, as in 
chap. vi. 46, " of " is misleading, as it is more likely to be thought 
equivalent to " concerning," than " from." Gr., ottJ, 

19 Doeth.— So Wycl. and Rhem,, with the Gr. and Vulg., facit 

ST. JOHN— VII. 155 

legem. Autb., with Tynd., " keepetli." To " do the law" ex- 
presses an active, to " keep the law " a passive, observance. 

Seek. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Aiith., with Tynd., " go about," 
an idiomatic but not precise rendering of C'JTeiTe. 

22 For this cause hath Moses . . . — Auth., "Moses there- 
fore gave unto you," making the Slo, tovto, " therefore," appear to 
be retrospective, not, as it is, prospective. The meaning, though 
somewhat involved, is this : " Moses on this account gave you the 
rite of circumcision, not because it was an institution of his own, 
but of the patriarchs, he handing it down with the fresh sanction 
of his own authority : and ye, recognising the pre-Mosaic cere- 
mony as paramount to the Mosaic Law of the Sabbath, circum- 
cise a man even on the Sabbath, on which day the commandment 
says no work shall be done." The same meaning is educed, and 
more easily, if the passage be read with the punctuation given in 
the Margin. 

23 I made a man every whit whole. — After noticing several 
idiomatic renderings of Tynd., which have been removed, it 
is well to have the opportunity here of bearing testimony to 
the many felicitous phrases (of which this is one) for wliich we 
are indebted to the same venerable translator. Wycl. has, literally, 
but awkwardly, " I have made all a man whole." The Gr. is 
oAov &vdpwirov vyirj 67roirj(ra. 

32 The Pharisees heard the multitude m.urmuring. — 

Auth., " heard that the people murmui*ed." The Gr. implies 
that they heard the murmurs with their own ears, not from the 
rei)ort of others. 

35 The dispersion among the Greeks. — Auth., "the dis- 
persed among the GentUes." The Gr., Siaairopd, is the word 
both of the LXX. and the N. T. (as in James i. 1) for the Jews 
scattered abroad in heathen (Greek-speaking) coxmtries. The 
word by which it is translated, " dispersion," occurs once only in 
Auth. (Jer. xxv. 34), and there not of the dispersed people, but of 
the event, the being dispersed. Like other English words of 
similar formation, it has been applied to the people themselves, 
as " corporation," " convention," " congregation," &c. 

The Greeks. — Auth., " the Gentiles." " The Greeks " are not 
named in any of the first three Gospels, and in this only here and 
in chap. xii. 20, but frequently in the Acts and in the Epistles of 
St. Paul. 

36 "What is this word ?— Auth., with Tynd., " what manner of 
saying is this?" 

156 ST. JOHN— VIII. 

39 The Spirit was not yet given. — The last word is supplied 
as in Auth., and as by the Yatican MS., and other authori- 
ties, to make it clear tliat the dispensation of the Holy Spirit is 
here spoken of, not His Personal existence, which is recognised in 
chap. i. of this Gospel, and throughout the Bible, as being before 
all things. 

46 " Like this man." — (Auth.) Omitted by change of Gr. text. 

49 Accursed. — This adjective, meaning " subject to," or " deserv- 
ing of a curse," coiTesponds better to the Gr., iTriKaraparSs, than 
does Auth., " cursed," which properly signifies one on whom a 
curse has been pronounced. 

50 Before.— For " by night " (Auth.), by change of Gr. text. 

53 The passage which foUows (chap. viii. 1 — 12) is omitted by 
many of the earliest and best authorities, and is given by others 
with considerable variations. It differs in style and diction from 
the rest of this Gospel. It was not received by the primitive 
Church eitlier in the East or the West, but has been treated as 
genuine in the West since its recognition by Augustine, Ambrose, 
and Jerome. According to the most probable opinion, it is not 
a part of St. John's Gospel, but is of very ancient, perhaps of 
Apostolical origin, and it may be regarded as a true narrative, 
biit not as part of canonicaror inspired Scripture. (Wordsworth.) 

The Gr. MSS. which contain the passage have many variations, 
some of which, but none that materially affect the sense, have 
been followed in the Revised Version. 


18 I am he that beareth witness of myself.— Auth., "I 

am one that bear witness of myself." The Gr. lias not " one," 
and is, literally, " I am tlie witnesser concerning myself." 

19 If ye knew me, ye would know my Father also.— 

The Gr. is in the imperfect, implying that it is still possible for 
them to know Him. Auth., "If ye had known me, ye should 
have known," thus throwing the hypothesis into the irreversible 
past, as if the time for knowing Him were, for those whom He ad- 

ST. JOHN— A^III. 157 

dressed, gone by. Tlie Euglisli translators were mifortunatcly 
led to this interpretation from not observing that the Gr. TjSerre, 
though pluperfect in foi-m, is imperfect in sense. The Yulg. has 
correctly rendered it, Si me sciretis, forsitan Patrem vieum 
sciretis, and so, following the Vidg., Wyel. and Rhem. 

20 Took him.— Auth., with Tynd., " laid hands on him." Gr., 
iviao-ev. (Comp. chap. vii. 30, &c.) The word is frequently used 
by St. John. 

21 In your sin.— So Rhem. and Yulg., ^^eccaio. All other Engl, 
versions, " in your sins." The difference is not to be overlooked, 
the word in the singiUar denoting the sinfid state, in the plural, 
as at verse 24, the actual sins of commission or omission. 

24 I am he.— Margin, " Or, I am." The text follows Tynd. and 
Auth. : the marginal rendering is that of Wycl. and Rhem., 
follomng Vulg., ego sum. The Gr. is ey&j ei'yUi. This phrase, 
used by our Lord of Himself, occurs three times in this chapter. 
In the last place, verse 58, the context leaves no doubt that He 
asserts by it, and by those who heard was understood to assert, His 
Divine and eternal self -existence. (See Note there.) But in His 
conversation with the woman of Samaria (chap. iv. 26), and in His 
declaration of Himself to those who came to take Him in the 
garden (chap, xviii. 5), where the same words are spoken by Him, 
it is not likely that He made an assertion which, in its iiighest 
sense, woxild not be understood by His hearers, and which was 
capable of a lower and more natiu'al interpretation. And in this 
place, and verse 28, though a lower interpretation does not so 
readily jiresent itself, the rendering of the Auth. has been retained 
with the marginal Note, which is not appended in chap. iv. 26, 
xviii. 5. Here it will bear this meaning, " I am he of whom I 
have told you, the light of the world" (Averse 12), "the witness 
concerning myself " (verse 18). He all but implies, perhaps He 
does imply, what He declares beyond question in verse 58 ; but 
the Jews, as appears from the next verse, did not understand 
Him, and asked. " Who art thou ? " desiring Him to supply the 
predicate which He had left to their own sense and conscience to 
s\iggest. At last, when He repeated these words in verse 58, 
they asked no more questions, but shewed by taking up stones to 
stone Him for blasjAemy, that they perceived His meaning. 

25 Even that which I have also spoken unto you from 
the heginning.— The Gr. is of doubtful import, both the gram- 
matical construction and the interpretation being uncertain. The 
rendering which has been preferred is substantially the same as 
that of Auth., " Even tlie smne that I said unto vou," &c. The 

158 ST. JOHN— VITI. 

marginal Note shews what has been the divergence of exposition 
on this passage. The version that is given is that of St. 
Chrysostom. Tor that which stands in the text Dr. Field notes 
a singular coincidence in Plautus, Oaptiv. iii. 4. 91, Quis igitur 
ille est? Quevi dudam dixi aprincipio tibi. 

31 Believed him. — So Rhem. only. Auth., "believed on him." 
So, or " believed in him," all other Engl, versions. The Gr. is 
Tovs 7r67ri(rT€ii/c(^Tas avTw, in verse 30 i-n-ifTTevcrav eis avrSv ; and the 
difference in meaning the same as between " believed him," 
gave credence to his words, and " believed in him," put their 
trust in him. The i)hrase " to believe in " is almost peculiar to 
St. John, being very frequent in his Gospel, and only found in 
the other Gospels twice, Matt, xviii. 6 and Mark ix. 42. 

37 Hath not free course in you. — Doth not make progi-ess, 
" ne marche pas." Vulg., non capit. Compare 2 Thess. iii. 1. 
Auth., "hath no place in you," following Tynd. and Beza. 
Xojpeij/, as a neuter verb, expressing motion forwards, is not found 
again in the New Testament, but occiirs in the LXX., and in 
classical Gr. An example of it in the sense of Auth., "hath no 
place," is adduced by Dr. Field from Alcijjhron's Epistles, iii. 7. 

38 Ye also do the things which ye heard from your 
Father. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., " and ye do that 
which ye have seen A\atli your Father." The omission of " your " 
from the Gr. text makes it possible to take this sentence impera- 
tively, as in the Margin, in which case it is a command to them 
to do what they have heard from the Father, as " He does what 
he has seen with the Father," bringing out a contrast between 
" heard " and " seen." This, however, does not seem probable, or 
in harmony with the context. 

42 I came forth. — Auth., with Tynd. and Yulg., " I proceeded 
forth," which is the usual rendering of another word. 
And am come.— Auth., " and came," Gr. ^ku. The sense is, 
" From God came I forth, from God I now am here." 

44 He is a liar, and the father thereof.— Auth., " of it." 
The Gr. aurod, "thereof," may mean (1) "of lyiug,"_ the devil 
is the father of lies, which is the common acceptation of the 
words; or (2) " of the liar," generally; the liar is a child of the 
devil. The former alternative is the better, but there is not 
much difference between the two. 

46 Convicteth.— Auth., " comduceth." Compare chap. xvi. 8. 
The meaning of the Gr. is not " convinceth me of tlie existence 
and evil of sin," but " con^-icteth me of being myseli a siuuer." 

ST. JOHN— IX. 159 

56 Abraham rejoiced to see my day.— As we read in Gen. 
xvii. 17, " he rejoiced witli laughter." The Gr. particle, 'iva. 
(already acquiring the use which is borne by its fragment va. iu 
modern Gr.) is found in the New Testament, and especially in 
the Gospel and Epistles of St. John, connecting verbs of desire 
or joy with their object ; as at chaps, xi. 15, iv. 47 (so Woi-ds- 
worth and Alford). There is much to be said for the rendering 
in the Margin, " rejoiced that he should see," his joy being iu 
prospect of the future, as he remembered the promise connected 
with the birth of the son who when boi-n was named Isaac, 
" laughter." 

58 Before Abraham was.— Margin, " Gr. was horn." The con- 
trast is between Abraham the creatui'e, who was born, came into 
being, and Christ, who says of Himself, " I am," taking to Him- 
self the name of the Lord, as it is given in Exod. iii. 14. No 
lower interpretation is here possible of these words, as at verse 
24, where see Note. 

59 The latter part of this verse (Auth.) is omitted by change in 
Gr. text. A similar withdrawal of our Lord from the midst of 
His enemies is related in Luke iv. 30. 


4 We must work. — For Auth., " I must work," by change in 
Gr. text. 

5 When I am. — The Gr. conjunction, Stw, is indefinite. All 
Engl, versions (following Yulg., Quamdiu) have " as long as." 
This would set a limit to our Lord's continuance in the world, 
which is not implied in the original. 

8 A beggar.— So Vulg., and all Engl, versions, except Genev. 
and Auth., which have " blind," following another reading of 
the Gr. text. 

II The man. — The weU-known bearer of the name. So aU Engl, 
versions (following Yulg., ille homo), except Auth., '•■ a man." 

14 It was the Sabbath on the day.— Auth., "it was the 
Sabbath." Compare chap. v. 10, where the Gr. is the same. 

160 ST. JOHN— X. 

17 In that ne opened. — Autb., " that lie hath opened." The 
meaning of the Gr. is, " "What hast thou to say of him on account 
of {oTt) his opening thine eyes ? " which is not quite clearly 
expressed in Auth. 

24 Give glory to God. — So WycL, Genev., and Rhem. Auth., 
with Tynd. and Cranm., "Give God the praise." The.Gr. is 
So^av, not iitaivov. A frequent phrase in the Old Testament; 
sometimes a form of adjuration, as Josh. vii. 19, " My son, give 
glory to the Lord God of Israel, and make confession unto him ; " 
1 Sam. vi. 5 ; Jerem. xiii. 16, &c. So the meaning now may be, 
" Ye are before God ; give gloiy to Him, by sj^eaking the truth 
to His honour." 

30 The marvel. — For Auth., " a marvellous thing," by insertion 
of the article in the Gr. text. 


1 The fold of the sheep. — So Wyel. and Rhem. ; Vulg., ovile 
ovium. The Gr., alxi ("fold"), is repeated in verse 16, and, as 
representing a distinct idea in the passage, is to be rendered as a 
separate word. Auth., " sheepfold." Compare " the door of the 
sheep," verse 7. (Westcott.) 

4 All his own. — For Auth., "his own sheeji," by change in 

Gr. text. 
6 This parable. — Margin, " Or, proverb." The Gr., Trapoi/, has 

both meanings ; a proverb being often expressed in the form of 

a hrk't parable, as '' The sow is returned to her wallowing in the 


11 Layeth down his life. — All Engl, versions, " giveth," fol- 
lowing Vulg., dat, but in verses 15, 17, "layeth do^vn," where 
Yulg. has }>07io, the Gr. being the same, TlOrja-i. 

12 Snatcheth. — Auth., "catcheth." Yulg., rapit. "Snatcheth" 
suits the same Gr., apird^ei, in verse 28, where Auth. has " pluck 
them out of my hand," and so Matt. xiii. 19. 

13 He fleeth.—Th\s insertion, in italics, is rendered necessary by the 
omission from the Gr. text of " The hiiroling fleeth " (Auth.). 

ST. JOHN— X. 161 

14 I know mine own, and mine own know me. — By change 
in Gr. text for Autli., " I know my sliocp, and am known of 

15 Even as the Father knoweth me, and I know the 
Father.— All Engl, versions, following Vnlg., " As the Father 
knoweth me, even so know I the Father."' The slight changes 
here made (1) in the punctuation at the end of verse 14, and (2) 
in the rendering of Kwyu, " and I " for " even as I," give au 
entirely different turn to the two verses, which being read in 
continuity are a declaration on the part of our Lord that as the 
Father knoweth Him, and He knoweth the Father, even so He 
knows His own, and His own knoAV Him. An intimate, personal, 
loving knowledge is thus implied, as when it is said, "the Lord 
knoweth the way of the righteous," Ps. i. 6 ; and " the Lord 
knoweth them that are his," 2 Tim. ii. 19. 

For other instances in which the relations between Christ and 
His people are compared to those subsisting between the Father 
and Christ, see chap. xiv. 20 ; chap. xv. 10 ; chap. xvii. 8, 21 ; 
Matt. xi. 27 ; Luke xxii. 29 ; 1 Cor. xi. 3 ; chap. xv. 28 ; Rev. 
iii. 21. (Bengel.) 

16 Them also I must bring.— Margin, " Or, lead." The Gr. 
is the aorist of the verb " to lead," and that sense is appropriate 
here, as the sheep are represented following the shepherd who 
leadeth them out (elayei) (verses 3, 4). But here the prominent 
thought is not that they are led in the way, but that they are con- 
ducted home to the one fold, and the aorist dyay^'iv is almost 
always in the New Testament rendered " to bring," not " to lead," 
apparently as describing the action, not in its continuance, but in 
its completion. 

One flock, one shepherd. — So Tynd. only. The Gr. is 
iroifiv-n, " flock," in all the Gr. MSS., not, as it is in the former 
part of the verse, av\-l], " fold," The other English versions have 
" fold," following Yulg., ovile. One "flock; "all the separate 
flocks, in their separate folds, are to be united together in one 
flock, under the one Chief Shepherd ; not in one " fold," which 
has been polemically interpreted as the exclusive enclosure of an 
outward chui-ch. 

The reading grex is foimd in the old Latin or •' Italic " version ; 
but ovile prevailed in the Vulg., and was uni^xn-sally acce^jted in 
the Western Church, also by Erasmus and by Beza before his 
edition of 1582. (Westcott.) 

162 ST. JOHN— XI. 

18 Power.— Mai-glu, " Or, right" The Gr. is the same as at chap. 
i. 14, where see Note. 

24 How long dost thou hold us in suspense ? — Auth., 
"dost thou make us to doubt .'^" Gr., Tr]v x^vxyv v/xan/ alpeis. It 
was not that they doubted His truthfulness, but they were uncer- 
tain as to His meaning. Tlie phrase resembles that in Luke xii. 
29, " neither be ye of doubtful mind," where the literal meaning 
is, " be not suspended in the air." 

28 No one shall snatch. — It is well in this and some other 
passages not to limit the statement by the insertion of "'man," 
(as in Auth.). Possibly some adversaries, other than human, 
may be contemplated in the words. As to " snatch," see Note 
on verse 12. 

36 Sanctified.— Margin, " Or, consecrated." See Note on chap, 
xvii. 17. 

39 He went forth. — So Rhem. Wycl., "he went out.'' Aiith., 
with Tynd., " he escaped." The Gr. implies that wlieu, humanly 
speakhig, they had Him in their power, He came out from among 
them quietly, without struggle, and without flight. 

41 Came unto him. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., " resorted." 
The Gr., ^A0ov, like its compoimd in verse 39, has a simpler 
meaning than is given to it in Auth. 


1 Village. — The usual rendering of the Gr, Kci/ir?. Auth., "town." 
Yixlg., castellum. 

8 But now. — Auth., " of late." The Gr. is vvv, which in con- 
junction with the verb in the impei-fect tense is " just now." 

11 Is fallen asleep, expresses the i)r8eter-i:)erfect tense of tlie 
verb. All English versions, " sleepeth," following Yulg., dormit. 

12 He will recover. — Auth., " he shall do well," following Tynd., 
"he shall do well enough." The Gr. is literally "he will be 
saved," whence Yulg., salvns erit. Wycl. and Rhem., " he shall 
bo safe." 

ST. JOHN— XI. 163 

25 Though he die. — All Englisli versions, "tlioiigli he were 
dead," overlooking, as in many cases of more importance, the 
force of the aorist of Ovtxtku. 

27 I have believed.— So Wycl. and Rhem., with Vulg., credicli. 
Axith., following Tynd., "I believe." The Gr. is in the prgeter- 
perfect tense. 

28 Is here. — All English versions, " is come," or " cometh." The 
Gr. is irdpeffTt, '•■ is present." Vulg., aclest. 

31 Quickly. — So Auth., at verse 29 ; here, " hastily." 

Supposing. — By change in Gr. text for " saying " ( Anth.). 

33 Jesus wept.— The Gr. is not that which in the preceding verses 
has the marginal explanation, "Gr. ivailing," but is literally 
" shed tears," i^dnpyaiv. 

Groaned in the spirit.— So Englisli versions, except Wycl., 
"made noise inspirit," following Yulg., infremuit sj^iritu. The 
Gr. implies indignation in the other places where it occurs 
(Matt. ix. 30 ; Mark i. 43 ; xiv. 5), and probably here, though 
the cause is not stated. 

Was troubled, — Wycl. and Rhem., "troubled himself," fol- 
lowing Yulg., turhavit seipsuvi. The verb is here in the active 
voice ; in chap. xiii. 21 it is the passive, " was troubled," and so 
Auth. in both phi.ces. He wept for tlie death of His friend ; He 
was troubled. Ho groaned in spirit, for the unbelief of those who 
stood, around. 

37 Of him that v/as blind.— Referring to the miracle narrated 
in chap. ix. Auth., with Tynd., " the blind." Wycl., " of the 
born blind," following Yidg., cceci nati. 

40 If thou believedst.— Axith. (alone), "if thou woiddest believe," 
implj-ing a want of the will to believe, which is not indicated by 
the Gr. 

44 Grave-hands (Margin). — Probably like the swaddling-clotlics 
used for infants. (Wordsworth.) 

50 Take account. — For Auth. " consider," by change iu Gr. text, 

\oyi(ea6€ for 5ia\oyi^ecrde, 

164 ST. JOHN— XII. 


6 Took away. — The Gr. /Scjo-roCfif has this sense (chap. xx. 15). 
AU English versions, '' bare," which is the usual rendering. The 
previous statement that " he was a thief " seems to require a word 
suggestive of pui-loiniug. 

V Suffer her to keep it. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., 
" let her alone : against the day of my burying hath slie kept 
tliis." This reading is supported by strong MSS. authority, by 
the Vulg., &c. There is a great difficulty, common to this reading 
and the Auth., in explaining how, being poured out at the supper, 
the oiutment could have been kept against the day of the Lord's 
burial. An ingenious, and not altogether fanciful, conjectui'e has 
been made, that part of the ointment ha\'ing been consumed by 
Mary in preparing the body of her brother Lazarus for inter- 
ment, she had reserved the rest of it for the preparation of 
Christ's body, and now used it in conscious or unconscious antici- 
pation of that event. This would accoiint for her ha^aug " kept " 
it, and for Judas saying it might better have been sold, and 
given to the poor. (Field, Otium Norv., p. 69.) 

9 The common people.— Auth., with Tynd., "much people," 
and Yulg., midta turha. The Gr. has the very unusual order of 
article, noun, and adjective, 6 oxAos iroXvs. See also marginal 
Note on verse 12, where the same is noticed as a various reading. 

13 The branches of the palm trees — i.e., of the palm.-troes 
which grew in the city, or on the way to the hill outside. Palm- 
branches were used by the Jews as tokens of victory, as we sec 
in 1 Mace. xiii. 51, and in the Apocaly^jse. The " palmy days " 
of Judaea have long since departed, and witli them the sym- 
bolical tree, formerly so abundant, has departed also. 

19 Behold. — Auth., " ye perceive." The Gr. may be either impe- 
rative or affirmative. The rendering of deupew [theoreo) is usually 
" to behold ; " it denotes sight and reflection combined. 

24 A grain.— So Rhem. Auth., with Wycl. and Tynd., " a corn," 
which as applied to a single grain is now obsolete. 

32 Margin, " Gr. out of.'' {4k.) This rendering, if adopted, woidd 
refer to the "lifting up," the resurrection from the bowels of the 
earth ; and it might be adopted but for the next verse, in which 
tlie Evangelist makes his comment on these words, and explains 
them of the lifting up of Christ ou the cross. They are also by 
both ancient and modern expositors treated as having a further 

ST. JOHN— XIII. 165 

fulfilment in the Ascension, by which, or in consequence of which, 
He draws us up in heart and mind to dwell with Him. 

35 Overtake. — Auth., "come upon you." The Gr. is properly 
" catch." See Note ou chap. i. 5. 

43 Glory.— Auth., "praise." See Note on chap. v. 44. 

45 Beholdeth. — Auth., " seeth," as in verse 19. In chap. xiv. 9, 
" He that hath seen me," &c., the Grr. is different. 

i7 And keep tliem not.— By change in Gr. text for Auth., 
" and believe them not." 


1 Unto the end.— Margin, " Or, to the uttermost," which is a 
truth in itself, and a possible, but not very probable, interpi-eta- 
tion of the Gr. in this place. In Matt. x. 22, xxiv. 13, it is " to 
the end." 

2 During supper.— By change of Gr. text for Auth., " supper 
being ended," ytvo/nevov for yevo/xemv, the present for the past. 

3 He came forth from God.— Auth., " was come from God." 
The Gr. is e|^A0e, not dTTTjAOe. 

Goeth. — Auth., "went." The Gr. is in the present tense. 

10 He that is bathed. — AU Engl, versions, "washed." Two 
different words are used in this verse, one meaning to " bathe," 
tlie other to " wash " — XoveaOai, v'nrrfadai ; and by tliis symbolical 
saying our Lord appears to teach us that he wlio has " believed 
and been baptized," needs not save to wash off by repentance 
tlie stains of his actual sins, contracted as he goes through life. 
Bathing is of the whole body ; baptism is applied to the whole 
man; washing is of a part, e.g., of the feet; daily repentance is 
for the partial defilemeut incurred in our daily walk. 

17 Blessed. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Yulg., heati. Auth. with 
Tynd., " happy." The Gr., /xaKaptoi, denotes something more 
than " happiness " in its usual sense— the happiness that God 

166 ST. JOHN— XIII. 

19 Prom henceforth. — So Rhem. and Yulg., amodo. Gr., 
ott' dpri. Autli., follo^ying Tynd., " now." Hitherto He has 
spoken but little and obscurely of that which is coming upon 
Him. From this time He foretells it more j)lainly, so that at last 
they say, " Now speakest thon no proverbs " (chap. xvi. 29). So 
with His Divine foreknowledge He prepares them for their great 
trial, while in His human nature He yearns towards them, as the 
friends from wliom He looked for sympatliy. 

23 There was at the table reclining.— The Gr., dvaKeinevos, 
is the same that in other places . is sufficiently represented by 
" sitting at meat." Here, on account of the words which follow, 
it is rendered according to its strict meaning, which denotes the 
position iisuallj^ adopted at meals. Autli., with Tynd., "Now 
there was leaning on Jesus' bosom." Vulg., recumbens in sinu 
Jes^i. The recumbent position had been tlie i^ractice of the Jews 
for some time, in imitation of the Roman, or perhaps of the 
Persian custom. 

24 And saith unto him, tell ns who it is.— So (nearly) Yulg., 
•Wycl., and Rhem. Auth., following a variation in the Gr. text, 
"beckoneth to him, that he should ask who it should be," a 
change apparently made to suit tlie context. According to the 
reading now restored in the text, St. Peter supposes our Lord to 
have already told St. John privately who it should be. 

25 He leaning hack. — Auth., " He then lying on Jesus' breast." 
The Gr. is waTnawv, properly, " He fell back, and saith." 

As he was. — Added in Gr. text. Literally, " thus," an exple- 
tive, denoting an involuntary movement, from which a person 
miglit restrain himself if he thought upon it. (See chap. iv. 6.) 

26 For whom I shall dip the sop, and give it him.— 

By cliauge in Gr. text for Auth., "to whom I shall give a sop 
when I have dipped it." " The sop," according to the Eastern 
custom of honom-ing a guest by presenting him with a morsel of 
the food. (Westcott.) Comp. Ruth ii. 14, " Come thou hither, 
cat thy bread, and dip thy morsel in the ^iuegar." 

Taketh— is added, and " Iscariot " is connected with Simon 
instead of Judas (as in Auth.), by changes in Gr. text. 

30 Went out straightway.— The order as it is changed in the 
Gr. text is here obseiwed — denoting an abrupt departure. In 
verse 32, " straightway " (in the Gr. as in Auth.) precedes the 


32 " If God be o-lorified iu Lim."' — (Auth.) Omitted by change in 
Gr. text. 

34 Sven as I . . . — i.e., " This is the purport of my new com- 
mandment wlien fully stated, that ye love one another, even as I 
have loved you," the stress being on "even as " {KaQdis, not ws), 
i.e., with a perfect love. (Comp. Eph. iv. 32.) 

37 I will lay down my life for thee.— So Wycl. and Rhem., 
following Vulg., animam meam pro te i^onam. Auth., with 
Tynd., " for thy sake." The Gr., inrip, is " in thy behalf," or "iu 
thy stead," not " for thy sake." Comp. chap. x. 15, " I lay down 
my life for the sheep " (Auth.). 


1 Te believe.— So Auth,, with Yulg., Wycl, Genev., and Rhem. 
Tynd., as in Margin, " believe " (imperative). The Gr. may be 
either. The varied order of the words in the two clauses of the 
Gr., the verb being the first word in the fii'st clause and the last 
in the second, may seem in favour of the variation iu mood as 
given in the text. 

2 Many mansions. — So all Engl, versions (except Genev.), fol- 
lowing Yidg., mansiones, i.e., tarrying-places, or " stations," on 
the way, not j)ermanent abodes. The Gr., /uoj/tj, is used only 
once again in the New Testament, in verse 23 of this chap., and 
there is rendered " abode." Neither meaning is well expressed by 
the word • ' mansion," which is used now in quite another sense, and 
the Margin, " abiding-places," derived from Genev., "dwelling- 
places," and Beza, "habitations," would have superior claim to 
stand in the text, if it were a simpler and shorter word. 

3 I come again.— Auth., with Tynd., " I will come again." By 
the present tense of the verb is indicated not a remote but an 
immediate return. 

4 Ye know the way. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., " ye 
know, and the way ye know." 

10 Doeth his works. — By change in Gr. text for " himself docth 
the works." The sense is, " What I say to you, I speak not on my 

168 ST. JOHN"— XIY. 

own authority : it is the Father dwelling within me, who is thus 
doing his works, accomplishing his will." 

14 If ye shall ask me anything.— " Me " is added in Gr. 
text. It is also inYiilg. and Rhem. (not in Wycl.). and it is 
omitted in Autli. Tlie alteration is important, showing tliat 
prayer is to be made to our Loi'd Himself, as well as to the Father 
in His name. On the other hand, the emphatic " I " {eyu), " it is 
I that will do it," has now been omitted from the Gr. text. 

IG I will pray the Father.— Margin, " Gr. make request of." 
The same word occurs in Luke v. 3, where comp. Note. It is used 
of prayer to God by our Lord only, in speaking of His own requests 
to the Father in this Gospel, and once in 1 John v. 16, of interces- 
sory prayer to God, offered by one man for another. But iu 
general it denotes a request made by man to his brother man. 

Another comforter.— Margin, "Or, advocate." The Gr., 
■7rapdK\T]Tos, "paraclete," has two distinct, yet allied meanings : 
1. (iu a passive sense) one who is called to the aid of anotlier, as 
an advocate {advocatus), to plead for him before a judge ; 2. 
(active) one who encourages, counsels, aud so "comforts" 
another. The two meanings ax-e closely connected. The " advo- 
cate " who is called iu is naturally regarded as the bearer of 
comfort and strengtli. We have no single word that adequately 
represents the combination, except it be the word " counsel," as 
iised in the legal profession. We are therefore obliged to render 
tlie Gr. l)y different words according to the requirements of the 
context, unless we were to follow the example of tlie Yulg., and 
introduce the Gi*., " paraclete," which at present Avould not be 
acceptable, nor, indeed, distinctly intelligible. That word occurs 
in tlie N. T. only in tliis and the two following chapters of St. 
John's Gospel, and in his first Epistle, ii. 1, where Christ Him- 
self is spoken of as "our advocate with the Father." In the 
Engl, versions it is rendered, "comforter," which according to 
its Latin derivation signifies one who imparts strength or courage, 
though now its meaning has become narrowed to one particular 
kind of support, the sympathy which binds up the broken heart, 
or soothes the wouuded spirit. 

18 Desolate. — Auth., witli Tynd., "comfortless," thus suggesting 
a connection with " comforter " in verse 16. The Gr., however, 
is op(pavoi)s, " orphans," and is so given in Viilg., nan relinqiiam 
vos orphanos ; but this word, being now limited in meaning to 
tliose who are bereaved of parents, is not an equivalent of its Gr. 
original, nor have w^e any that comes more near to it than " deso- 

ST. JOHN— XV. 169 

22 Judas (not Iscariot) saith.— This transposition places tlic 
words in brackets close to those which they immediately folhnv 
in the Gr. Auth., " Jndas saith (not Iscariot).". 

25 Abiding. — Auth., with Tynd., "present." Gr., fj.fvcov. 

26 The Holy Spirit.— Autli., '-the Holy Ghost." The Comforter 
is elsewhere in this discourse spoken of as the " Spirit of Trntli," 
chaps. XV. 26, and xvi. 13, and in those places " Gliost " could not 
be substituted for " Spirit " ; in order, therefore, to make quite 
clear the identity of " tlie Comforter " in all these places, it was 
necessary to have " the Holy Si^irit " here. (Comp. Luke iv. 1.) 

It is to be observed that the Gr. nvfvfj.a, " spirit," though of the 
neuter gender, is referred to here and in other passages ])y a 
masculine pi'onoun, " he," fKuvos, a clear testimony to the per- 
sonality of the Holy Ghost. 

27 Fearful. — Auth., " afraid," which is coinmonly used for anotlier 
word, and is expressive of a momentary feeling, rather than of 
an habitual state of mind. The Gr. is, literally, " let it not bo 
cowardly." (Comp. 2 Tim. i. 7.) 

30 The prince of the world.— " The " for "this" (Aiith.), by 
change in Gr. text. 


2 He cleanseth it.— All Engl, versions, "purgeth," from the 
Vulg., purgabit. " Cleanse " is a better equivalent for Kaflaipej 
than " purge," being more used in reference to spiritual purifica- 
tion; also in the next verse, " clean " represents the corresponding 
adjective of the Gr. 

4 So neither. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., with Tynd., " no 
more,'' which is not a grammatical parallel to " as," nor an exact 
rendering of the Gr. 

6 Apart from me — i.e., separate from me. Gr., x^^P'*- All Engl, 
versions, " without me," which would rather mean, " unassisted 
by me." 

170 ST. JOHN— XV. 

6 They gather them.— Auth., witli Tynd., inserts men .- " men 
gather tliem : " who they are that gather, is left mysteriously 

11 That my joy may be in you, and that your joy may 
be fulfilled. — " May he," by cliange of Gr. text followed by 
Viilg., Wycl., and Rliem., for " might remain " (Anth. and 
Tynd.) ; "may be fulfilled," as Wycl. and Rhem., for Autli., with 
Tynd., "might be full." The joy of Christ is " to be " in them 
for ever, and their joy is to increase tiU it attains its final con. 
summation. (Comp. chap. x^-i. 24.) 

15 No longer do I call you servants.— Implying that they 
had been so called in time past, imder the Mosaic dispensation. 
The Gr. is ovk4ti. Auth., with Tynd., " Henceforth I call you 
not servants." 

16 Appointed you. — Auth., following Tynd., " ordained," which 
haA'ing acquired a limited meaning, and being applied especially 
to the ministers of the Gospel, does not now represent the Gr., 
which applies to any office or post. Yulg., posui. 

17 These things I command you that ye may love one 
another. — The addition of "may," whicli is required by the Gr., 
indicates that what He has now been saying does not constitute a 
commandment of love, but has been said with this purpose, that 
they may be led by it to love one another. 

22 No excuse for their sin. — So Wycl, and Rhem., after 
Vulg. Auth., with Tynd., "-cloke." The Gr. is irp6^a(nv, literally, 

26 "Which proceedeth from the Father.— Margin, " Or. cjoetli 
forth from." The marginal rendering might have been preferred, 
were it not that " proceedeth " has become familiar to us from its 
use in this text, and in the Nicene Creed and the history of the 
Church, in connection with the " Holy Spiiit." Vulg., procedit 

ST. JOHN— XVr. 171 


1 That ye should not he made to stumhle.— Tins pluaso. 
so frequcut in the first tlu*ee Grospels, is used by St. Jolm only 
here and in liis first Epistle, ii. 10. Autli., "that ye should not 
be offended." The meaning is that by these sayings He has been 
preparing them to withstand the opposition of Jews and Gentiles 
who will endeavour to make them stumble — to overthrow them. 

2 Shall think that he offereth service unto God.— ^.e., 

that he makes before God a religious service. All Engl, versions 
" that he doeth God service," i.e., that he acts as a servant of 
God in fulfilling His will. But the " service " which the Gr. 
denotes, Xarpeia, is not that of obedience, but of worship. 

4 That when their hour is come. — Auth., " that when the 
time shall come." " Their," for " the," by change in Gr. text. 

Ye may remember them, how that I told you. — " Them," 
by the construction of the Gr., is connected ynth. " remembei'," 
not with " told you," as in Auth. 

7 G-o away . . . go. — Auth., "go away . . . depart." The 
former of the two verbs in Gr. denotes "go awnj from you;" the 
latter, " go my way." In the one there is the thought of those 
who are left Ijehind, in the other of the journey that is to be ac- 

8 Convict. — Auth., "reprove," as Wyel. and Genev. Vulg., 
arguet, whence Rhem., " argue." Compare chap. rai. 46, and 
Note : " He shall bring to men's hearts the truth concerning," 
&c., convicting the conscience of what is evil, convincing it of 
what is good. There is no English word, used like the Gr. 
i\€yXftv, in both the senses " convict " and " convince," though 
the substantive " conviction " admits of both. 

13 Into all the truth.— (With the article.) Not as Auth., "into 
all truth," meaning " all manner of truth " distributively, but 
collectively " the whole truth," of which at present only some 
detached portions have been revealed. 

Declare.— So Wycl. ; all other versions, " shew." Compare 
chap. iv. 25, and Note there. This and the two follomng verses 
tell us, with solemn reiteration, that the office of the Holy Spirit 
is to make a declaration, or announcement, on the part of God 
to man. 

14 Take. — So Wycl. ; all other versions, " receive." The Gr. is the 
same in this and the following verses. 

172 ST. JOHN— XVI. 

16 Ye behold me ... ye shall see me.— All Engl, versions 
have " see " in both places. " A little while and ye no longer 
behold me with wondering contemplation [dewpeTTe) ; and again a 
little while, and ye shall see me unexpectedly appearing to you." 
The Gr. 6-n-Tofxai, " to see," as nsed in the New Testament, is to 
see an appearance, as of the risen Saviour, or a vision, as of 
angels. (See Note on Acts i. 3.) 

23 In that day ye shall ask me nothing.— So ■Wycl.,Rhem., 

and Auth., following Ynlg., rogabitis. Tliis gives to the Gr. 
ipMTav the sense of " making request," which it has in verse 26 
and elsewhere. The Margin gives the alternative rendering, 
which is that of Tynd., " ye shall ask me no question ; " as Beza, 
interrogahitis, in which sense the word is used in verse 19. 
Either interpretation may here be accepted ; the former prepara- 
tory to the saying wliich follows, " Wliatsoever ye sliall ask 
(oiT^o-Tjre) the Father," &c.; the latter with reference to their 
recent inquiry, " Ye sliall not ask me anymore questions, for the 
Spirit of tnith will inform yoii." 

He will give it you in my name. — By change in Gr. 
text, for Auth., " Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name," &c. 

25 Tell. — Auth., " shew." The Gr. awayyiWa), not avayyeWw as in 
chap. XV. 13, denotes the bearing of a message. 

27, 28 I came forth from the Father.— I came out from 
the Father. — By change in Gr. text, the preposition in the 
former case is irapd, in the latter ew, making this distinction in 
the sense : He came foi'tli from the side {-^apd), from " the 
right hand of God." (So again at chap. xvii. 8.) He came 
out (6(f) from the Father, from His Divine essence. (Westcott.) 
Compare chap. viii. 1'2. In verse 30 the prej)osition is ottJ, which 
is simply " from.'' 

30 Now know" we. — Auth., following Cranm., " we are sui-e." All 
other versions " we know." Gr., oWapi.fv. 

33 Ye have tribulation.— By change of Gr. text, for " ye shall 

have " (Auth.). 

ST. JOHN— XVII. 173 


1 That the Son may glorify thee.— All Eugi, veisious, fol- 
lowing Yulg., have "tliy Sou;" Cranm. aud Autli., "tliy Sou 
also." " Thy " is omitted by chauge iu Gr. text. Thus " the 
Son " is spokeu of iu Ps. ii. 8, " Kiss the Sou, lest he be angry," 
&e. The Lord, iu the opening of the prayer, speaks of Himself 
in the third person, as if to show those who heard Him that He 
was not seeking " His own glory " (compare chap. viii. 50), but 
the glory of " the Father." 

2 That whatsoever thou hast given him, to them, &c. — 

" Whatsoever " (Gr. -n-av o) is said of the whole body of the be- 
Movers, "to them" — i.e., the iudi^-iduals of whom tlie body 
cousists. So Rhem., following Yulg., «f omne quod dedisti ei, 
det eis vitam ceternam. Auth., with Tyud., " that he should 
give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him ; " a para- 
plirase which does indeed avoid the rugged phrase of the original, 
while it seems at first sight to convey the full meaning of it : 
but even the rugged phrase is dear to one who thinks by whom, 
and on what occasion, it was used ; and it becomes stiD. more 
precious when he perceives what the full meaning really is — 
the Father has "given," has made over, to the Son the whole 
body of the believers ; aud to each of them, one by one, the Son 
gives eternal life. As He says of Himself, in the paraljle of the 
good shepherd, " He caUeth his own sheep by name." (Chap. x. 3. ) 

3 Jesus Christ. — At the end of the sentence, accordiug to the 
Gr. order. So all Engl, versions, except Cranm. and Auth., 
" aud Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." The effect of the 
transposition of the holy name to the end is to throw the em- 
phasis more strongly on the fact of the sending than on the 
person sent. 

It is especially to be observed in this chapter that the Gr. aorist 
is used in what is called a " prolei^tic " manner, speaking of 
future events as if they were already past. The prseter-perfect 
also is used in this way, but pointing to a jiast event which is 
recent, or still continuing ; and it is very difficult to decide when 
the aorist may be translated as a j)erfect, with " have," and when 
it should be strictly rendered. It will probably continue to be 
the case, as it has been, that a number of j)ersons studying the 
discourses of our Lord with regard to this point will not be 
unanimous iu their views of it, and even the same person Avill 
vary in his conclusions at different times. Our Lord appears to 
speak, when the great agony of His human nature is approaching, 

174 ST. JOHN— XVII. 

as if already His work ou eartli iu tlie bounds of time and space 
were ended, and He were looking back npou tlie remote past 
from His eternal throne. So in this verse we have " whom thou 
didst send," not as Auth., " whom thou hast sent; " and in tha 
next verse, " I glorified thee ou the earth," for Auth., " I have 
glorified thee." 

10 All things. — So Wycl. and Rhem. ; Yulg., mea omnia tua 
sunt, a universal statement. Auth., with Tynd., "all mine are 
thine," as if persons only were intended. 

11 Keep them in thy name which thou hast given nie. — 

The change of Gr. text in this and the next verse (^ for ovs), by 
which tlie relative is connected with " name," not with " them," 
is supported by a great preponderance of the best authorities, 
and has been adopted by all recent editors of the Gr. text. 
" Thy name," the incommunicable name, which is to lis as the 
symbol of incommunicable wisdom and goodness; that name, 
witli all the attributes belonging to it, the Father has given to 
the Son. 

12 I guarded them.— All Engl, versions, " I have kej)t them." 
The Gr. signifies guarding against danger, and is not the same 
that is rendered " I kept," just before, meaning " I watched," or 
kept in view, and which is elsewhere used of " obser'sang " or 
" keeping " the commandments. 

ITot one of them perished but the son of perdition.— 

In the Gr. a solemn iteration is produced by the verb and its 

correlative noun, airciAero, airaiXeias. 

15 That thou shouldest keep them from the evil one. — 

Auth., " from the evil." All previous English versions, " from 
evil." "Vulg., ut serves eos a vudo. The masculine ren- 
dering is strongly suppoi'ted by comparison with 1 Jolm v. 18, 
" He that was begotten of God keej)eth him, and the evil one 
(6 TToyripos, masculine) toucheth him not ; " wliere the Gr. for 
" keepeth " is the same as here, rripe?. The Apostle while writing 
one passage seems to have had in mind the other. Comj)are Note 
on Matt. vi. 13. The Gr. is literally " shouldest keep them out 
of the evil one," " out of his hands," out of his sphere (««). 

17 Sanctify them. — Margin, "Or, cousecra/e." Wycl, "hallow." 
The word is used in the Lord's prayer (Matt, and Luke) ; and in 
Matt, xxiii. 18, 19, of the gold and the gift being made holy by 
the temple and altar which are holy. St. John uses it iu tliis 
chapter and chap. x. 30 only— it does not a;)pear elsewhere in the 


Gospels. Its proper meaniug, whether applied, to persons or 
thiugs, is " to consecrate to the service of the Lord." 

19 Sanctified in truth. — Not as Aiith., "iu the trutli," Imt 
"truly," "really." Compare chap. iv. 23, "iu spirit aud iu 

21 Believe. — For Auth., "shall believe," by change in G-r. text. 

23 Even as.— All Engl, versions, "as." The Gr. is Kadiis, not cbs. 

24 That which.— For Auth., " they whom," by change in Gr. 
text. Compare verse 2. 

26 Made known. — So Wycl., following Vulg., notmn feci. Gr. 
iyvwpicra. Auth., with Tyud., " declared." He speaks not now 
of declaring a message, but of imparting the knowledge whicli 
He has iu Himself. 


The brook. — The Gr. properly signifies a winter torrent ; aud 
so Vulg., torrentevi, and Rhem. Wycl., " tlie stroudo " (strand). 
Margin, " Or, of the cedars." This alternative rendering" is due 
to the form of the word iu the Gr. (iceSpccv, Kedron), whicli 
properly has this meaning, but in this place is generally believed 
to be a Gr. coi'ruptiou of the Hebrew name Jcidron. Neverthe- 
less, as there were cedars on the Mount of Olives, there prol^ably 
were some in the ravine below, from which the brook aud the 
ravine might have this name, replacing, by a slight change, the 
ancient Hebrew name. 

The band of soldiers.— Margin, "Or, co/ior^," which Avas the 
name of a division of the Roman legion. The force consisted, iu 
part of Roman soldiers — not, however, a whole cohort, wliich 
would have been five or six hundred men, for tlie word was 
loosely used sometimes to designate a smaller number — aud iu 
part of officers seut by the chief priests and Pharisees, the 
" Sanhedrin." (See chap. vii. 32.) 

I lost not one. — More emphatic than Auth., " have I lost 
Gi-iio." Compare chnp. XA-ii. 12, " not one of them perislied." 


12 The Margin gives the military name of the commander, who is 
styled '•■ chief captain " in the text. 

Seized. — Auth., with Tynd., " took." Gr. awixa^ev, a word not 
often used in the New Testament for taking a prisoner into 
custody, and implying personal violence more strongly than does 
the simple rendering " took." 

15 The court of the high priest.— Anth., "palace." (See Note 
on Matt. xxvi. 3.) 

17 Art thou?— Auth., " Art thou not ? " Here and at verse 25 
the Gr. might be more exactly given by the colloquial phrase, 
" Thou art not, art thou .P " Compare Note on Matt. xxvi. 25. 

18 Coals. — So all English versions. The word in the Gr. means 
properly " chai-coal : " " coals " would probably be still under- 
stood in that sense in the time of James I. 

20 All. — By change in Gr. text for "always" (Auth.). 

Come together. — So "Wycl. Auth., following Tynd. and 
Rhem., " resort," which is xised for another Gr. word in verse 2. 

21 Behold, these know.— All English versions, " behold, they 
know." The Gr. is oItoi. " See, these here in the court, these 
know and can bear witness." 

22 With his hand.— Margin, " Or, with a rod." The Gr. has 
both meanings, and either will suit in this place, as the officers 
carried staves. 

24 Annas therefoi'e sent him bound. — By change in Gr. text 
for Auth., " Now Annas had sent him boiind." The aorist has its 
usual force, " sent," not " had sent." Annas Avas perplexed, and 
''therefore" sent his prisoner to Caiaphas, having first ordered 
Him to be bound again with the fetters from wliicli He had been 
liberated while standing in court. 

26 A kinsman of him.— Thus Wycl., " cousin of him," altered 
by Tynd. to " his cousin whose ear," &c., whence Auth., " his 
kinsman whose ear," &c. 

28 The palace. — Margin, " Gr. Prcetoriinn:'' Auth., "judgment 
hall." In Matt, xxvii. 27 it is called " common hall " (Auth.) ; 
bi;t in Mark xv. 16, Pnetormm, properly a Latin word, is retained 
in Auth. 

oO An evil doer.— So TjTid. Auth., following Rhem., " a male 
factor." This is in Luke xxiii. 32 the rendering of KaKovpyos, 
which in the New Testament is only used of persons charged with 

ST. JOHI^— XIX. 177 

a crime. The Gr. in this place, KUKoiroids, is applied to " evil- 
doers " generally, as in 1 Peter ii., iii., iv. 

31 Take him yourselves.— Auth., " Take ye him," which docs 
not sufficiently express the emphatic " ye," the vfiels of the G-r. 

38 No crime. — Anth., " no faidt." The Gr. ahiav is properly 
" cause or ground for a charge." Wycl. and Tynd., " no cause, ' 
following Vulg., causam. 


2 Arrayed him.— The Gr. is so rendered in Auth. (Matt. vi. 
29, and Luke xxiii. 11), here " j)ut on him;" following Wycl., 
"did about him;" Tynd., "'did on him;" Vulg., circumdederunt 

Garment. — So Tynd. and Rhem. Auth., " robe," as in Luke ; 
but there the Gr. is ia-dTJra, here l/^aTiov, probably in this case one 
of the soldiers' cloaks; for which the Gr. chlumys is used in 
Matt, xxvii. 28. 

3 With their hands.— See Note on chap, xviii. 22. 

They came to him. — Added in the Gr. text. The imperfect 
tense, ijpxovro, probably indicates that they came to Him one 
after another, to make their mocking obeisance. This addition, 
preserving a graphic detail of the mockery, is found in nearly 
all the best MSS, and in most of the ancient versions, as in the 
Vulg., whence it appears in "Wycl. and Rhem., but not in Tynd. 

4, 5, "Went out . . . — Came out— i.e., out of doors. Gr. «|«. 
Auth., " forth," in both verses. 

G Take him yourselves.— See Note on chap, xviii. 31. 

10 Power to release thee . . .—See Auth. The transposi- 
tion is according to the order in the best MSS., and represents 
the natural sequence of thought, appealing first to the hopes of 
tlie prisoner, and then to his fears. 

11 Hath greater sin. — Auth., " the greater sin." Tlie article is 
not in the Gr., and the phrase resembles that in chap. xv. 22 ; 


178 ST. JOHN— XIX. 

ix. 41 ; 1 John i, 8, and is peculiar to St. John, repi-esenting tlie 
state, sinfulness, not tlie actual commission of a sin. 

12 Upon this. — All English versions give to the Gr. iKrovrov.sL 
temporal sense, " from thenceforth," following Vnlg., exincle. It 
was in consequence of this answer that Pilate songlit to release 
Him. So at chap. vi. 6Q, where see Note. 

If thou release this man.— The Gr. is the same as before. 
Autli. alone varies in the renderiug, " If thou let this man go." 

17 Bearing the cross for himself. — By change of Gr. text 
for Auth., " bearing his cross." So Vulg., iajulans sibi crucem, 
and Wycl.," lie bare to himself a cross." 

20 For the place . . . . — The renderiug in the Margin, how- 
ever im}»r(jl)al)le, is made possible by the transposition of the 
words in the Gr. text. It would have the effect of bringing the 
place of crucifixion within the city, and tlius would be at variance 
with Heb. xiii. 12, " Jesus .... suffered without the gate." 

In Hebrew, and in Latin, and in Greek.— AU English 
versions, following Yulg., '" in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin." 
This order of the three languages, which now stands in the Gr. 
text, is suj)ported by strong authority, and is probable in itself, 
the vernacular coming fii-st, then the official language, the Latin, ■ 
and last, that in which the people and rulers conversed together, 
the Greek. 

25 The wife of Clopas. — Clopas is generally taken to be the 
AlphEeus of Matt. x. 3. {Kuinoel, in Wordsworth's Note on this 
verse.) There is no authority in the MSS. for the reading 
" Cleophas " (Auth.), which our translators derived from the 

28 Are now finished. — Auth., "accomplished;" Wycl., "ended;" 
TjTid., " performed ; " Rhem., " consummate." The Gr. is the 
same as in verse 30, where Tynd. has " finished ; " Wycl., 
" ended ; " Rhem., " consummate." 

29 Brought it to his mouth. — irpoo-^epo) is usually rendered 
"bring to " in the Gosj)els, not as here in Auth., "put to." 

30 Gave up his spirit. — All English versions, " gave up the 
ghost." ComiJare Matt, xxvii. 50. The verb, however, in this 
place, napeSuKe, points more distinctly to a voluntary surrrender 
of life than does the &(pvKe of St. Matthew, " he yielded up." 

31 Asked of Pilate. — Auth., with Tynd., " besought," and so 
again in verse 38. These applications to the Roman governor 

ST. JOHN— XX. 179 

are not represented as having been made beseechingly, but as 
requests, the Gr. verb being in each case ^purdw. 

40 Bound it. — SoWycl. and Rhem. after Yulg., Z/j/arer^mf. Auth., 
following Tynd., " wound it." Gr. eSriaav. In the case of 
Lazarus, Auth. renders the same word " bound," and so in all 
other places of the New Testament. 

Linen cloths. — Not " clothes " (Auth.). These were swathes 
or bandages -. see Note on chap. xi. 44. Over these probably 
was drawn the linen cloth, (xivScov, mentioned in Matt, xxvii. 59. 

Custom.— So Wycl. Auth., with Tynd. and Rhem., " manner." 

42 There is scarcely any alteration in this verse, except in the order 
of the scATral clauses, which is that of the Gr., lea-\"iug the mind 
to dwell on the main fact of the sentence, and producing in the 
rhythm a cadence suited to the sacred calm in which the Evange- 
list brings the long sad agony to its close. 


3 They went toward the tomb. — All English versions, 
" they came to the tomb." The Gr. is here in the imperfect 
tense, ^pxovro ; but in the former part of the verse in the aorist, 
" went forth." 

5 Stooping down and looking in.— The latter words are 
riglitly added in Auth. ; and there was no need to print them in 
italics (as in modern editions of the Auth.), since they ai'e con- 
tained in the single Gr. word, -rtapaKv^as, which means "'stooping 
to look." Compare Luke xxiv. 12 ; 1 Pet. 1. 12. 

6 He beholdeth.— Gr., eeojper. Auth., "seeth." His action is 
set before us in time j)resent, as he stands within, and surveys 
and ponders over the things that meet his view. 

7 That was upon his head.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., 
with Tynd., " about." Gr., eVi. 

16 In Hebrew.— Tliis is added by change in Gr. text, being in- 
tended, together with the intei-pretation wliich follows, for the 
GentUe readers of the Gospel. 

180 ST. JOHN— XXI. 

19 When, therefore, it was evening on that day . . .— 

The order of the Gr. is here observed, as it is by Wycl. and 
Rhem., following Yulg. Auth., with Tjiid., " Then the same 
day at evening," which conveys the same meaning, A^-ithout tlie 
solemn emphatic definiteness of the original. (Compare Mark 
xiv. 30.) 

23 Forgive.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., with Tyud., "remit," 
following Vnlg., quorum remiseritis peccata remittuntur eis. 
The word " remit " is not elsewhere found iu the Bible, and there 
appears no reason why its good old English sjTionym should not 
stand here, as it does for the same Gr. elsewhere. (Comp. 1 John 
i. y, ii. 12.) Tliese are the only passages in which St. John speaks 
of " forgiving," or " forgiveness of sins." In this place probably 
" remit " was used in the Engl, versions as the Latin correlative 
of " retain." 

25 Put my hand.— So Wycl. aud Rhem. Yiilg. , viittam. Auth., 
" thrust." The Gr. is /3a\w in both places. 

29 " Thomas " (Auth.) — omitted by almost all the ancient authorities. 


1 Manifested Jdmself, — So Rhem., following Yulg., mrniZ/ips^ 
avit se. All other Engl, versions, " shewed himself." Tlie Gr., 
<pa.vep'6<i}, is almost always '' manifest " in Auth. The appearance 
of Christ after His resurrection was as much a "manifesting of 
his glory," as was the " beginning of his signs at Cana," chap, 
ii. 11. 

4 When day was now breaking. — Auth., '■ when the morn- 
ing was now come." Tlie participle, by change in Gr. text, is in 
the i)resent tense, not (as Auth.) in the past. 

The beach. — Auth., " the shore." (See Note on Matt. xiii. 2.) 

5 Aught to eat. — Auth., " any meat." The Gr., vpos(payiou, 
does not occur again in the New Testament, and its meaning is 
not precisely ascertained, but it is said to include whatever may 
be eaten with bread, e.g., fish. (So Kuinoel, quoted by Words- 
worth.) The Scottish term " kitchen " represents this meaning 
of the Greek; and "meat" in Scotland still signifies "food" 
generally. (Eadie, TJie English Bible, ii. 372.) 

ST. JOHN— XXI. 181 

7 His coat. — So all Engl, versions except Aiitli., " his fislier's 
coat." It was as the Gr., i-n-evSvTT}?, denotes, an overcoat, but 
docs not appear to have been peculiar to fishermen. 

8 The net full of fishes. — There is the same ellipsis of " full '' 
in Matt. xiv. 13, Kepd,uioy vSaros, " a pitcher of water." So here, 
WycL, " the net of fishes." All other Engl, versions, " the net 
with fishes." 

9 When they got out upon the land.— All Engl, versions, 
" when they were come to land." The Gr., airiPrjo-av, " stepped 
off" (tlie boat), is the converse of e/xfiaivco, to step into, "to enter 
it," and of ava^aivu (verse 11), to " step up " (on to the boat), to 
go on board. 

11 Was not rent. — All Engl, versions, " was not broken." The 
Gr. is not the same Avhich is rendered in Luke v. 19, " their nets 
were breaking." 

12 Break your fast. — All Engl, versions, " Come and dine," 
except Wycl., " Come ye, eat ye." Vidg., vcnite, jirandete. The 
Gr., api(rrri(raT€, denotes the first meal of the day; and as the time 
was claybreak, " dine," according to our modern usage, woidd 
seem to be an inappi'opriate rendering. 

Inquire. — All Engl, versions, " ask." The Gr., i^sTaaai, is not 
simply " to ask," but to fiud out by careful inquiiy. (See Matt. 
ii. 8, X. 11.) 

15 So)i of John. — Observe the marginal Note. 

16, 17 Lovest thou me . . . — Two words for which we have 
not two English equivalents are used in these verses : aya-n-w, 
signifying spiritual, lieaveuly love ; and (piAco, earthly aifcetion, or 
friendship. Twice, in questioning His Apostle, our Lord uses 
the former. St. Peter answers affirmatively, yet in so doing, as 
if he hardly ventured to claim that higher love, he substitutes 
the lower Avord; almost as if the question had been, "Lovest 
thou me with all thy soul ? " and the answer Avere, " Yea, thou 
knowest that I love t'hee with all my heart." The third time, as 
if in compassion for the Apostle's distrust of himself, our Lord 
descends to the lower ground of earthly affection, and repeats 
His question with the lower word which expresses it ; but iu 
translating it we can only use the same word as before, " LoA'est 
thou me? " Whereupon St. Peter, being grieved that the question 
is repeated a third time, and in this altered form, appeals more 
vehemently than before to his Master's knowledge of him. 

Our Lord also varies the form, though hardly the substance, of the 

182 ST. JOHN— XXL 

cliarge wliich He gives after eacli question and answer. 1st. 
" Feed my lambs," fioa-Ke ; 2ud. " Tend my sheep," ■n-oi/j.aive, " Be 
their shepherd " ; 3rd. " Feed my sheep," fioaKe. All Engl, 
versions repeat in each place " Feed," folio-vying Yulg., Pasce. 

23 This saying therefore. — Auth., " Then this saying went 
abroad." In such jiassages as this it needs especially to be borne 
iu mind that " then," in Anth., at the beginning of sentences in 
St. John's Gospel, has not a temporal, but a causal meaning. We 
are not to suppose from the Gr. that the saying immediately 
spread among tlie disciiiles, but that it did so iu couseqiience of 
what Jesus had said. 



2 He was received up.— Auth., witli Tyud., " was taken up," 
following Vulg., assumptihs est; wlieuee Wycl. and Rliem., 
" was assumpted." But in Luke ix. 51 Autli. lias " received up," 
with Tynd. ; The Gr. is here apeXri^dr), there aya\7i\peco?. At 
verse 9 a different word is used, i-KripQri, which is properly ren- 
dered " was taken up." The Ascension is called in the Greek 
Church, Analeiosia, " the receiving up." Again, in Luke xxiv. 
51, it is said " he was carried up," avecpepero. But from this 
verse and chap. ix. 51 of the Gospel it would seem that the " re- 
ceiving up " was the most familiar term in use among the first 
disciples for the Ascension, as " the passion," rh iradeiy (vei'se 3), 
was for the sufferings of their Lord. 

3 He also shewed Himself.— The Gr. is properly, as in Margin, 
" presented himself," and is so rendered chap. ix. 41 ; and so 
here, Yulg., proibtdt se : but that rendering would here be in- 
appropriate. " After His passion," though not an exact equiva- 
lent of " after he had suffered," is the rendering of all English 
versions, following Ynlg., post passionem suam. It is too sacred 
a word to be expunged from this, the only place where it occurs 
in the Bible ; and doubtless it will ever hold its ground in the 
Prayer-Book, " By thy cross and passion ! " 

Proofs. — "Tokens," the rendering of Tynd. and Cranni., was 
probably felt to be in itself too weak, and after being strengthened 
by the addition of " infallible " in Genev., gave place to " proofs " 
in Auth., which has " infaUible proofs." Wycl. and Rhem., 
" arguments," following Vulg., argumentis. The Gr., reK/xriptov, 
does not apj)ear elsewhere in the New Testament ; as used by 
Aristotle, it means a convincing, certain evidence, as distin- 
guished from ay^iiuov, a probable but not certain sign ; whence 
Beza, certissimis signis, followed, as above, by Genev. and 

184 THE ACTS— I. 

Appearing unto them.— So all English versions before 
Autli., following Yulg., apparens eis. Auth., "being seen of 
them," which would imply that He was continually before their 
eyes. The Gr., oirraySfxevos, not again used in the New Testa- 
ment, is a frequentative verb, •with the sense, " api^earing from 
time to time." See Note on John xvi. 16, " Te shall see me " 

By the space of— i.e., appearing to them during that space 
or interval of time ; so Genev. Auth., " seen of them forty 
days," would signify " seen on forty days," which, as Chrysostom 
observes, if it had been the meaning of the writer, would have 
been differently expressed. 

Speaking the things concerning.— Not " speaking of the 
things," as Auth., but speaking the very things, whether truths 
to be believed or commands to be obeyed. Wycl., Tyud., and 
Rhem., following Yulg., " speaking of the kingdom of God." 

4 Being assembled together with them: — The marginal 
rendering, " eating wdth them," is the interpretation adopted by 
Chrysostom, and followed by Vulg., convescens illis, and by 
Wycl. and Rhem. ; and it may be supported by reference to Luke 
xxiv. 42 : but it is founded on a fanciful derivation of the word, 
as if from, salt ; and it is inconsistent with the usage of 
classical authors —, Herodotus i. 62. Tyud. has "gathered 
them together," and so Calvin, congregans illos ; but this would 
be giving a transitive sense to the verb, and would require a 
different construction of the Gr. 

He charged them.— All English versions, "he commanded," 
Avhich is the rendering of several other words. 

5 Baptized with the Holy Ghost.— Margin, " Or, in." We 
read in Matt. iii. 11 these words of the Baptist, " I indeed bajj- 
lize you with water; but He shall baptize you with the Holy 
Ghost and with fire," where the prej)osition iv, " in," stands in 
both parts of the sentence ; here, by our Lord, it is used in the 
latter clause only : " Jolm baptized tvii/i water " — water, the means, 
the outward form or instrument ; " but ye shall be baptized in 
the Holy Ghost — in Him, as the very element of the new life 
acquired thi'ough baptism. 

7 Hath set within his own authority.— Margin, " Or, Jiafh 
appointed hy His oion authority." All English Aversions, "hatli 
put in his own power ; " Yvlg.fposuitin sua potestate. The Gr. 
i^ovaia, here rendered " power," is elsewhere " authority." The 
meaning may be either " settled so as to be witliin his own 

THE ACTS— I. 185 

authority," or, takiug Ic to be instrumeutal, " settled by His own 
aiitliority," as in Margin. 

8 My witnesses. — By cliange of Gr. text, for "witnesses unto 
me." Auth. 

9 As they were looking.— So Rliem. ; Autli., with Wycl. and 
Tynd., " while they beheld." The Gr. is fiXeirovTwv. See Notes 
on verse 11. 

10 While they were looking stedfastly. — The verb is re- 
solved, as it is iu the Gr. is aTevi^ovres fjcrav, expressing the pro- 
tracted gaze more strongly than Aiith., " as they looked sted- 
fastly." The Gr. is used by St. Luke several times both in his 
Gospel and in the Acts, and by St. Paul twice (2 Cor, iii. 7, 
13), but not elsewhere in the New Testament. 

As he went. — Auth., "as he went up." Gr., iropevofxiuou, 
the same as in verse 11. 

11 Looking into.— So Rhem. ; Auth., with Tynd., " gazing up 
into." The Gr. is the same as in verse 9. 

Was received up. — Auth., " which is taken up." See Note 
on verse 2. The participle is of the past tense, the aorist. 

As ye "beheld him. — All English Aversions, " as ye haA^e seen 
him." The Gr. is iOedo-aa-de. 

Going. — Gr., iropevS/xevov, literally, "going his way;" the same 
Avord is used of the ascended SaAdour by St. Peter, I. iii. 22. 

12 Which is nigh unto Jerusalem . . . — So Wycl. and Tynd. 
Auth., Avitli Cranm. (omitting "nigh mito "), "Avhich is from 
Jei'usalem a sabl)ath day's journey." For his Gentile readers 
St. Luke says it AA'as " nigh," for the Hellenistic Jcavs he is more 
particular, saying that it Avas " a saljbath day's jom-ney off." 

13 The upper chamber. — So Geuev. and Rhem. Wycl., 
" solar," from the Latin solarium. Tynd., " parlour." Auth., 
"an upper room," but "upper chamber" in chap. ix. 27 ; xx. 8. 
The Yulg. here has coenaculum, the same Avord that it has in Mark 
xW. 15 for the "upper room " in Avhich the Last Supper Avas 
eaten, thus appearing to faA'our the tradition which identifies the 
" upper chamber " of this place with the " upper room " of the 
Gospel. The two Avords in Gr. are different, though alike in 

Where they were abiding; both Peter and John 

. . . This construction of the sentence is preferable to that 
which is adopted in all English versions, and according to Avhich 
they who " went into " the chamber would seem to be not the 

186 THE ACTS— I. 

same company as those who " abode " there : thus Auth., " they 
went into an upper room, where abode both Peter, &c." As it now 
stands, the clause, " both Peter and John," &e., is in apposition 
with " they," explaining in detail who are included in that word. 

14 With the women. — Margin, "Or, with certain women." 
The article, though not expi-essed in the Gr., may after the pre- 
position be imderstood : in which case the women are intended 
who have been already mentioned in the Gospel (see especially 
Luke viii. 2, 3) ; or the omission of the article may be taken to 
denote an indefinite number, as in Margin. 

15 There was a multitude of persons gathered together, 
about a hundred and twenty.— So Vulg., erat turba homi- 
mini siinulfere centum viginta, followed by Wycl. The absence 
of the article in the Gr. before " multitude" determiues in favour 
of this rendering in preference to Auth., " the number of names 
together were," &c. 

Persons.— So Rhem. The Gr. is jn-operly "names," as Auth., 
with Tynd. The same word is a sjoionym for " persons " iu Rev. 
iii. 4 ; xi. 13. It may have obtained this idiomatic use as being 
inclusive of women, there being no word ui Gr. so convenient 
for this purpose, though irpStrccTrov is sometimes used in the sense 
of " person." It has been thought probable, also, that a list was 
made of the " names " of these primitive disciples. 

The Gr. particle re, " and," which connects this sentence with 
* the preceding, is characteristic of the Book of the Acts, being 
found in it 121 times, and only five times in the Gospel of St. 
Luke (Alford). 

16 Brethren. — So Wycl. Auth., follomng Tynd., "Men and 
bi'ethl'en." The Gr., literally rendered iu Rhem. " men breth- 
i-en," is a respectful and customary mode of address, several 
times repeated in this book, where the Apostles are addressing 
then." Jewish countrymen ; and it would perhaps indicate that 
the men only, and not the women also, were in the contemplation 
of the speaker. 

It was needful that the Scripture should be ful- 
filled. — Auth., " this Scripture must needs have been fulfilled," 
with Tynd. Vulg., oportet impleri scripturam, followed by 
Wycl., " it behoveth that the Scripture be filled." Our idiom- 
atic phr?se, " it must needs be " — i.e., " it cannot be otherwise " 
(as in Matt, xviii. 7) — is not apposite as a rendering of the Gr. 
Se?. Compare Mai-k xiii. 7 ; Acts xvii. 3. 

THE ACTS— I. 187 

17 Received his portion in this ministry. — Autli., with 
Wycl., " had obtaiued part of this ministry." Tho Gr. is lite- 
rally, *' obtained by lot the lot of," &c. The Gr. K\7jpos, clerus, 
" lot," besides its primary meaning, came to designate the portion 
allotted, as the case has been with the English word, and thus it 
obtained the meaning of an inheritance or possession, in what- 
ever way acquired. Nevertheless St. Peter, by his use of the 
word in speaking of the Apostolic office, may have suggested to 
his hearers the way in which the will of the Lord should be as- 
certained for filling up the vacant place : " they gave forth their 
lots," &c. (verse 26). 

18, 19 These two verses are to be regarded as a parenthesis intro- 
duced by St. Luke for the information of his Gentile or JewisJi 
readers. The narrative which they contain would have been un- 
necessary for those whom St. Peter was now addressing, and who 
must have been well acquainted with the sin of Judas and liis 
fearful end. 

18 Obtained. — Auth., " purchased." Tyiid. and Oranm., " hath 
now j)ossessed." Yulg., possedit. Gr., iKT-ljaaro, literally, " ac- 
quired." In view of the account given in Matt, xxvii. 5, the ex- 
planation of this passage must be that Judas, by casting his 
money into the sanctuary, caused the purchase of the field to be 
made after his death by the chief priests. 

19 In their language. — Auth., " in their proper tongue." 
"Proper" is omitted by change inGr. text. For " language" the 
Gr. is Sia\4KTos, " dialect," used several times in this book only. 

20 His ofiice. — Auth., " bishoprick," following Vulg., episcopcdmn, 
and aU English versions, except Genev., " his charge." The Gr. 
is itriffKOKTiv, episcopen ; but "bishoprick" is an auticipation of 
the ecclesiastical sense which the word acquired in post- Apostolic 
times. As used on this occasion by St. Peter, or even thirty 
years later by St. Liike, it would mean no more than the office of 
overseeing the work of others. It is observable that the Genevan 
version alone di'opped the rendering* " bishoprick," and that 
King James's I'evisers in 1611 returned to it. The Gr. is used in 
the LXX. version of the Old Testament, as in IsTum. iv. 16 for 
the "oversight" of the Tabernacle. "Office" is the word of 
Auth. at Ps. lix. 8, which is quoted here by St. Peter from the 
LXX. There also the Gr. is eniaKoirriv. 

22 Must one become.— Auth., following Tynd., "must one be 
ordained." Wycl. and Rhem., " be made," after Yulg. fieri, 
Avhich is very near to the Gr. yei/iadai. " Ordained " has now, 

188 THE ACTS— 1. 

like " bislioprick," a special ecclesiastical seuse, which makes 
its use iu this aucl other places of the Bible perplexing, if uot mis- 
leadiug, to the English reader. 

23 They put forward two.— Antli., with Tyud., "appointed." 
The Gr. is " set," as at chaps, v. 27, vi. 13 (Anth.). The choice 
made by the disciples was not an " appointment," but a prelimi- 
nary nomination. 

24 Shew of these two the one whom ... — Auth., with 
Tynd., "show whether of these two thou," &c. The Gr. is more 
definite, inserting " one " (according to English idiom " the one ") 
before " whom." 

25 To take the place in this ministry.—" Place," for " part " 
(Auth.), by change in Gr. text, tSwov for KXripov. All previous 
versions have " place," or, as Rhem., " room," following Yulg. 
By this reading an antithesis is presented between the " place " 
in the aj)ostleship and the place of Judas, to which he is gone, 
" his own place." 

Fell away. — Auth., keeping the elegant paraphrase of Tpid., 
" by transgression fell." This, however, lays too much stress on 
"fell," which is not the prominent notion of the Gr., irape^ri, elsc- 
whei'e " transgressed." Compare Luke viii. 13, " which for a 
while believe, and in time of temptation fall away," where 
the Gr. is acpla-Tavrai. 

26 They gave lots for them. — Margin, " Oi*, unto them," as 
Wycl. By change in Gr. text {avroTs for auTuv) for " they gave 
forth their lots" (Auth.). If the Marginal rendering be taken, 
we may understand from it that the lots, consisting of two tablets, 
each inscribed witli one of the names, were given to them, and 
they in some manner arrived at the result, probably by placing 
the lots in the folds of a robe and drawing them out. This is the 
only instance in the New Testament of recourse to lots, which, 
under the Jewish dispensation, were believed to convey intima- 
tions of the Divine will : " The lot is cast into the lap, but the 
whole disposing thereof is of the Lord" (Prov. xvi. 33). This 
one instance occurs before the bestowal of the spiritiial gift of 
the Holy Ghost, which was to supersede the former modes of 
consulting God's will, and was to be for the guidance of the 
Ajiostlcs and of the Church for all time. 

THE ACTS— II. \8d 


1 Was now come.— Autli., " was fully come." The Gr., wliidi 
is, literally, " -whoii the day of the Pentecost was being filled np," 
has been varionsly rendered in tlie Engl, versions ; bnt all, except 
Aiith., have " days " (in the plural), following Vulg. — cum com- 
plerentur dies Pentecostes. The Gr., (rvfj,w\r]povffdai, is used only 
by St. Luke, and by him three times. 

Together. — So Wycl. and Rhem., following Vulg., pariter in 
eodem loco, by change in Gr. text for Auth., " with one accord." 

2 As of the rushing of a mighty wind.— Auth., following 
Genev., " as it had been of a mighty rushing wind." The Gr. 
is literally, " as if a violent gust were being borne along." 

3 Tongues parting asunder.— So Yulg., dispertitce linguce, 
whence Wycl., "divers," and Rhem., "parted." Auth., following 
Tynd., " cloven," as if each tongue were forked. The Gr. is 
literally, " di\'iding or parting themselves off " (as from one root, 
says Chryso.stom). 

It sat — i.e., the apj)earance of a fiery tongue. 

Upon each one of them. — So Cranm. Auth., with Tynd. 
and Genev., "upon each of them." It is a small matter, but the 
distrib^^tion to each and all is thus more distinctly marked. There 
is the same particnlarity in the Gr., els e/cao-Tos, at verse 6. 

5 From every nation. — Auth., " out of," which would represent 
e/c, not (xttS, and would imply that they themselves belonged to, 
were of, these sevei'al nations, instead of being Jews born and 
resident among them, and come from them. 

6 When this sound was heard. — Auth., " when this was 
noised abroad," a paraphrase of what was supposed to be the true 
rendering, '" when the report of this had been made." So Ei'asmus, 
Beza, &c. The Gr. is literally translated by Wycl. and Rhem., 
" when this voice was made," following Ynlg., facta Jiac voce. The 
Gr. <pajyh never in the New Testament has the sense of a " report," 
or " rumour," but is nsed, as here, of a Divine utterance in Matt. 
iii. 17, &c. The " sound " which was heard was either the noise 
{^X°^) of the mighty wind in the house, or the sound produced by 
the manifold utterances of the Apostles speaking out of doors. 
The latter seems the more probable alternative ; the languages 
spoken were many, but the sound was to each hearer a simple and 
single one — that of his own language in which he was bom, 

190 THE ACTS— IT. 

8 Language.— As at verse 6. Autli., " tongue." The Gr., as at 
chap. i. 19, is " dialect." 

10 Sojourners from Rome.— Aiith., " strangers of Rome," fol- 
lowing Tyud. : Wycl., " comelings Romans." The Gr. is, literally, 
" the sojourning Romans," i.e., " the Jews who live at Rome as 
sojourners," Roman Jews, as we now speak of English, Polish, 
Russian Jews. 

11 Cretans. — Wycl., " men of Crete." Tynd. and Cranm., strangely, 
" Grekes." Genev. and Auth., " Cretes," as in Vulg., from the 
Gr. KprjTfs. Rhem., " Ci-etonians." The roWsers of 1611, in 
Titus i. 12, introduce the name in an English form, " Cretians," 
following Yulg., which there has Cretenses. "' Cretes," in Auth., 
is a dissylable, as in the Gr., and should be so pronounced. 

Mighty works. — Autli., " wonderful works," following Genev. 
All previous versions, "great." The Gr., fxfya\i7a, is found in 
only one other place, in the Magnificat, Luke i. 49. 

12 Were perplexed. — As in Luke xxiv. 4, where for the same Gr. 
the Auth. has " were much pei-plexed," but here " were in doubt," 
following Genev. TjTid., '' they wondered." The Gr. is in the 
passive voice, and is used only by St. Luke ; its proper sense is 
" to be utterly uncertain what to think," rather than to be iu 
doubt which of several opinions is right. (Compare chap. 
XXV. 20.) 

14 Spake forth unto them.— Auth., "said." Something un- 
usual iu loudness of voice or solemnity of manner is indicated by 
the uncommon word a-n-€<p0ey^aTo. The locntus of Vulg. should 
have been elocuhis. 

Give ear unto my words. — The Gr. is, literally, "take my 
words into your eai's." Auth., less vividly, " hearken to my 
words." Yiilg., auribus percijiite. Tynd., " with your ears 

17 It shall be. — Auth., "it shall come to pass." The Gr. is 
etnai, not yev-fia-eTai. 

I will pour forth of my spirit. — Auth., following Genev., 
" I will pour out of my sj)irit," by which rendering it is not made 
clear that " pour out " are to be joined together, not " out of." 
It may have been to prevent this possible misconception that 
Tynd., Cranm., and Rhem. invert the order of the Gr., " of my 
spirit I will pour out." 


22 Approved of God unto yon.— AU English versions, " among 
you," as "Vulg., approbatum in vobis. The Gr. is els v/j-as, not 
€«/ vfuv ; and " approved " correctly represents the Gr., if it is 
understood in its old meaning, " demonstrated." The full mean- 
ing of the phrase may be thus expressed : " a man demonstrated to 

' have come unto you from God by mighty works," &c. 

23 " Have taken." — (Autk.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

By the hand of lawless men. — By change of Gr. text, for 
"by lawless hands ; " and lawless for " wicked," as aU English 
versions ; " men without the law," heathens, as in 1 Cor. ix. 21, 
" to them that are ■without [law, as without law." Gr., avS/j-wu. 
The Jews crucified the Lord by the hand of their heathen 
governor and his soldiery. 

24 Having loosed the pangs of death. — Auth., " pains ; " 
all previous versions " sorrows," following Yidg., solutis dolori- 
bus inferni. Gr., wSlvas, properly " birth-pangs," here to be 
understood of death as the travail which leads through a new 
birth to a new life. Compare Matt. xxiv. 8, where the same 
word is figuratively applied to the approaching fall of Jerusalem ; 
" these are the beginning of travail." It is, however, to be 
observed that the words rendered "pangs of death" are in the 
LXX. used where the Hebrew has " bands or cords of death," 
Pss. xvii. 5, and cxv. 3. It is not unlikely tliat St. Peter, address, 
ing the people in the Hebrew language, may have used the 
appropriate and forcible phrase, "having loosed the bands of 
death," and that for this St. Luke, giving St. Peter's speech in 
Greek, substituted the translation of the LXX., the " pangs." 

26 Was glad . . . rejoiced.— Auth., "rejoiced . . , was glad." 
These words have changed places, because " rejoice " has 
usually been taken to represent the latter of the two Gr. verbs, 
ayaWlaofjLai, denoting active and outward expressions of joy, while 
" be glad" indicates, like evcppaivofxai, a joyous state of mind ; and 
so in verse 28. 

Shall dwell.— All English versions, "shall rest," as Vulg., 
reqinescat. The Gr. is literally, " shall dwell as in a tent," in a 
temporary abode. " My flesh," my body and soul, " shall for a 
shoi-t time dwell in hope." 

27 Give.— Auth., " sufEer." The Gr. is Scio-fiy. 

29 I may say unto you freely.— So Geuev. ; all other versions 
" let me," following Vulg., liceai. 

192 THE ACTS— II. 

30 "According to the flesh he would raise tip Christ." — (Auth.) 
Omitted by change in Gr. text ; as also " his soul " (Auth.) in 
verse 31. 

33 By the right hand of God exalted.— Margin, " Or, «i." 
Tlie reudei-iug in tlie text is according to tlie more jn-obaWe 
construction of the Gr., and is that of aU English Aversions, the 
Vulg., and generally of modern commentators. There are some, 
however, who adopt the alternative of the Margin, " exalted at 
the right hand," which, if it coidd be shewn to he an admissible 
rendering of the Greek, might be preferred, being in accordance 
with other passages, whore Christ is spoken of as being " at " 
the right hand of God. 

Poured forth. — As at verse 17. Here Auth. has " shed forth," 
with all English versions, except Rhem., " poured out." 

36 Hath made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus 
whom ye crucified. — So Wycl., Genev., and Rhem., follow- 
ing Yulg. The order, as inverted by Tynd., Cranm., and Auth., 
is more smooth and rhythmical, but does not so well suggest the 
startling effect with which the words woiUd fall on the Jewish 
audience, stinging them, causing them to be " i^ricked to the 

38 Unto the remission of your sins.— So Wycl., and Rhem, 
with Yulg. In the Gr. text, followed by Auth., "your" was 
omitted, and the statement was a general one. By the addition 
of "your" the purpose of baptism is brought home to each 

39 Shall call unto him.— Auth., "shall call." The verb in Gr. 
has the preposition ■7rp6s, and is in the middle voice. The call is 
from God, calling them to Himself. Vidg., advocaverit. 

40 Crooked. — The same Gr. is so rendered in Luke iii. 5 ; Phil, 
ii. 1-5. Here Auth., with Tynd., has "untoward;" \he latter 
word signifying backwardness in coming to the truth, the former 
perversity in turning off from it. 

41 " Gladly." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

42 Tepxhing. — So "Wycl., as in Matt. vii. 28, and elsewhere, for 
the Gr. SiSaxi? ; not " doctrine" (Auth., with Tynd.), which, as we 
now miderstand it, means a definite system or canon of the 

And fellowship — i.e., in the Aj)Ostles' fellowship, associated 
■n-ith the Apostles in all religioxis acts. The Marginal alterna- 
tive by the insertion of "in " would make " and in fellowship " a 

THE ACTS— II. 103 

separate clause, lueauiiig " iu brotherly iutereuiirsc one with 
auother," being', as it is said afterwards, " all of one heart." 
But by the omission, through change iu the Gr. text, of '" aud " 
Ijcfore the uext clause, the enumerated particulars are divided 
^ into two couplets, the tirst describing the close couuection of the 
' believers Avith the Apostles, the second their outward acts of 

In the breaking of bread and the prayers.— Auth., 
following Tyud., in both places omits the article, which here has 
strong significance, indicating (1) the special rite to which the 
term "breaking of bread " was applied in the primitive Church — 
viz., the breaking of bread iu Holy Commimion at the Acjape, 
or "love-feast" (compare chap. xx. 7; 1 Cor. x. 16) ; aud (2) the 
meetiugs held for comniou prayer. 

45 Any man.— Not " every man," as all English versions. The 
Gr. is TLs. 

46 At home. — So Geuev. ; all other versions, " from house to 
house," as Vulg., circa domos ; but in Margiu Auth. (1611) has 
'* Or, at home." The Gr., kut oIkov, is used iu the same sense, chap. 
V. 42; Rom. xxi. 5. The words might bear the sense given them 
iu the text of Auth., as iu this very verse KaQ^ r]/j.4pav is reudered 
" day by day," " daily," not " by day ; " but there is no example 
of this in the New Testameut. 

Gladness. — This word liiis been retained, though the Gr. de- 
notes properly an effusiveness of joy. Vulg., exultatione. (See 
Note on verse 26.) The difference was not thought sufficient to 
necessitate a change in the rendering of a phrase with which 
we are so familiar as it stands. 

47 Added to them. — By a change iu the Gr. text, " to the 
Church " (Auth.) is omitted, and the first words of chap, iii., 
" to them," literally, "together," are connected with the end of 
this verse. This change is supported by nearly all the l)est MSS. 
and the ancient versions, including Vulg., followed by Wycl. aud 
Rhem. The Gr., iwl rb avrS, "together," stood awkwardly at 
the begiuning of the next sentence. Tlie same Gr. is rendered 
" together," in chap. i. 15 : aud Vulg. in that place has simul, 
but here in id ipsum, an uuiutelligible attempt at literaluess, 
imitated by Wycl., " in the same thing." 

Tlie meutiou of " the Church," omitted by cluiuge of Gr. text iu 
this place, appears for the first time iu chap. v. 11. 

Those that were being saved.— Auth., following Tyud., 
"such as should be saved," which perhaps was intended to 



iudicate a certain class of persons chosen for salvation, '' such as 
should be," "were destined to be," saved, according to the Cal- 
viuistic doctrine of salvation ; but of this there is no indication 
in the Gr. rous crw(ofjLivovs (the present participle), " those that 
were being saved," were putting themselves in the way of salva- 
tion, obeying the exhortation of St. Peter in verse 40, '' Save 
yourselves," ffdi(eade. So in 1 Cor. i. 18 the same phrase is con- 
trasted by St. Paul Avith those that are in the way of perdition, roTs 
aTToWv/xeyois. " Cahnnism," says the late Professor Blunt {Duties 
of a Parish I'riest, § 2, p. 51), " has made great use of this text, 
and important consequences have been deduced from it." To 
this remark he api)ends another, which is of general application : 
" And I camiot ))ut think there is more to satisfy a reasonaljle 
man in reasoning like this on the grammar of the Greek which con- 
tains the revelation, than in A^ery verbose disquisitions on the 
Divine decrees in metaphysics apart from the Greek." 

The Yulg. in this place lias qui salvi ficrcnt ; Wycl., " they that 
were made safe," neither of which renderings is free from 


1 See Note on chap. ii. 47, " added to them." 

2 Door. — Auth., " gate," which rein*esents a different Gv. word, 
used for the same entrance in verse 10. 

3 Asked to receive. — So all English A-ersions exceijt Auth. The 
phrase is not elsewhere found in the New Testament, but is used 
by classical authors — e.g., by Sophocles and Aristophanes. Auth., 
foUoAving a different Gr. text (not that of the Textiis Beceptus), 
omits " to receive." 

6 What I have.— Auth., with Tynd., "such as I have." "Wycl. 
and Rhem., " that that I have," inelegantly following Vulg., 
(luod liabes. 

" Rise lip and."' — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

7 Raised him up. — Auth.. as Tynd.. "lifted up." "Wycl.. 
" lieaved." The Gr. is usually rendered in the active voice " to 
raise," in the middle, " to rise." 


10 Took knowledge of him.— All EngHsli versions, "kiicAv." 
The Gi". is the same as at chap. iv. 13, where Aiith. (alone) has 

" took knowledge of him." " Recognised " is a better word, bnt of 
comparatively modei'u usage. 

11 Porch. — Margin, " Or, iJortico." This portico or colonnade was, 
according to ancient tradition, a part of Solomon's temple, left 
standing when the rest was destroyed by Ncbixchaduezzar. 
Jesus walked in it (John x. 23) ; and becoming afterwards a 
place of piiblic resort, it appears to have been frequented by the 
disciples for the purpose of meeting and teaching the ]3eople. 

12 This man.— (Gr., tovtu) Preferable to " this " (i.e., this thing), 
as all English versions, because of "him," which appears to refer 
to "this man," at the end of the verse. 

Fasten ye your eyes. — The Gr. is so rendered in Luke iv. 
20 (Auth.), but here " look ye earnestly," as in chap. i. 10, and 
Luke xxii. 56. 

Godliness. — So Genev. Auth., "holiness," with Tjaid. and 
Rhem. The Gr. signifies not so much the religion of the heart 
within as the outward expression of it in acts of piety towards 
God. It is elsewhere always rendered " godliness " in Auth. 

13 His Servant. — Margin, '■ Or, cliild." See references in the 
Margin : especially to he observed in connection with this place are 
the passages of Isa. xlii. 1, &c., in which the future Messiah is 
sj)oken of as "the servant of the Lord" (translated by ira?? iu 
the LXX.). In this book the same Old Testament designation 
of Him is retained, while as the " Son " of God He is always 
called vlos, and not until the age following that of the Apostles 
was the term ■n-air @eov applied to Him as " the Son." All English 
versions, following Vulg., here have " son," exce^it Autli., 
" child." Compare Phil. ii. 7, 8, where it is said of Christ our 
Lord that he took upon Him the form of " a servant," " a bond- 
servant," and was " obedient unto death " {vTri'iKoos), and Zech. iii. 
8, " my servant the Branch," where the LXX. has SovXof. The 
Gr. Trars is rendered " servant" in verse 25 of tliis chapter; and 
it is maintained by Nitzsch, in UUmanu's Theolocjlaclie ZeiUclir. 
for 1828. that both in the LXX. and in the New Testament TraTs 
may always be translated either "servant" or "one of tender 
years," never necessarily the same as vl6s, "' son," Comp. Isa, 
xliv. 21 ; Luke i. 5-1. 

14 Righteous.— Auth., following Tynd., "just." Wycl., " right-, 
ful." Sec Note on Matt. i. 19. Comp. chaps, vii, 52, xxii. 14; 


1 John ii. 1, where the title, " the Eighteous," is emphatically 
given to our Lord. It was used by the Jews, as appears from 
the writings of then* rabbis, to designate the Messiali, and may 
have been originally suggested by Isa. liii. 11, " My righteous 
servant shall justify many." 

15 The prince of life. — Margin, "Or, author." So in Aiith. 
Rhem., following Yulg., has "Author." Tyud., " Lord." The 
Gr. properly means " leader," " chieftain," as in Num. xiii. 3 
(LXX.). The title, " Author of life," woidd i)crliaps be more 
appropriate to the Holy Spirit ; the " Author of our faith, of our 
salvation," are titles given to Christ in Helx xii. 2, ii. 10. ■ " The 
Prince of life," as our leader, Avinning life for us by His victory 
over death, appears to be a suitable rendering of the Gr. in this 
place, and in chap. v. 31. 

Whereof we are witnesses.— The Gr. may be either 
"whereof," i.e., " of his resurrection," as they are declared to bo 
in chap. i. 22, or •' of him," as He appointed them to be in chap, 
i. 8. (See also chap. ii. 32.) 

16 By faith in his name — i.e., on account of faith in His name, 
both on our part, and on the part of the cripple whom we have seen 
healed. His name worked the cure, not of itself, but on account 
of the faith which both the cripple and the Apostles had in it. 
The Gr. is, literally, " upon the faith " (eVt rfj irio-Tej). 

Yea, the faith which is through him.— Auth., 'which 
is by him." " Our faith in his name, made effectual througli 
him, hath given," &c. He is the object, as He is also the autlior 
of our faith ; He is the motive cause of it. He also makes it 

17 " I wot," for " I know," tliDUgh an archaism long disused in 
common speech, is still familiar to us from its use in our standard 
old writers, such as Shakspcare and Spenser ; the same may be 
said of " I wist," chap, xxiii. 5. Both words are of frequent 
occurrence in the Bible. 

18 His. — By change in Gr. text is omitted before " prophets," and 
inserted before " Christ." So also Wycl. and Rhem., following 
Yulg. His Chi'ist is a title foimd only here and in the quota- 
tion from the second psalm in chap. iv. 2(3, where see the Mar- 
ginal Note. 

19 Turn again.— Auth., " be converted." See Note on Matt. xiii. 

That so there may come.— AU Engl, versions, " when the 
times shall come," giving the Gr. conjunction the sense of 


" when," wliich it never takes. The same constniction occurs in 
Luke ii. 35, where it has always been rightly translated. Here 
the Yulg. was misleading, with a broken construction, id cum 
venerint, whicli Tynd. endeavoured to amend by " when there 
shall come." 

St. Peter exhorts the Jews to turn from their old evil ways and 
receive the Christ, tlieir long-expected Messiali, that so there may 
come seasons of "refreshing," of revival. What tliese seasons 
were in the contemplation of the Apostle, and whether they 
would come to the Jewish believers only, or to the world in 
general, are points not made clear by the context, nor hitherto 
illustrated by reference to other passages of Scripture. 

20 Who hath been appointed for you.— By change of Gr. 
text for " which was before preached unto you," as in all Engl, 
versions. The Gr. woi-d is used in the LXX., but in tlie New 
Testament occurs only in this book. (See chaps, xxii. 14, xxvi. 


The Christ . . . even Jesus. — Auth., " Jesus Christ." This 
change follows from the change in the order of the words in the 
Gr. text, Tbi' TrpoKexeipitr/ieVoj/ XpicrJ*!' 'Irjirouj' for tJij' TrpoK . . . I., X. 

21 The times of restoration of all things.— Tynd., " till 
the time that all things be restored." Auth., here following" Wyel. 
and Rhem., "until the times of restitution of all things," taking 
from the Yulg. the word ''restitution," which, however, is not in 
English as in Latin the equivalent of a-iroKardaraa-is, " restora- 
tion." St. Peter's words must be connected with the saying of 
our Lord (Matt. xvii. 11), " Elijah indeed cometh, and sliall 
restore all things," where the same Gr. word is used. Then shall 
come forth "the new heavens and the new earth " spoken of in 2 
Peter iii. 13. 

Whereof God spake.^" Whereof." i.e., of Avhich times. Auth., 
"Avhich God hath spoken," 'i.e., " which things:" a comparison 
with tlie saying of our Lord in Matt. xvii. 11 shews that the 
former is the true connection, though that of Auth. is grammatically 
the more ob"\dous. 

22 Moses indeed said. — Auth., following Cranm. only, " Moses 
truly said." The word thus rendered (fiev) is not an adverb, 
affirming the truth of the saying, Imt merely tlie particle used 
when two statements are to be connected or contrasted, as here in 
verses 22 and 24, "Moses indeed . . . yea, and all the prophets." 

Like unto me. — Margin, " Or, as he raised vp me " (so again 
in chap. vii. 37). This is not an improbable interpretation, the 

198 THE ACTS— I Y. 

Gr. being iy f/ue; it is also countenanced by Viilg., ianquam me, 
and there appears to be nothing against it in the Hebrew of Dent, 
xviii. 15. 

To him shall ye hearken.— Anth., " hear." The common 
Gr. verb aKovfiv lias often in the New Testament a pregnant sig- 
nification Avhich "to hear" fails to give, but which is sufficiently 
brought out by " hearken to." Similarly, in the next verse the 
Auth. "destroyed" is not strong enough to express the intensity, 
the utteruess, which is signified by the Gr. 

25 Families. — As in Luke ii. 4; Ephesiaus, iii. 15. Auth., " kin. 
dreds," with Tynd., Avhich is the rendering of other words, as in 
chaps, iv. 5, vii. 3. 

2C> His Servant. — For Auth., " his Son Jesus." by change in Gr. 


2 Being sore troubled. — T\nid., " taking it grievously." Auth., 
after Rhem., "being grieved." The Gr. is an unusual word, 
occurring only once again, in chap. x\i. 18. 

Proclaim.ed. — Auth., with Tynd., " preached," which is the usual 
rendering of anotlier word. So ngain in chap. xiii. 5. 

In Jesus. — Auth., " through Jesus." The Gr. is not " through 
Him," as tlie means, but " in Him," as the ruling precedent, the 
primary instance of a universal law. 

4 Came to be. — Aiith., "was." The Gr. is, literally, "was made 

to be." 
5, 6 Tlie change in the order and construction of this sentence 

is due to the broken construction of the Gr. text as it is now 


7 They enquired. — Autb., " asked." The Gr., in the imperfect 
tense, implies a continued or repeated questioning; and so St. 
Peter, in vei'se 9, speaks of " being under examination." 

In what name. — As at chap. iii. 2 ; and so all versions here, 
except Auth., " by what name." 

9 A good deed. — So Rhem. ; Auth., following Wycl. and Tj'ud., 
" the good deed." The article is not expressed in the Greek ; 

THE ACTS— IV. 199 

and though after the preposition (e'Tri) it might be understood and 
supplied, if required by the context, the sentence is more concise 
and lias more irony without it. 

This man. — Pointing to hhn. Auth., with Tynd., " he," ol-ros 

11 He is the stoue. — All English versions, '• This." Hero, as in 
the last verse, the Gr. is oZros, but the Gr. pronoun better finds 
its subject in the person just before mentioned ( eV rovro), verse 10) 
than in that which follows as predicate, " the stone," especially 
as in the next verse " he " is spoken of, " he " in person, and not 
under the metaphor of the stone. 

You the builders.— So Rhem. only ; all other English ver- 
sions, "you builders." The article is in the Gr., and is in accord- 
ance with our own idiom, though in the clipiied style of colloquial 
English it may, with some loss of point and significance, be 
omitted. " You, the appointed and authorised builders." 

Which was made.— All English versions have the present 
"is made," misled by Yvlg., f actus est. Gr., 6 yey6/xevos. 

12 And in none other— i.e., in no other person. St. Peter reverts 
to the qiiestions which had been asked (verse 9), by what means 
the man had been "made whole" (literally, "saved"), and in 
what name ; and to the name he attaches a sovereign and uni- 
versal power which until now he has not claimed for it. 

16, 22 Miracle. — Margin, "' Gr., sign." The use of the Gr. (T7]ne7ou 
for " miracle " is a significant characteristic of St. John's Gos- 
pel, and faithfulness required that it should there be observed in 
translation ; in the other books of the New Testament the use of 
the word in this sense is rare, and does not appear to be so signi- 
ficant that it should be represented in English. 

17 Threaten. — " Straightly " is added in Auth. only, but without 

24 O Lord. — Margin, " Or, master.'' The Gr., Aeo-TrJrrjs (Despotes), 
is used in addressing or sj)eaking of God, or Christ, in four 
other passages of the New Testament : Luke ii. 29; 2 Peter ii. 2; 
Jude 4, and Rev. vi. 10. It is the equivalent in Gr. of the 
Hebrew Aclonai, by which name God was invoked as the Lord of 
Creation. In this, therefore, the earliest recorded hymn of the 
Christian Church, the Lord of Nature is recognised as being one 
with the God of Grace. 

" Thou art God."— (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

200 THE ACTS— V. 

25 Thy servant.— David is liere designated by the same title 
which is given to Christ himself in verses 27, 30. 

Peoples.— All English versions, " people ; " but the Yulg., fol- 
lowing the Greek, po;puli ; the Heljrew of Ps. ii. also has the 

26 Set themselves in array.— Auth., " stood up." The Gr. is 

literally, " presented themselves," " stood forward." 

27 In this city.— Added in Gr. text. 

32 And not one of them said.— A more specific denial than 
Auth., "neither said any of them." The Gr. is here ouSe eTs . . . 
€A676, but in verse 34, oy5e ns, correctly rendered " Neifher was 
there any." 

35 See Note on chap. ii. 45. 

36 Son of exhortation. — Margin, "Or, consolation" which is 
the word used by Tynd. and Auth. in translating TrapdKX-oais 
(paraclesis). The Gr. admits of either rendering : " exhortation " 
seems more suitable as applied to Barnabas, of whom it is said, 
chap. xi. 23, irape/caAei irdi'Tas, " he cxliorted all." 

A man of Cyprus by race. — Auth., with Tynd., "of the 
country of Cyprus." The Gr., yevei, properly refers to the 
parentage and descent, not to the countr}'. His family had 
settled in Cyprus, as did many Jews as early as tlie second 
centiu-y before Christ. 

37 A field. — Auth., "land;" Vulg.. acjrnm-, Gr., dypoD, 


4 How is it that . . .—Auth., "why." The Gr. is the same 
as in verso 10, and Luke ii. 49. 

6 Wrapped him round — probably in their own mantles. The 
word does not occur elsewhere in the New Testament, but is used 
by classical authors andintheLXX. Auth., "wound him up," 
as if in grave-cloths or bands. 

17 Jealousy. — So Wycl., " envy." The Gr. may have this mean- 
ing, or " zeal," but not as Auth., " indignation." 

thp: acts-v. 201 

18 In public ward. — So Wycl., "common ward;" Auth., \y\i\\ 
Tyncl., "common prison." Gr., S-n/xoirla. 

21 About daybreak. — Auth., with Tynd., "early in the morning." 
The Gr. is opQpov, " dawn." As the heat becomes gi'eat in Pales- 
tine soon after sunrise, people began their day very early ; and 
of our Lord it is related, that though He passed the night on the 
mount of Olives, yet He was in the temple at an early hour, and 
by daybreak the people were assembled there to hear Him. (Luke 
xxi. 38.) See also John viii. 2. 

24 They were much perplexed . . . — i.e., when the high 
priest, &c., heard these words of the officers, they were at their 
wits' end aboiit them, wondering what all this would grow to. 
See Note on chap. ii. 12. 

28 We straitly charged you. — By omission of the negative in 
the Gr. text the sentence is converted from an indirect into a 
direct affirmative. Auth., " Did we not," &c. ? Wycl. and 
Rhem., following Yiilg., preserve the Hebraism, forcible in the 
original, but ciunbrous in English, "commanding we com- 
manded you." 

29 But Peter and the Apostles.— So "Wycl., Genev., and 
Rhem. Auth., with Tynd. and Cranm., inserts other, which in 
1611 was not printed in italics. St. Peter, throughout the early 
history of the Church, appears as j^j-wjitts inter pares; and this 
being the case, the mention of him apart from the body of winch 
he was the representative and the spokesman is consistent with 
modern as with ancient usage. 

30 We must obey God. — " Must " is much more often the ren- 
dering of Se( in the New Testament than "ought" (Auth.), and 
is here more appropriate, as expressing better the curtness of the 
original, and resting their condu.ct on necessity, not on a sense of 

31 With his right hand.— See Note on chap. ii. 33. 

Remission. — The word used in chap. ii. 38. Auth.. " forgive- 
ness." The variation is due to Tyndale. 

34 Had in honour. — Auth., " had in repiitation." Wycl., " wor- 
shipful." The Gr. is literally, " honourable to all the people," as 
Vidg., honorabilis universes lilebi. 

Commanded to put the men forth.— So Wycl., Rliem., 
and Yulg. Auth., with Tynd., following a different reading of 
the Gr. text, has "the apostles." We seem to have liere the 
very word used by Gamaliel. He, of course, would not call 

202 THE ACTS— Y.. 

tliem " apostles ; " aud St. Luke in describing tliera himself 
would not have called them " the men." 

35 What ye are about to do.— Auth., follomngTynd., " what 
ye intend to do." The Gi". yueWco has occasionally this meaning, 
as in chap. xx. 13 ; but it is a secondary aud derivative meaning, 
not to be resorted to, Avhen, as in this place, the primary sense 
will suit. Yulg., q^iid acturi sitis. 

30 G-iving himself out. — This in the Gr. is simply, but somewhat 
l)aldly, " saying that he was somebody," as Rhem. and "Wycl., 
with Vulg., clicens. Auth., "boasting." The same phrase is 
used by the historian Josephus {Ant. xx. 5, § 1), " he said he was 
a prophet," Avith regard to another impostor of the same name. 

Were dispersed- — Auth., " were scattered." The Gr. word 
occurs only in this place. " Scatter " is iised always for crKop-Ki^u 
and its kindred words, as in the next verse, 

37 The enrolment. — Auth., " the taxing." See Luke iii. 1, and 
Note there. 

Some of the. — Inserted in italics, " much " (Auth.) being omitted 
by change in Gr. text. 

38 It will be overthrown.— Tynd. and Auth., "it will come to 
noiight," suggestiug that it has in it the seeds of decay, aud will 
perish of itself. Rhem., following Vulg., has " will be dissolved," 
and so in verse 36 ; but here the Gr. is KaraXvojxai, not (as there) 
SiaXvonat, and indicates subversion, not dissolution. 

39 Pound even to be fighting.— Auth., "found to fight." The 
Gr. is an adjective, Beo^uaxoi, "' fighters against God," not used 
again in the New Testament. 

41 Dishonour. —Auth., "shame." The Gr. is cognate to that 
which is rendered "had in honour " in verse 34. 

The Name. — "His" (Aiith.), omitted by change in Gr. text. 
Tlie abbre^-iation by its expressiveness reminds us of " the Way " 
(chap. xix. 9). "The Name of Jesus in the Book of the Acts is 
what the Name of Jehovah is in the Old Testament.'' — 

42 At home. — All English versions, " in every house," as at chap, 
ii. 46, 

To preach Jestis as the Christ.— This change is required 
by the article before XpicTTov. The Apostles in their preaching to 
the Jews laboured to i)rove (1) that Jesus, their master, was 
risen from the dead ; (2) that He was the Christ, the promised 

THE ACTS— VI. 203 


1 "Was multiplying. — Axith., "was multiplied." The Gv. 
present participle s]io\ys that the niimber was on the increase ; 
this appears in all the previous English versions, and Vulg., 
crescente numero. 

The Grecian Jews — i.e., "the Jews of the dispersion," 
Hellenists, 'EW-qviffTai, having their domicile among the Gentiles 
in countries where Greek was spoken, and speaking that lan- 
guage themselves; called here and elsewhere in Auth. " Grecians," 
to distinguish them from the Greeks by race ; but tlie distinc- 
tion is likely now to be overlooked, and requires to be more clearly 
marked ))y the addition of '■ Jews." 

2 Not fit. — The Gr. is literally " not pleasing." Auth., " not 
reason," following Ynlg., non est ceqmim. 

3 Of good report. — Auth., following Tynd., " of honest report." 
The Gr. is simply " witnessed of," naprvpov/xevous. The elegant 
rendering of Tynd., "honest," is losing its former breadth of 
meaning as the equivalent of the Latin honestus, " honourable," 
and becoming contracted to the limit of a single virtue. Vulg., 
viros boni testimonii. 

4 Continue stedfastly. — Auth., " gi\-e ourselves continually." 
The Gr. is St. Luke's often i-epeated word, TrpoffKapTepilv. 

8 Grace.— So all the chief MSS. and Vidg., followed by Wycl. 
and Rhem. Tynd. and Auth., " faith." 

10 Withstand. — The same Gr. is so rendei-ed in chap. xiii. 8 
(Auth.), but here " resist." 

12 Seized. — The word is used in the New Testament only by St. 
Luke. It denotes a sudden seizure rather than a capture after 
pursuit, which is implied by Auth., " caught." 

15 Fastening their eyes on him. — As at chaps, iii. 4, iv. 12. 
Auth., " looking stedfastly." 



2 Haran. — The Hebrew name ; for whicli Antli. has taken the Gr. . 
form " Cliarrau," as it is in the LXX. The Latin was Charrce, 
and under that name Abraham's ancient dwelling-place became 
memorable for the defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the 
Parthians, B.C. 53. 

3 Land. — Anth., " country." The Gr. is the same in both parts 
of the sentence. 

5 In possession. — Auth., "for a possession" — i.e., "as a thing 
possessed," " a property." The Gr. is one of the verbal uoiins, 
in which one meaning by an easy ti-ansition passes into another, 
the act of doing into the thing done ; and it appears to have the 
secondary or derivative sense in verse 45. 

11 A famine.— So Rhcm. Auth., after Tynd., "a dearth." In 
the next vei-se it is said that there still was com in Egj^jt, but 
Kinos requires for its rendering a stronger word than " dearth." 

12 Corn. — The Gr. (rnla (neuter plural) is j)roperly food made of 
corn, " breadstuff s." 

13 Joseph's race. — All English versions, " Joseph's kindred." 
The Gr. yevos is a more comjn'ehonsivc word than '" kindred " 
(compare chap. iv. 3lj) ; and the wider meaning has been given to 
it here and in verse 19. that it may not be taken as equivalent 
to (Tvyyiviia. " kindred," which follows in the next verse. 

Became manifest. — Auth., " was made known." The Gr. 

is (pavipov. 

IG Shecliem is the Hebrew form of the name which in the Gr. 
and in the Yulg., and thence in Auth., is wiitteu '" Sichem." 

For a price in silver.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., fol- 
lowing Tynd., '* for a sum of money." The literal rendering of 
the Gr. seems better to suit the narrative of the purchase made 
by Abraham, in Gen. xxiii.. than that in Gen. xxxiii. relating to 
Jacob's purchase. But it is beyond the scope of this commentary 
to deal with the difficulties involved in the interpretation of tliis 
and other parts of St. Stephen's speech. 

17 Vouchsafed. — By change of Gr. text, o)ixoxiyr)(Tev for &fxoa-fu. 
Auth., '■ had sworn." 

19 Dealt subtiUy . . . evil entreated.— These idiomatic ren- 
derings are due to Tynd. Wycl. has " Ijeguiled . . . tormented." 


Rlicm., " circumvoutiiig our stock . . . afflicted our fathers." 
Yulg. , circuviven lens. 

20 Margin, " Or, faw to God." This is the literal reucleriug of the 
Hel)raism by which the highest excellence is described as that 
which approves itself to God. 

22 Was instructed.— So Rhem. All other Engl, versions, " was 
learned," a phrase which now, losing its old sense, has come to 
denote the fulness of knowledge which is the fruit of instruction. 

Gv., fTraiSevdr]. 

23 He was well-nigh forty years old.— Auth., with Tynd., 
" When he was full forty years old." The Gr. is literally, "when 
the age of forty years was being fulfilled to hiiu." In the Engl, 
versions the imperfect tense, like the present tense of the same 
verb in chap. ii. 1, has been imderstood as denoting an accom- 
plished event, not one in course of fulfilment. 

24; Smiting. — Auth., "and smote." The construction and sequence 
of the words is the same as in chap. v. 30. The English idiom 
would be " slew by hanging," " avenged by smiting." 

25 Understood . . . was giving.— Auth., " woidd have under- 
stood . . . would deliver." The verbs in Gr. are in the present 
tense of the infinitive. He thought, when lie had done the deed, 
his brethren, who witnessed it, understood the meaning of it, 
but they did not. 

"Was giving them deliverance. — The Gr. is properly " sal- 
vation ; " but this word conveys to our thoughts the notion of a 
spiritual deliverance which the original, as used here by St. 
Stephen, woidd not suggest to his Jewish audience. 

29 A sojourner. — Auth., " a stranger." Gr., ndpotKos. Compare 
Luke xxiv. 18. 

30 Were fulfilled.— Tynd., Rliem., and Auth., " expired." The 
Gr. is the ordinary word, ir\7]po>d4vTcov. 

Si I have surely seen. — The Gr. is the Hebraism, so f.i-equent in 
the Scriptures, " seeing I have seen," where the particii>le with 
the verb gives an emphatic assurance of what is said, e.g., '" bless- 
ing I will bk^ss thee." The reduplication adopted by Auth. after 
Gcnev., " I have seen, I have seen," gives the same meaning iu 
our English idiom, but " I have surely seen " are the words iu 
Exod. iii. 7 (Auth.). 

35 A deliverer.—Gr., " a redeemer," XvTpoor-nv. See Note on 
\e^ne, 25, which applies to this word as well as to " salvation." 


36 This man led them forth.— So Wyel. Autli., "he brought 
tbem out." The Gr. is usually rcudered to " lead," uot to 
" briug; " but the tense, beiug the aorist, denotes the completed 
work, aud therefore the participle following is retrospective, and 
is properly " having wrought." 

37 Like unto me.— See Note on chap. iii. 22. 

" Him shall ye hear " (Auth.) appears to have been interpolated 
from Deut. x^dii. 15. 

38 Sinai. — Here again Auth. has retained the form in which the 
word appears in the Gr. aud in the Yulg., " Siua." 

Living oracles.— Auth., " the lively oracles," from Gcucv. 
The other Engl, versions, " words (or, the words) of life." The 
Gr., Aoyia, " oracles," was used of the responses given by the 
priests or priestesses of the heathen deities, as at Delphi, to those 
Avho came to inquii'e of them. The word is applied in Rom. iii. 2 
to the Hebrew Scriptiu-es. The " oracles " of God were not 
ephemeral like those heathen utterances; they were "li^nug 
oracles," not as giving life, but as coming from the true living 
God, aud, like Him, having a A-itality which endures for all ages. 
(Compare Ps. cxix. 89, " O Lord, thy word endureth for ever in 
heaven.") " Lively," tlie word of Auth., is used in the Bible in 
contrast to " feeble," " languid," as in Exod. i. 19. and this is its 
present acceptation ; but we find the older and now archaic sense, 
*' living" — in which it is here to be understood — in the Church's 
prayer " for the Church militant," " thy true aud lively word," as 
also in Ps. xxxA^ii. 19 ; 1 Peter i. 3, ii. 5. 

•i3 Rephan. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., " Remphan." 

•i-i The tabernacle of the testimony.— So Rhem., following 
Yulg. All other Engl. Avrsious. " the tabernacle of witness." 
The same phrase is used in Num. ix. 15 concerning the tabernacle 
in the wilderness, in which was the ark containing the two tables 
of the law, the " testimony of the covenant." Compare also 
Rev. XV. 5 (Auth.). In the LXX. the same words are used for 
the tabernacle, where in the Hebrew it is described as the " taber- 
nacle of the congregation" (Exod. xx\^i. 21). 

The figure.— Auth., " the fashion." "Wj-cl. and Rhem., " form." 
Gr., rinrof (tj'pc). The same Avord is used in verse 43 ; its proper 
meaning is " figure," or " pattern," as in Rom. v. 14 (Auth.). 

St. Stephen contrasts the heathenish modes and objects of 
worship which the Israelites adopted as outward j)resentments of 
the things unseen with what God had given them through Moses 


to be to tliem " a copy and shadow of tlie licavcidy tilings" (Holj. 
viii. 5). "Fasliiou " (Anth.) is a word wliieli has sunk in dignity 
since it was imported into onr language from tlie Frencli. 

45 In their turn. — Anth., with Craum., " that came after." The 
Gr., not again foimd in the New Testament, is literally, "re- 
ceiving in succession." For the adverbial sense here given to it, 
equivalent to t/c 5ia5ox7?s, " iu their turn,' we may compare Herod. 
viii. 142 (Field). 

The possession;— See Note on verso 5. The Gr. is literally, 
'' in the taking possession of the nations," i.e., of the laud of the 

Thrust out. — Anth., " droA-e out." The Gr., i^Sxrev, is a cog- 
nate A'erb to that rendered "thrust from them" (Auth.) in 
verse 39. 

46 Asked to find.— Not merely, "desired to find" (Auth.). For 
tlie same construction compare chap. iii. 14. David in 2 Sam. 
Aai. 2 is represented as expressing a "desire." 

A habitation.- So in Pss. xxvi. 5, Ixxx. 5. All English ver- 
sions, " a tabernacle." 

48 " Temples." — (Auth.) Omitted by change iu Gr. text. 

52 The righteous one.— As at chap. iii. 14, where see Note. 
Compare also Luke xxiii. 47. 

53 Ye who. — Auth., " who." Gr. o'lnvis, which is often used in 
the Acts and the Epistles, where, as here, the condition or cou- 
diict of the persons already mentioned is eidarged upon, and the 
relative clause is not introduced for simple identification. [Alford.) 
Compare chap. x. 41. 

As it was ordained by Angels.— Auth., "by tlie disposi- 
tion of angels." Yulg., in disjpositione angelorum. The Gr., 
eis 8iaTa7aj dyyeAaiv, appears to meau literally " at the appoint- 
ment of; " the preposition els having the same force as in Matt, 
xii. 41, " they repented at the preaching of Jonah," els rh K-fipvy/jLa. 
The words of St. Paul also, " The law . . . was ordained 
through angels by the hand of a mediator" (Gal. iii. 19), were 
probably suggested by this saying of St. Stephen. 

59 Calling upon the Lord. — Auth., " calling upon God." If. as 
the transitive Gr. verb appears to rec[uire, a word must be sup- 
plied, it should be that which is suggested by the prayer itself. 
" Lord Jesus." 



1 There arose on that day.— Autli., with Tyiid., " at that 
time there was." Tlie Gr. says emphatically that on that self- 
same day ou wliicli Stephen was killed the persecution began. 
So Wycl. and Rhem., following Vulg. In other places the Gr., 
if iKilvri tt) rjfi4pa., is coiTectly rendered in Auth., " the same day." 
Compare Luke xxiii. 12. 

There arose.— Auth., -there was;" Gr., (yevero. 

2 Buried.— So Wycl. ; Auth., " Carried to Ms burial." The Gr. 
is properly " joined in carrjnng," but includes the whole cere- 
mony of burial. Compare Soph., Ajax, 1047. Vulg., ciira- 
vcrtitit Stephanum, whence Tynd. and Cranm., "dressed." 

3 But Saul.— Auth., "and as for Saxd, he," following Cranm. 
Tlie Gr. is simply 2aCAos S4. 

Iiaid waste. — Auth., with Tynd., ''made havoc of;" a good 
rendering in itself, but used for anotlier woi'd {eTrSpOow) iu Gal. 
i. 13, where St. Paid says of himself, '" I made liavoc of tlie 

6 When they heard, and saw . . . — Auth., not so dis- 
tinctly, " hearing and seeing the miracles which he did," where 
both verbs seem to have " the miracles " for their object. More- 
over the Gr. is iv r^ uKovetv, suggesting a relation of time, " when 
they heard," not a participial construction, as iu Auth. 

7 Palsied. — Auth., following Tynd., " taken with palsies." AVyd. 
aiul Rliem.. " sick of the palsy." The participle, TropaA.€\i;jufVo$ 
is used by St. Luke both in the Gospel and the Acts for "para- 
lytic," irapaAvTiK6s, which we find in the first two Gospels. 

9 Amazed. — Tynd. and Auth., " be^A-itched." The Gr., f^lcnoiv, 
does not occur again. The cognate verb, e^l<TTT]/xi, in verse 11, is 
rendered by the same word in Auth., probably because it is here 
in connection with the practices of a sorcerer ; but there is no 
ground for saying the jjeople were " bewitched." Elsewhere in 
Auth. e^iVxTjyut is " to amaze," or "astonish," as in verse 13 it is 
said of Simon that "he wondered." 

10 That power of God which is called Great.— By change 
in Gr. text for Auth., " the great power of God." The Samari- 
tans, it is said, called the angels " the powers of God," and to 
one whom they believed to be the chief this title may have been 
given, " the Great Power." [Alford.) 

THE ACTS— Vin. 209 

12 Preaching good tidings concerning.— Antli., "preaeliing 
the things concerning." By a change in Gr. text (the omis- 
sion of ra) tlic verb, which is the same as in verse 4, becomes 
intransitive, and consequently has received its fiUl meaning, 
" preach good tidings," in tlie translation. There appears to be 
no exactly similar instance of its neuter use in the New Testa- 

1 3 He was amazed. — See Note on verse 9. It was now his tvirn 
to be "amazed " when he saw the miracles, the "great powers " 
of the Apostles (see marginal Note), as the people had been 
amazed by him, and had given him the title of the " great power 
of God " (verse 10). In verse 19 he seeks that higher " jjower " 
which the Apostles possessed, and which he thinks to obtain with 

23 In the gall of bitterness.— Margin, " Or, tviU become gall 
(or a gall root) of bitterness, and a bond," &c. This alternative 
has for its object to give effect to the peculiar Gr. phrase, 
fls xoA-V TTiKpias . . . &pu <Tf oj'To, which may moan, not ," I see 
thee being in," l)ut (by a Hebraism) " being for " — i.e., " about 
to become," as in Mark x. 8, " tliey shall become one tlesh ; " 
also, instead of " the gall," " a gall root " — gall [xo^v) being the 
name of a plant, the root of which from its intense bitterness was 
connected proverbially with wormwood, and the juice of which 
was offered to the Sa-\aour on the cross, mingled with wine (Matt. 
xxvii. 34). The plant is mentioned by this name in Deut. xxix. 
18 ; in Hosea x. 4 it is called " hemlock." 

The marginal rendering, however probable at first sight, is objec- 
tionable, inasmuch as it points to the future malignity of 
Simon's character at the moment when hope of foi-giveness is 
held out to him ; and the Gr., ovra fls, " being in," is not unusual. 
Compare chap. vii. 12 (revised Gr. text) ; Mark xiii. 16. 

26 The same is desert. — A separate sentence, and probably an 
explanation added by St. Luke. So Yulg., Wycl., and Rhem. 
Auth., following Tynd., " which is desert." 

37 This verse has been omitted from the Gr. text on the authority 
of all the leading MSS., and in conformity with the example of 
almost all recent editions of tlie Gr. Testament. It appears to 
have been inserted at an early pei'iod as a record that a definite 
confession of faith was required before baptism in the apostolic 

210 THE ACTS— TX. 


2 The Way. — All English versions, "tins ■way," except "WycL, 
who has " of this life," as if he had read vitce, not vice, m the 
Yulg. Compare the similar phrase, "the Name" (chap. v. 41). 
It was " the way of salvation," " the way " of Him who declared 
himself to be emphatically " tlie Way ; " to the Jews it was " the 
way or sect " of the Nazarenes (chap. xxiv. 5). 

3 Shone. — All English versions, "shined," except WycL, 
" schoon ; " but in chap. xxii. 6 all have " shone." The two forms 
appear to liave been used indifferently in Auth., " shone " being the 
older of the two. 

4 He fell upon the earth. — So Rhem., "falling on the 
ground." All other English versions, "to the earth," as it is in 
the Gr. in chap. xxii. 17, thus favouring the tradition of Avhich it 
is difficult to disabuse ourselves, so familiar has it been made to 
us ui pictures, that he travelled on horseback. St. Aiigustine, on 
the contrary, affirms that he walked ; and it is said the Pharisees 
did not use horses {A. Lapide and Wordsworth). 

5, G '■ It is liard . . . said unto him." — (Auth.) These words 
are not found in any Gr. MS., liaving apparently been inter- 
polated from chaps, xxii. 10, and xxiv. 14. They are in the Vulg., 
and consequently were introduced into the Gr. text published by 

8 He saw nothing.— So Wycl. and Rhem., follo\ving Vulg. 
Tynd. and Auth. foUow another reading of the Gr. text (ovSfva 
for oiJSeV), " he saw no man." He saw nothing, being " blinded 
by excess of light." His companions were speecliless from terror. 

15 A chosen vessel. — Margin, " Gr., a vessel of election," a good 
example of the Hebraism which uses a second noim where 
Em-opean languages, ancient and modern, have a qualifying 

19 Took food. — Auth., "received meat." This, coming after "re- 
ceived his sight," required alteration. Gr., Xa^uv rpocp-ijv. 

21 Made havoc of. — Auth., "destroyed." Wycl., "impugned." 
Rhem.. " expr.gned." Tynd., " spoiled." The word is the same 
wliich St. Paul apphes to himself in Gal. i. 13, introducing it as 
a term that others had used of liim. 

22 The Christ. — Tynd. and Auth., " very Christ," the only place 
in which this mode of expressing the Gr. article has been adopted 

THE ACTS— TX. 211 

in Anth., unless it be iu Jolm vii. 26, wlicre, however, it more 
probably includes another word, aA-ndais. In the Nicene Creed 
" very " represents a.\y)dtv6s. 

24 Their jjlot.— Tynd. and Anth., "their laying a-wait." Rhem., 
"" The Gr. noun is cognate to tJie verb which in 
vei-se 23 is rendered " took counsel together." " Lying in Avait," 
or " laying a-wait," in chap. xxv. 15 is for the Gr. ev4Spa. 
They watched the gates also. — The addition of " also " 
in the Gr. text indicates the unusual measures which they took iu 
their determination to catch him. 

25 Through the wall.— So Tynd. Gr., Sia tov relxovs. Auth., 
here following Wycl. and Rhem., " l)y the wall," proliably misled 
by Vulg., jjer mnrum, and not having in mind the further detail 
of this incident given by St. Paul himself in 2 Cor. xi. 33, shewing 
that it was through the window of a house on the town wall, as 
the spies were let down by Rahab at Jericho (Josh. ii. 16). 
Lowering him. — Is omitted in Auth., though it is in all pre- 
vious versions and in the Gr. text. 

28 Going in and going out.— The more usual jihrase " coming 
iu and going out " is here varied by the use of iropevo^iaL instead 
of, for which comp. chai). i. 21, also Ps. cxx. 8 ; Dent, 
xxxi. 2 ; Eurip. Phcen. 534 

31 The Church. — By change of reading for " the Clun-ehes," as 
Tyud. and Auth. The great preponderance of MSS. aud other 
authorities is for the singular, and so Yulg., Wycl., and Rhem. 
The earliest mention of " Churches" in the plural is in Gal. i. 

2, 22. 

Being edified. — Margin, " Gr., binlded up." The word appears 
to denote not the spiritual "edification," but the establishment 
and or'ganisation of the Church as a visible institution. 

33 Palsied. — See Note on chap. viii. 7. 

35 At Lydda and in Sharon.— Iji Sharon, because it was not, 
like Lydda, a town, but a level tract between the mountains and 
the Mediterranean, extending from Joppa in the north to Csesarea 
in the south, frequently nunitioued in the Old Testament, and as 
pre-eminent among the lowlauds for its beauty as Carmel was 
among the mountains. Isaiah speaks of the excellency of Carmel 
and Sharon (xxxv. 2). It almost always has the article prefixed in 
the Hebrew, as here in the Gr. 

38 Delay not.— By change in G r. text for Auth., " that he would 
not delay." The ui-gency of ilie message is thus more vividly ex- 
pressed. Compare John xi. 2. 

212 THE ACTS— X. 


3 Openly. — So Wycl. Yulg., manifeste; not in a dream or trance. 
Auth., " evidently." Gr., 4>avepcos, " as in the open day," 

5 Fetch. — Aiitli., witli Tjoid., " call for." Ynlg., accersi. Tlie 
Gr. is properly " send for." 

8 Having rehearsed. — Antli., " when he had declared." The 
Gr. signifies the recounting of a narrative. Yulg.. citvi narrasset. 

11 "Knit." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text, and so in Yidg.. 
Wycl., and Rhem. The same is to be said of Auth., " and wild 
beasts," in Averse 12. 

15 HHake not. — So Tynd. Gr., koIvov. Auth., following Cranm. 
and Rhem., " call not." Compare Note on Mark vii. 19. 

23 He arose and went forth.— By change in Gr. text, for 
" Peter wont fortli." In this and the preceding chapters the name 
appears to have been several times added in the MSS. on which 
the English Aversion Avas founded, though wanting in the best au- 
thorities which have been brought to light in later times. 

28 To join himself. — So Wycl. and Rhem., with Yidg., conjungi, 
rendering the Gr. moi'e literally than Auth., "to keep com- 
pany," and Tynd., "to company." 

30 Until this hour, I was keeping the ninth hour of 
prayer. — So, by change in Gr. text. The reading of this sen- 
tence in the original is not free from doubt. 

38 Jesus of Nazareth. — The Name is tlras placed in the Gr. 
as the subject of all that follows. 

39 The country of the Jews. — As distinguished from the city, 
Gr., x'^P"- Compare Mark i. 5. 

40 Gave him to be made manifest. — Axith., " sheAved him 
openly," Avith Tynd. ; losing sight of the peculiar phrase of the 

48 In the name of Jesus Christ.— By change in Gr. text for 
Auth., " in the name of the Lord." His name is specially men- 
tioned, because it was faith in Him, and in God revealed throug-Ji 
Him, which the converts accepted and professed at baptism. 

THE ACTS— XI. 213 


4 Began and expounded.— Auth., " rehearsed the matter from 
the begiuuiug aud expounded," with Tynd., the first ckuse 
bciug a paraphrase of api^dixivos, aud as a paraphrase not incor- 
rect, considering St. Luke's use of the same word in chap. i. 1, 
" the things wliich Jesus beg?in to do " — i.e., " which He did 
from the beginning." 

St. Peter's defence of himself here, like St. Stephen's in chap, 
vii., is put mainly in the form of narrative. 

11 Stood before.— So Auth. at cliap. x. 17, where the Gr. is the 

same; hei"e, "were already come unto." 

12 Making no distinction— i.e., between Jew and Gentile (com- 
pare chap. XV. 9), by change of Gr. text (the active for the middle 
voice), " doubting nothing," as all English versions, and Yulg., 
nihil hcesitans. 

13 He had seen the angel standing in his house, and 
saying. — Auth., " he had seen an angel in his house, wliich stood 
and said." The two participles are in the aorist, and to represent 
the action which in each case they describe as completed, aud not 
in process, the following translation might have been more exact : 
" He had seen the angel stand and say ; " it might have been so, 
if our vernacular idiom were more compliant -with the Greek. But 
in the j)hrase " saw him stand aud say " the English reader would 
not catch the pregnant sense of " stand " — i.e., "stop in his ad- 
vance," and woukl protest against the combination " saw him 
say " as an offence against sense and cougruity of diction : 
whereas "saw him standing and saying "is not incorrect, the 
sense being "saw him in the act of standing, aud in the act of 
saying." The eminent scholar who criticises this rendering in a 
sprightly contribution to a recent periodical has himself fur- 
nished the answer to this and several other censures which he 
has ijassed on the Revised Version, when he says, " The truth 
is, the meagre staff of participial forms in English makes it 
necessary that such words as coming, entering, initting on should 
do duty sometimes as aorist, sometimes as imperfect, according 
to the colour of surrounding circumstances." The same remarks 
apply to chap. x. 3, where the Authorised Version has not been 
altered. (Canon Evans on the " Translation of the Revised 
Version," in tlie Expositor for March, 1882.) 

214 THE ACTS— XI, 

18 To the Gentiles also hath God ... — Tliis, which 
follows the Gr. order, is more perspicuous thau Auth., " Then 
hath God also," &c. 

19 Tribulation.— So Wycl. and Rhein. ; Auth., " persecution," 
wliich is true as an interpretation, but not as the reuderiug of the 

20 The Greeks.— By change in Gs-. text for " the Grecian Jews," 
the Hellenists. These Jews of CjiJiiis and Cp'ene, being them- 
selves Hellenists, speaking Greek, would be better able, and also 
more willing, than the Jews of Palestine to preach the Gospel 
to the pure " Greeks," heathens to whom a knowledge of the 
true God had not yet extended ; for Cornelius and the Eimueh 
were already before their conversion more or less acquainted 
with the religion of the Jews. 

21 A great number that believed turned . . . — Auth., 
'■ A great number believed and turned." The difference is 
caused by the insertion of the article before " believed " in the 
Gr. text. 

22 Concerning them. — All English versions, " concerning these 
things.'' The Gr. is Trepl avruv, which must refer to the persons 
just mentioned. 

26 Even for a whole year.—" Even " is added in the Greek 

And that the disciples . . . — This, according to the 
structure of the sentence in Gr., is connected with the pre- 
ceding clause ; and being so, it suggests tliat the new name of 
the believers arose out of the spread of the faith of Christ among 
the Gentiles (verse 21). St. Luke himself being, according to 
the historian Euscbius, a native of Antioch, might well record 
the origin of the name with a feeling that it was a distinction 
for his city which should never be forgotten. 

28 All the world— /.e., the Roman Emj)ire, as in Luke iii. 2. 

Claudius. — This name spoke for itself in the time of St. Luke, 
and long after, Avithout the addition of " Caesar " (Auth.), 
which was probably inserted in the MSS. of a later date, to shew 
that the Roman Emperor of that name was intended. 

29 To send relief. — The Gr. is literally, " to send as or for a 

ministration." Vulg., in miaisterium mlttere. 



1 Put forth his hands.— Auth., " stretched forth," which is 
properly used to render the Gr, e'leTeiVaTe iu Luke xxii. 53. Here 
the Gr. is eVe'ySaAev. 

4 To guard him.— See Note on Luke iv. 10; " was kept," verse 5, 
represents another Gr. word. 

After the Passover.— Auth., following Tynd., "after Eas- 
ter " — the only place in which the English version substitutes 
the name of the Christian for that of the Je'VArish festival. 

5 Earnestly.— All English versions, following Yulg., " without 
ceasing." Compare chap. xxvi. 7 and Luke xxii. 44, " he prayed 
more earnestly." This word was often repeated by the deacon 
in the services of the ancient Churcli, and is still in use in the 
East to arouse the fervour of the worshippers — " Let us pray 
eai'nestly," or " more earnestly," SerjOaifjiiv iKrevws, or eKnveaTfpoi/. 

13 To answer.— Auth., "to hearken." The Gr., which means 
properly " to hearken," was the phrase in use among the Gi'eeks 
for answering at the door, as iu Xenophon, Sympos. i. 11. 

15 Confidently affirmed. — Auth., " constantly affirmed." Tynd. 
(alone) has the qiiaint but idiomatic phrase " bare them down." 
The Gr. occurs again once only in the NeAV Testament, Luke 
xxii. 59, and is there also used by St. Luke of a person recog- 
nising Peter by his voice. It is there translated " confidently 
affirmed " in Auth. 

17 Tell these things.— Auth., with Tynd., " Go, shew these 
tilings ; " " Go " being perhaps intended to express the a.Tr6 in 
d-KayyiiKare, as well as to avoid the abruptness of the impera- 

19 Put to death.— The Gr. is literally, "to be led away," an 
euphemism for " being executed " (Hesychius). It is not else- 
where in the New Testament used in this sense, absolutely ; but 
compare Matt, xxvii. 31, " they led him away to crucify him," 
airriyayov avrhv ds rh (rravpaxrai. See Note on chap. xiii. 13. 

20 Was highly displeased.— The Gr. means properly " he bare 
a hostile mind," as in the Margin of Auth., but not, as that Mar- 
gin adds, " intending war ; " for as Tyre and Sidou formed part 
of a Roman province, and were under the protection of Rome, 
Herod, who was also subject to Rome, could not have actually 
contemplated making war upon them. 


Was fed. — Wycl., " victualled." All other Eiigl. Aersious, " was 
uourislied," wliidi is iudeedthe literal meauiug of the Gr., rp4cj)u> ; 
but "fed" is the usual reuderiug iu the New Testameut (comp. 
Matt. vi. 26), aud is more suitable iu speakiug of iuteruatioual 
supplies of food, though " uoui'ish " may uot be obsolete as applied 
to individuals. 

The cities of Tyi-e aud Sidou, with their narrow strip of territory, 
depended for food on Palestine in the time of Solomon (1 Kings 
V. 11) and Zerubbabel (Ezra iii. 7). 

21 The throne. — Margin, " Or, judgement seat." The Gr. is uot 

ep6vov (throne), but jST^^aroj, the usual word for " tribunal " iii the 
New Testament (as in Matt, xxvii. 19), and it is so rendered in 
Yulg., followed by Rlicm., " judgement seat." Tyud., " seat." 
The objection to giAang the woi'd its special aud usual meaning 
here ai'ises out of the detailed and graphic narrative of the same 
event given by the Jewish historiau Josephus, who says it took 
place in the theatre at Csesarea, on the 1st of August (''■ a set 
day "), being the birthday of the Emperor Claudius. The Bema 
or tribunal therefore must have been not, properly speaking, a 
judgement seat, but the place called in modern times the " tri- 
bune " — the royal scat in the theatre. 

25 Their ministration. — Mentioned in chap. xi. 29, the ministry 
to the poor saints iu the famine. Auth., "ministry," which, like 
" ordain," is used almost exclusively with reference to the sacred 
office of the clergy. (Comxi. chap. \i. 1 ; Luke x. 40.) 


Barnabas. — " As " was inserted before his name by Tynd., pro- 
bably to make the sentence run more smoothly ; but it suggests 
that these names are selected out of a larger number, whicli is 
not implied in the original. Auth. has also " certain " before 
" prophets," now omitted by change in Gr. text. 

Poster-hrother.— So Rhem. Auth., following Geuev., " which 
had been brought up with." Wycl., " sucking fere of Eroud " 
(mate). Tyud. and Cranm., " nurse -fellow." The Gr.. a-ivrpo- 
<pos, is literally rendered iu Vulg., collectaneus, hanug the same 


ineauiug as 6/j.oyaKaKTos, "uourislied with the sauie milk as Herod 
Autipas." The paraplirase of Auth. probably carries the early 
associatiou of the two further than the history would warrant. 

2 The particle re, following the name of Barnabas in the received 
text, but not translated in any version, is omitted in the revised 
Gr. text. But there remain in the sentence two little words 
which, though emphatic in the Gr., can scarcely be rexn-eseuted 
in English without being overdone : (1) the delicate and versatile 
conjunction 5t}, frequently used by classical authors to emphasise 
the thought or feeling mth which it is connected, but in the New 
Testament occurring only four times, chiefly in urging a command 
or entreaty — e.g., Luke ii. 15, " Let us now [Srj] go even imto 
Bethlehem;" Acts xv. 36, "now;" 1 Cor. vi. 20, "therefore;" 
Matt. xiii. 23, " verily," where see Note. Here, if represented by 
" now " — " Separate me now Barnabas and Saul " — it would be 
too prominent, and would have a temporal sense attributed to it. 
(2) The article is here prefixed to the names of both the Apostles, 
though in chapters xi. and xii., and in verse 7 of this, it is put with 
neither, and in verse 1 with Barnabas only. " The Barnabas " 
and " the Saul " seem thus recognised by the Holy Spii'it as the 
two chief men in the Church of Antioch. 

4 Went down— i.e., to Seleucia, the seaport of Antioch. To 
journey from the interior to the coast was described as "going 
down," and vice versa. In like manner to sail from sea to port 
was to "go down," to put out from i^ort was to " go up ; " the 
journeys from and to Jerusalem were " down " and " up." Auth. 
here, " departed," as Vulg., abierunt, overlooking the force of 
the preposition in the Gr. KUTrjAdov. Compare chap. xv. 30. 

5 John as their attendant.— Auth., with Tyud., " John to 
their minister." 

6 Island. — All Engl, versions, " isle." Gr., vrja-os. The term 
" isle " has long been used as a diminutive, and caimot consistently 
be applied to Cyprus, as even Clauda and Melita are called 
" islands " in this book (chaps, xxvii. 16, xxviii. 1, Auth., fol- 
lowing Rhem.). 

Sorcerer. — The Margin shews the word to be the same as that 
rendered "wise men" in Matt. ii. 1, &c.; but among the Greeks 
and Romans it was used in a bad sense, denoting one who prac- 
tised magical arts, as Simon (Acts viii. 9), and the "strolling Jews, 
exorcists " (chap. xix. 13). Our word " sorcerer," in its original 
meaning, is one who for purposes of divination resoi-ts to the cast- 
ing of lots {sortes), in Latin, sortitor, French, sorcier, in which 
form it has come to us. Wycl. here has " witch." This, in the 


masculine form " wizard," would be au appropriate reudcriug of 
the Gr., iDiit to modern ears not more familiar or intelligible tlian 
" sorcerer." 

7 The proconsul. — So Wycl. and Rhcm., follo\^'iug Yulg. 
Anth., " deputy," wliichin 1611 was probably a good equivalent of 
the original Liatin title to which dvOvnaros corresponds in Greek ; 
the officer now styled Lord Lieutenant of Ireland having in the 
x-eign of James I. been called " the deputy." " Proconsul " was 
the title of the officer appointed to govern those provinces of the 
Roman Empire which were under the control of the Senate. Thus 
Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia in Asia Minor. This word is now 
restored, being quite as intelligible as " deputy," and not so mis- 
leading; and if any English title analogous to "proconsul" 
were to be adopted, it woiild j)robably, in course of time, become 
as inappropriate and obscure as " deputy" is now. 

A man of understanding. — All Engl, versions, following 
Vulg., "a prudent man." Tlie word "'prudent" is now cliiefly 
used to denote careful foresight in regard to worldly affairs ; 
and its original sense, signifying general intelligence and discern- 
ment, has b.^eii lost sight of. (Comp. Matt. xi. 25.) 

10 Guile. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Vulg., dolo. Auth., following 
Tyud., " subtilty," which does not of necessity imply deceit. 

Villany. — Auth., following Genev., " mischief." Other English 
Aversions, " deceit," with Vulg., fallacid. The Gr. properly 
means readiness for mischief of every kind. Compare chap, 
xviii. 14. 

12 The teaching. — Auth., " the doctrine." Comp. chap. ii. 42, 
" the teaching of the Apostles." It is immaterial whether we here 
explain the phrase to mean the teaching of the Lord througli his 
Apostle, or the teaching of tiie Apostle concerning the Lord. 

13 Set sail. — Auth, " loosed," which might be said of weighing 
anchor, or taking up the cables by whicli the .ship was moored to 
the laud; but the Gr. dvaxd^vTfs is a nautical term, meaning " were 
carried i;p " from tlie shoi-e to the sea. See Note on verse 4. 
The Gr. word in its technical sense is here used absolutely like 
the cognate verb in chap. xii. 19, " led to execution." 

14 Passing through from Perga— i.e., through the country. 
The English versions, misled by Vulg., pertranseuntes Per gen, 
have A-ariously translated the Gr. Auth., "they departed from 

16 Hearken.— Tyud. and Auth., "give audience." Gr., aKovoars. 


17 When they sojourned.— AutL., with Tynd., " wheu they 
dwelt as strangers." The Gr. is literally, " iu their. sojourn." 

18 Suffered he their manners. — The difference between this 
and the alternative rendering iu the Margin depends on the 
difference of the MSS. iu a single letter. See Deut. i. 31, and 
Numb. xi. 12. 

19 He gave them their land . . . — By change in Gr. text, 
in accordance with all the best MSS. and the Yulg. for Auth., 

"he divided." 

By another change in the Gr. text the clause which follows is 
connected with this sentence : gave them their land for an 
inheritance, for about four hundred and fifty years ; 

and thus the discrepancy is avoided, which the common text 
presents, between the statement of St. Paul and the received 
chronology of the Old Testament as to the interval from the 
Exodus to the time of Samuel the j)ropliet. 

23 Broiight. — By change in Gr. text for Ai;th., "raised:" i^yaye 
for Tjyupe. 

25 Unloose, not "loose" (Auth.), is the word used iu Luke iii. 

35 Because. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., "wherefore," Sio'rt 
for 5l6. This verse states the cause, not the consequence, of what 
has been said in the last. 

43 Devout.— This is the word in Auth., verse 50, and expresses 
the Gr. (r^^op-ivoiv, which refers to the habits of outward worshi]) 
lietter than " religious," which applies, as now used, to the inward 
feelings and convictions. 

46 Thrust it from you.— Aiith., "put it from you." The Gr. 
denotes a rough, contemptuous rejection. Vulg., I'ejJellitis. 

49 Was spread abroad.— Tynd. and Auth., " was pubhshed," 
which e\en in its original and simjjle meaning, " was made 
pulilic," does not well represent the Gr. die(p€p6To, " was carried 

50 Of honourable estate — x^Luth., " honourable." The word 
does not refer to j)ersonal character but to social position, and in 
that sense is applied to Joseph of Arimathea (Mark xv. 43). 



2 Disobedient. — Autli., " uubelieviag ; " as iu Johu iii. 36, where 
the Gr. is the same. 

5 An onset.— AU English versions, "an assault." The Gr. bpixri 
is properly a rush or ouset, not an attack. Comp. Matt. viii. 32. 

Shamefully.— Auth., " despitefuUy." Comp. Matt. xxii. 6. 

10 He leaped up.°— For Auth., "he leaped," hy change iu Gr. 
text (aonst for imperfect). The leaping was a single act, Avliile 
the walking was continued, as appears from the imperfect tense of 
the verb irepieirdTei, the aorist of which is used in verse 8. 

12 Jupiter . . . Mercury. — The Latiu names are retained, 
being more familiar to the English reader thau the Greek, which 
are given in the Margin. Mcrcm-y was supposed to be the god 
of eloquence, Jupiter the supreme god. From tlris comparison, 
as well as from the order in which their names are mentioned, we 
may infer that, though Paid was the chief speaker, Barnabas 
took the lead, and was in appearance the more majestic and com- 
manding of the two. These Lycaoniaus would be the more ready 
to entertain such a faucy, because iu the ueighboming district of 
Phrygia Jupiter and Mercury were said to have appeared in the 
old time iu the person of men, and to have been hospitably en- 
tertained by Baucis and Philemon. 

13 Whose temple was before the city.— Literally, as in 
Auth., "who was before the city" — i.e., was euslu'ined in a 
temple outside the gate of the city, as its tutelary god. The 
protection of the heathen deities was sometimes invoked by an 
appeal addressed to them as being " iu front of " their city — e.g., 
in ^schylus, Septem contra Thebas. 

15 Of like passions vrith you. — So Auth., correcting the pre- 
\ious versions, which have " moi-tal " or (as Wycl.) " deadly 
men," misled by Vulg., tnortales sumus, similes vohis. 

16 The generations gone by. — Auth., " times past," Gr., 


17 From heaven rains and fruitful seasons.— The seasons 
as well as the rains are treated as gifts from heaven. The 
poetic diction and the rhythm of this passage in the original 
seem to indicate that it is a citation from a Greek lyric poet. 
(Humphry, Commentary on the Acts, 1847.) 

THE ACTS— XV. 221 

19 Dragged. — Aiith. here has "drew," but "dragging" for the 
same word, apphed to a net, in John xxi. 8. 

21 Had made many disciples. — Auth., "had taught many." 
Compare Matt, xxviii. 19, and Note there, 

23 Appointed . . . elders.— Auth., "ordained," with Wyel. 
and Rhem. Vidg., cum constituissent. The Gr. x^^po'^o^^^ means 
" to elect by show of hands," then simply " to elect or choose," in 
which sense it is usedin 2 Cor. viii. 19, the only other place of the 
New Testament in which it occurs. The cognate noixn, irpoxeipo- 
rovid, is used of the " choice made beforehand " by God in Acts 
X. 41. The woi'd does not, as used in the New Testament, indicate 
popular election, or even election at all, properly so called — i.e., 
choice made out of a number — nor "the laying on of hands," as 
has been suggested; but is simply " appointed," in which sense 
" ordained " was used in Axith. 

2G Committed.— So Genev. "Recommended" (Auth.), is not an 
apposite word, where the address is made to God. It is only 
used again in Auth. at chap. xv. 40, and there in the same 

27 A door of faith.— All Engl, versions, " the door." The article 
is neither expressed nor implied in the Gr. This metaphor, 
deriA'ed probably from the saying of our Lord with regard to 
HiniseK, is f i-equeutly used by St. Paixl, as in 1 Cor. x^i. 9 ; 2 Cor. 
ii. 12 ; Col. iv. 3. 


1 The custom of Moses. — Aiith., " manner ;" but " customs " 
for the same Gr. in chap. vi. 15. The word properly means a 
national custom ; the " manner" might be said if it were a per- 
sonal habit, or a temporary fashion. 

2 Questioning. — By change of reading — the simple for the com- 
pound noun. Auth., " dispiitation." The cognate word in this 
verse is rightly rendered " question " in Auth. 

Appointed.— Auth., " determined." Gr., era^av. 

222 THE ACTS— XV. 

6 "Were gathered together.— Auth., "came togotlicr." The 
verb in the passive voice probably indicates that they were con- 
vened by some one who had authority. 

7 A good while ago.— The Margin, " Gr., from early days" 
gives to tlie adjective dpxaios, instead of its usual meaning 
" ancient," tliat which etymologically belongs to it, '" at the begin- 
ning," " early," wliicli it has in chap. xxi. 16, where Mnasou is 
called " an early disciple." The dioiee of St. Peter for the con- 
version of Cornelius (chap, x.) had been made ten or fourteen 
years before the holding of the council at Jerusalem in the early 
days of the Church. 

9 Made no distinction. — More idiomatic than Anth., " put no 

10 Why tempt ye God, that ye should put ?— So Tynd. 

All otlier Engl, versions, " Wliy tempt ye God, to put ? " follow- 
ing Vulg., imponere jugmn. a literal translation, yet not giving 
tlie true sense of the Gr., which is not tliat they tempt God to do 
it, but tliat they tempt Him l)y doing it themselves — they put to 
the proof His will by setting up against it their own determina- 
tion to lay an intolerable j^oke upon the Gentiles. The construc- 
tion may be compared with that in chap. xxvi. 28, ireideis /le 


14 Symeon. — The Hebrew form of the name, and that which St. 
James would naturally employ, Jieing a Jew by birth, in address- 
ing an audience composed chiefly of Jewisli Christians. Accord- 
ing to many of the MSS., St. Peter called himself by this name 
at the beginning of his Second Epistle. 

17, 18 The change in the text and alternative rendering in the Margin 
are due to change in the Gr. text. 

19 My judgement is. — Gr., iyoo Kpivu. Auth., with Tynd., "my 
sentence," which implies a judicial decree, such as would preclude 
the confirmation given to this authoritative counsel of St. James 
by the apostles and elders (see chap. xvi. 4). 

20 Write unto. — Margin, " Or, enjoin." Y\\lg., scribere. " En- 
join " is the usual meaning of the Gr. verb, from wlience comes 
our word '' epistle " (verse 30). 

From what is strangled. — Auth., " from things strangled." 
The word is in the singular number. Tlie flesh of an animal 
killed by strangling retains tlie blood, and on that account was 
considered a delicacy among the Greeks ; while among the Jews 
it was prohibited by the ancient injunction recorded in Gen. ix. 4 

THE ACTS— XV. 223 

as having been given to Noah and renewed by Moses, Levit. x\\i. 
13. It is still strictly observed by the Jews, and not entirely 
obsolete among Cliristians. 

21 Prom generations of old. — The same Heln-aism as in chap, 
xiv. 16. Auth., '■ of old time." Wyel. and Rhem., " of old 
times," following Ynlg., temporibus antiquis. 

22 It seemed good. — All Engl, versions, " then pleased it," fol- 
lowing Ynlg., placuit ; bnt in verse 25 for the same Gr., " it 
seemed good." 

To choose . . . and send . . .— The Gr. is literally, " it 
seemed good to the apostles, &c., that they should choose men 
out of their company and send them." Auth., "to send chosen 
men," does not shew by whom the choice was to be made. 

23 The elder brethren.— By omission of "and " in the Gr. text 
the Epistle goes forth in the names of the heads of the Church 

Greeting. — This word (xafpeii/) is at the end of the salutation, as 
usual in a Greek or Roman letter — e.g., in the Epistle of St. James. 
The final salutation, " fare ye well," is likewise in the Greek 

24 " Saying . . ." — Omitted in the Gr, text, there being strong MS. 
authority against it. 

25 Having come to one accord.— Not merely " being assembled 
with one accord," as all Engl, versions, following Ynlg., but 
having come to an miauimous decision. 

27 By word of mouth. — Auth. and Tynd., "by mouth." Wycl. 
and Rhem., following the Gr., " by word." 

29 It shall be well with you.— All Engl, versions, "ye shall 
do well," which hardly conveys now the meaning of the Gr., " ye 
.shall prosper." 

31 The consolation.— Margin, " Or, exhortation." The Gr. ad- 
mitting of either meaning, the former is here preferred, because 
the main purport of the letter is to relieve the minds of those to 
whom it is addressed. (Comp. chap. xvi. 40.) In the next verse 
the kindred verb has the more usual, and in that place the more 
apposite, rendering. 

33, 34 The changes and omissions in these verses are due to changes 
in the Gr. text. 

37 Was minded.— Auth. (alone), "determined." Tynd., "gave 
counsel." The Gr. is efiovAero, by change of text for i^ovKivo-aTo. 


Yulg., volehat, whence Wycl. and Rhem., " woiilcT take," " would 
liave taken." The rendering of Auth. is too strong for eitlier 
reading of the Gr. text. 

38 Withdrew. — All English versions, " departed," which is used in 
A^^th. for twenty-one Gr. words, each having its distinctive sliade 
of meaning (see verses 39, 40). The A-erb which stands here has 
a stronger sense given it in 1 Tim. iv. 1, " shall fall away from." 

39 They parted asunder. — Auth., following Wycl. and Tynd., 

"they departed asunder." "Depart," in the sense of " divide or 
part, 'was formerly used as a transitive verb, e.g., in the Marriage 
Ser\ace before 1662, " till death us depart," but as a verb neuter 
in that sense examples of it are wanting, imless this be one. 


7 Over against.— The Gr. is Kara. ; Auth., " to." 

The Spirit of Jesus.— This is the reading of all the gi-eat 
MSS., and has long been adopted in critical editions of the Gr. 

Assayed. — The old form of " essayed," " attempted." It has 
been retained, being in this foi'm quite intelligible, and so wi'itten 
in Shakspeare, Milton, &c., though now confined to the " assay " 
of the precious metals. 

10 Sought. — So Wycl. and Rhem., the usual rendering of Cvrea. 
Auth., "endeavoured." 

Concluding. — Auth., " assuredly gathering." The Gr. is 
literally " putting together one thing and another," and in chap. 
ix. 22 is rendered "■ proving." 

12 The first of the district.— Auth., " the chief," but the Gr., 
■Kpuri], may inean either that it was the chief, or the first city to 
which they came in their journey. 

A Roman colony. — The insertion of Roman is made because 
there were many Greek colonies, but the word liere is Latin, 
colonia, denoting a Roman colony, and such at this time was 
Philippi, like York, Colchester, St. Albans, and other cities 


of the provinces, which were Roman settlements, organised and 
governed on the model of Rome, and by Roman law. 

13 Were come together. — Auth., "rcsoi-ted; " it is not a habit 
of frequenting the place that is here spoken of, but a particular 
oc<^asion. Compare John xviii. 20. 

14 One that worshipped. — The Gr. participle is descriptive, 
not definiug. Auth., " which worshipped." 

16 To the place of prayer. — AUEuglish versions, "to prayer." 
The Gr. Trpoa-evxv (proseuche), "prayer," was also used to desig- 
nate the " prayer-house," commonly established where there was 
a Jewish community not sufficiently numerous or wealthy to have 
a synagogue ; that such is the meaning here is made veiy pro- 
bable by the article prefixed to the word in the best MSS. 

18 Sore troubled.— Compare chap. iv. 2. 

It came out. — Auth., " he." There is no reason why a mascu- 
line personality should be attributed to this evil spirit of 

19 Gone. — Margin, " Gr., come out." The word is the same as in 
the last verse. 

20 The magistrates. — (See Margin.) The two municipal Go- 
veruors of a Roman city in the provinces were called from their 
number Duumvir i, from their office Prcetores, the Gr. for which 

was (TTpaT-qyol. 

22 To beat them with rods.— So all English versions, pre- 
ceding Auth., which omits " ■with rods." The rods were those 
borne ordinarily by the Roman lictors. Wycl., " yards." St. 
Paul says, 2 Cor. xi. 25, " thrice was I beaten with rods " — i.e., 
by the Romans. 

27 Being roused.— Auth., " waking," which but feebly expresses 
the phrase of the Gr. 

Escaped. — The Gr. is iKw^pevyivai. Auth., "fled" would 
rej)resent the simple verb, without the preposition iK. 

29 Lights.— AU English versions, following Vulg., " a light." It 
appears not to have been observed that the Gr. <^wto is in the 
plural number. 

Si Set meat.— Gr., "a table." Compare Ps. Ixxviii. 19, "shall 
God prepare a table in the wilderness ? " — " the table " including 
the things placed upon it. , 



Eejoiced greatly, with all his house, having believed 
in God. — This is the Gr. order; aud the participle in the 
perfect tense shews that the cause of the rejoicing was the 
having professed their belief. 

io The Serjeants. — So Auth.,froinGenev. ; Wycl., "catchpoles;" 
Tynd., " ministers." The Gr. is literally " rod-bearers " — i.e., 

57 Publicly. — All English versions, "openly," which would answer 
to cpavipws. The Gr. here is 5rifj.offla. 


3 It behoved the Christ to suffer. — Auth., " Christ must 
needs have suffered." Compare Luke xxiv. 26, where the Gr. is 
the same as here. 

5 Of the rabble. — Auth., " of the baser sort." Gr., ayopaiwv, 
men that himg about the market-place. 

11 Xixamining. — Auth., "aud searched." The word is not the 
same as in John v. 39, " Te search the Scriptures." 

14 As far as to the sea. — So by change in Gr. text (fa>s for aJs) 
for " as it were to the sea " (Tynd. and Autli.). He was sent 
forth by the brethren, accompanied by some of their number, to 
go to the sea-coast ; from thence his conductors went on with 
him as far as Athens. 

16 Was provoked. — The Gr. is a stronger word thau "stirred" 
(Auth.). Comj)are chap. xv. 39, 1 Cor. xiii. 5, Heb. x. 24, where 
the same word, or the cognate noun, is used. 

Pull of idols. — The Gr., «:aTei'5a>Xoy, is properly " covei'ed \vith 
idols," not as Auth., " given to idolatry," which is, in substance, 
the rendering of all English versions, following Vulg., idololatrice 
deditum. So full was the city of idols, and so debased was its 
population at this time, that tlie satiric poet Petronius said it 
was easier to find a god in Athens thau a mau. In the time of 
Xenophon (400 B.C.) the multitude of the objects of worship was 
regarded -with pride. The whole city he said, was one altar, one 
offering to the Gods. {De Bep. Ath. xi. 8.) 


Beheld.— Auth., " saw." The Gr. word expresses the couteui- 
platiou of a thoughtful person. 

17 He reasoned. — The Gr. unpHes uo more thau this. Auth., 
" disputed." 

18 What would this babbler say?— i.e., "What does he meau?" 
Gr., t/ hv d€\oi Adyeiv ; So Rheiu. only; Vulg., quid vult dicere ? 
Misled by which, Wycl., Tyiid., and Auth. have " what will he 
say ? " as if the verb were a future. " Babbler " is the convenient 
translation of a-n-ep/xoxSyos introduced by Tynd. Wycl., " sower 
of words," following Yulg., seminiverhius, which was the mean- 
ing given to the Greek by Augustine, as if it were aweipccv 
\6yovs, as we siJeak jestingly of " a word-spinner ; " whereas the 
true meaning is " a seed-picker," a-n-epixaTa K^yc>iv, a small bird 
that hopped about, picking up seeds and chu'piug ; and thence 
applied by Athenian jesters to strolling beggars and chatterers. 

Jesus and the resui'rection.- (Not as in Auth., -with a 
comma between.) It is probable, as Chrysostom and many since 
his time have thought, that the Atlieniaus, hearing the Apostle 
speak much of Anastasis, " Resurrection," supposed him to be 
setting it forth, together with Jesus Himself, as a divinity. 

Strange Gods — i.e., "foreign," Dieux de Vetranger; Gr., |eVa. 
Comi)are verse 20, "strange things," and 21 "strangers." The 
Vulg'. incorrectly renders the Gr., novorum dcemoniorum, whence 
all English versions before Auth. have " new" fiends, or devils, 
or gods. The Gr. here rendered " gods " is the same that is com- 
monly in the Auth. " devils ; " but among tlie Greeks it had a 
neutral sense, and was equally applicable to beneficent and to 
malignant divinities. 

19 Unto the Areopagus.— Margin, " Or, before " — i.e., "before" 
the court which took its name from tlie place, the Areopagus, the 
hill of Mars, whore its sittings were held. That court, the 
supreme and most venerable tribunal of the Athenians, had 
special jurisdiction in religious matters, and was therefore the 
proper court to have cognisance of any charge against St. Paul, 
tlie preacher of a new religion ; and Chrysostom in ancient times, 
as well as many modern commentators, have held that he wa^i 
formally accused before that court ; and, grammatically, some 
countenance is given to this opinion by the use of the pi-eposition 
eVt, compared with chaps, xvi. 19, xvii. 6, xxv. 12. On the 
other hand, the hill of Mars, from its situation just above the 
market-iilace, must haA^e been a place of public resort, and con- 
venient for all, whether friends or opponents, who might desire 


that he should be brought to give au account of himself aud his 
teaching before a larger audience than he had yet addressed in • 
the sjTiagogue or the market-place. Moreover, there is not in the 
narz'ative a trace of any judicial proceedings, nor anything in the 
speech of St. Paul, as recorded by St. Luke, which suggests that 
he was being tried on a criminal charge before a legal tribunal, 
and speaking in his defence. 

It might be expected that on tlie hill of Mars the mind of the 
sti'anger would be impressed ■with the magnificence of the religion 
which he sought to overthrow. The temple of the Eiimenides, 
the furies, was immediately below him ; opposite, at the distance 
of 200 yards, was the hill of the Acropolis, which being entirely 
occupied by statues and temples was, to use the phrase of an 
ancient writer, Aristides, as one gTeat offering to the Gods (Leake, 
Athens, p. 278 ; Thuc. II. 17). The Persians encamped on the 
Areopagus when they besieged the Acropolis (Herod. YIII. 52) : 
from the same place tlie Apostle makes his first j)ublic attack on 
Paganism, of which the Acropolis was the stronghold. Xerxes 
in his fanaticism burnt the temples of Greece (^sch., Pers. ; 
Cic. de Leg. II. 10 ; Note on verse 24) : Christianity advanced 
more meekly and surely ; and though the immediate effect of the 
Apostle's sermon was not great, the Parthenon in time became a 
Christian Church (Leake, Athens, p. 277), Athens ceased to bo 
a " city covered with idols," and the repugnance of the Greeks 
to images became so great as to be a principal cause of the schism 
between the Churches of the East and West in the 8th century. 
(Homily on Idolatry, pai-t 2.) [From the present Author's Com- 
mentary on the Acts, 18'47.] 

21 Sojourning there.— So Rhem. The force of this word is en- 
tii-ely lost in Auth., following Tynd., " which were there." Vulg., 
advence hosjoites. 

22 Tlie Areopagfus. — Auth. here lias " Mars' hill " in the text, and 
" the court of Areopagus " in the Margin, whereas in verse 19 
" Areopagus " is in the text aud " Mars' Hill " in the Margin. This 
is one of the variations, introduced with the purpose of making 
both terms familiar, which tend to confuse the thoughts of an 
unwaiy or unlearned reader. 

Somewhat superstitious. — Margin," Or, someiohat religious." 
Auth., with Tynd.," too superstitious," apparently following Vulg., 
superstitiosiores. The question is not yet decided whether the 
Gr. is to be understood in a good or a bad sense. It is not likely 
that one so courteous and so prudent as St. Paid, addressing 
a highly critical and sensitive audience whom he desired to 


conciliate, would begin by using an offensive phrase. But the 
word denotes, according to the usage of the best classical 
authors, an excessiveness of religious fear, for wliich we have 
no better word tlian " superstition," though this implies that 
the religious fear is erroneous, and therefore is not an exact 
equivalent. This sense is in accordance with the primary- 
meaning of the word, which is not " god-dreading," but '' iaemon- 
dreading," being in fear of the daimones, the beings of an 
inferior order to the immortal gods. In later writers, as 
Josephus, the word has a good sense ; and the noun, used by 
Festus, in speaking to the Jew Agrippa, to designate the Jewish 
religion, could not have been meant offensively (chap. xxv. 19). 
Chrysostom says St. Paul meant "' very reverent, nothing harsh" 
[ovSiv ^apv). To meet in some measure both these couflictmg 
views, " superstitious " has been retained, and the harshness of 
the Auth. has been mitigated by substitiiting, to express the 
comparative form of the adjective, the modifying "somewhat" 
instead of the intensive "too," according to the idiom, common 
to both the Gr. and Latin languages, which enables the compara- 
tive to indicate either a deficiency or an excess (in both cases 
slight) of the quality contained in the positive. The last few 
words are from the learned Note of Dr. Field on this passage. 
He very appositely compjires with this passage Hor., Sat. I. ix. 

" Nulla mihi, inquani, 
Religio est. At ml : sum paiilo inflrinior." 

In all things I perceive that ye are . . .—i.e., " Wlier. 
ever I look I see signs of it." This, the order of the Gr., conveys 
a different meaning from Auth., " I perceive that in all things ye 
are," &c. — i.e., " I perceive that in all your conduct ye are." 

23 As I passed along— i.e., " through the streets of your city." 
Auth.. following Tynd., "as I passed by," which would mean, 
" passed by the objects of your devotion." The same Gi". is used 
in the same sense in chap, ^'iii. 40, and elsewhere. 

The objects of your worship.— Auth., "your devotions," 
which conveys no definite meaning, and is inadequate as a render- 
ing of crefidffixaTa. The Margin of Auth. gives as an alternative, 
"gods that ye worship," referring to 2 Thess. ii. 4, where the 
word is well translated, " all that is worshipped." Wycl. here 
has "mawmets," i.e., " idols," following Yn]g., simulacra. Tj-ud. 
(strangely), " the manner how ye worship your gods ; " whence 
probably, in the same sense, is derived Auth., " your devotions." 
The Gr. signifies the thing worshipped, not the act or manner 
of worshipping. 


To an unknown God.— All Engl, versions, " to the iinlaio-n-n 
God." It has been the belief of Christian antiquity, as well as 
of later times, that the Apostle was here taking for his text an 
inscription -which expressed the yeai*ning of some thoughtful 
mind to be made acquainted -with a Being unknown, superior to 
the gods many and lords many of the national mythology : and 
this persuasion is not invalidated by the removal from the Engl. 
Version of the definite article, which does not exist in the original 
Greek. " To an unknown God " may be interpreted in the same 
sense, though not so conclusively. It is, however, stated by 
Pausauias (Avi-iting in the second century after Christ), the earliest 
extant writer on the monuments of ancient Greece, that there 
were at Athens altars dedicated to " unknown gods." Much 
interesting matter on this subject is to be found in the Commen- 
taries of Bishop Wordsworth and Dean Plumptre. 

What therefore ye worship. — By change in Gr. text for 
Auth., " whom." Thus the words of St. Paul are brought into 
comparison with the saying of our Lord to the woman of Samaria, 
" Te worship that which ye know not." " What" is according to 
the reading of the Vnlg., quod colitis, followed by Wycl. and 

Ye worship in ignorance.— Auth., " ye ignorantly worship." 
The ignorance is with regard to the object of worship, not as to 
the manner of worshipping. 

24 The God that made ... he being.— Auth., " God that 
made . . . seeing that " {i.e., inasmuch as he is). This, from the 
ambiguity of "seeing that," is liable to be misunderstood by a 
careless reader, as if " seeing " were to be connected with " God " 
at the beginning of the sentence. The Gr. is simply " he being." 
In the next verse the same use of " seeing that " for " since," or 
" inasmuch as," I'ecurs, but in a collocation which does not 
occasion ambiguity. 

25 Himself. — This word, here so empliatic and significant, is ex- 
pressed by Tynd., Craum., and Rhem., following Vulg., but 
omitted in Wycl., Geuev., and Auth. 

26 "Blood" (Auth.), omitted by change in Gr. text, is omitted also 
in Vidg., Wycl., and Rhem. The sense is substantially the same 
— " He made of one." Human nature is the same aU the woi'ld 

27 That they shotild seek God.— Auth., "the Lord," which 
has hardly any important MS. aiitlsority, and is not in tlie 
Vulg., nor in any English version before the Auth. It is not 


likely that the Hebraic name, " the Lord," would be used by St. 
Paul in addressing an exclusively heathen audience. 

29 The Godhead.— The Gr. is a neuter adjective, literally, " the 
divine," an abstract term such as would be used by the i)hiloso. 
phers of Atliens. See Xenoiihon, Mem., i. 4, 18. {Alford.) 

30 The times of ignorance.— Not " of this ignorance," as all 
Engl, versions, and Vulg., hitjus ignoranticp,, over-translating the 
Gr. article. 

Overlooked. — Auth., " winked at," a somewhat broad colloquial- 
ism, expressive of connivance, which is not in the Gr. v-mpi^div. 
Tynd., "regarded not;" Vulg., desinciens. (Comp. Rom. iii. 


30, 31 The scholar will not fail to observe that in these two verses 
" all men " is represented by Travras avdpw-novs, the whole human 
race; "the man," by avZpi, the nobler appellation; and, again, 
" all men " by TraVros, " all," avdpd-novs not being expressed in the 


2 A man of Pontus by race. — Auth., "born in Pontus." So 
Barnabas was " a man of CjT^rus by race " (chap. iv. 26, where 

see Note). 

3 Trade. — The same Gr.— literally, "art" — is used in both parts 
of the verse. 

4 Persuaded. — The Gr. is in the imperfect tense, as is indicated 
by the Marginal Note. ( Comj). chap. xxvi. 11.) 

5 Constrained by the word.— For " pressed in the spirit " 
(Auth.), by change of Gr. text. While awaiting at Corinth the 
arrival of his companions, he had done no more than use quiet 
persuasion with the Jews and proselytes in the synagogue. Now 
he can no longer restrain himself from a bolder effort and a more 
fervid strain of preaclung. The " word " constrains him ; he 
"testifies," declares himself a witness to the truth which he 
asserts. In the same sj)irit in which he now spoke to the 


Corinthians he afterwards wrot« to them, saying, " Necessity is 
laid upon me : for woe is unto me, if I preach not the Gospel " 
(1 Cor. ix. 16). For "constrained" comp. Luke xii. 50: 2 Cor. 
V. 14. 

7 Titus.— Added by change in Gr. text. So Vulg., Wycl., and 

11 He dwelt.— So "Wycl. Auth., with Tynd., "he continued." 
The Gr., tKaOicre, " sat," is unusual in this sense, " staid quietly." 
(Comp. Luke xxiv. 49.) 

12 Proconsul.— Auth., " deputy," as at chap. xiii. 7. 

Rose up against Paul.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., with 
Tynd., " made insurrection," a phrase not usually applied to an 
onslaught on an indi^adual. 

15 I am not minded to be a judge.— Auth., " I vrill be no 
judge." The Gr. is oii Pov\ 

17 " The Greeks."— (Auth.) Omitted in Gr. text. 

18 Sailed thence for Sjrria.- Auth., " into Syria," with Tynd. 

Gr., ei'y. 

21 " I must," &c.— (Auth.) Omitted in the Gr. text, there being a 
gi-eat preponderance of MSS. and ancient versions against it. 
Omitted also in Vulg., Wycl., and Rhem. 

23 Stablishing.— Auth., "strengthening." (See Note on Luke 
xxii. 32.) 

24 Learned. — Margin, "Or, eloquent." The Gr., K6ytos,iov which 
there is no exact equivalent in English, was applicable alike to 
learned writers and able speakers. 

27 Encouraged him. — So Genev. Auth., with Tynd., makes the 
disciples, not Apollos, the object of the Gr. participle: "the 
brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples," &c. 

28 Powerfully confuted. — Auth., " mightily convinced." Tlie 
Gr. means literally "argued them down," confuting, but not 
necessarily convincing, them. 



1 The upper cotintry. — Literally, " tlie upper (i.e., inlaucl) 
imrts." Aiith., "coasts," i.e., " borders," as in Matt. ii. 16, &c. 

2 Did ye receive . . . when ye believed.— Auth., foUowing 
Tyud., " Have ye received . . . since ye believed." The two 
aorists in the Gr. (verb and participle) point to one definite time, 
" when they believed " meaning, probably, when they made pro- 
fession of their faith and were baptized. Compare Rom. xiii. 11, 
" Now is salvation nearer to ns than when vfe first believed." 

Whether the Holy Ghost was given. — Compare John vii. 
39, " the Spirit was not yet given" (Auth.). Gr., d nvfvfj.a"Ayi6v 

3 Into what.— Auth., " unto what." Gr., eh, as in verse 5 and 
chap. viii. 16. Baptism as originally practised was a dipj)ing or 
phmging, and the practice suggested the phrase " to baptize 
into," which was applied (1) to the outward sign — the water ; (2) 
to the inward grace — " the Spirit ; " (3) to the name of Him who 
appointed this as one of the means of grace. 

13 Strolling. — Auth., following Tynd., " vagabond," too harsh a 
word, as we apply it now, for tlie Gr., which is literally " going 
about," and is so rendered by "Wycl. and Rhem., following Yulg. 

15 I know ... I know. — The former of the two Gr. verbs may 
be expressed thus, "I know him when I see him; " the latter, 
" I am well acquainted with him." The latter is used once only 
in the Gospels, by St. Mark, but frequently by St. Luke in this 

16 Mastered them. — So Rhem. ; literally, " lorded it over them, 
as in Matt. xx. 25 ; 1 Peter v. 3. Auth., with Tynd., " overcame 

19 Not a few.—Tlie Gr. is not the same as in verse 18. 

Curious arts. — So all Engl, versions, following Yulg. curiosa. 
The Gr. nepiepyos is translated, actively, "busybodies" in 1 Tim. 
V. 13 ; i.e., " they that busy themselves about things which do not 
concern them." Here it has a passive sense, " things that are 
beyond a person's proper concern." " Curious," when used 
actively, retains the bad sense which belongs to its Latin original, 
" inquisitive, prying ; " it is not commonly used in the passive 


sense, with tlie bad meaning wliicli it has here, as the rendering of 

22 Timothy. — This name, in its famihar English form, enables ns 
at once and always to identify the disciple to whom St. Paul 
addresses two affectionate Epistles with the faitliful companion 
of whom we read in his other Epistles and in this book. 

24 Shrines of Biana. — These were small models of the shrine of 
the temple {va6s, sacrarium), and of the image within the shrine, 
which were carried about as amulets. Auth., following Tynd., has 
" shrines for Diana," which is not very intelligible. Similar 
models of shrines containing images of the Blessed Virgin, as 
of " our Lady of Loretto,' are offered for purchase to the 
pilgrims resorting to those shrines. 

27 Come into disrepute.— Auth., " be set at nought," which is 
the rendering of a different word, Luke xxiii. 11. 

And that she should even be deposed from her mag- 
nificence. — By cliange in Gr. text for " that her magnificence 
should be destroyed." The word rendered " magnificence " has 
reference to the title " great," used just before and after, but 
" greatness " would not convey the same idea. 

31 The chief ofELcers of Asia.— Auth., following Tynd., "the 
chief of Asia." The Gr., " Asiarchs," was the official title of the 
ten officers elected annually by the principal cities of the Roman 
province of Asia, of which Ephesus M-as the capital, topi-eside over 
the festivals and games hekf in the different cities. 

35 Temple-lreeper. — All English versions, " a worshipper," follow- 
ing Vulg., cultricem. The Gr. properly means '" temple-sweeper," 
and thence keeper or warden of the temple ; it was the title of 
honour borne on the coins of Ephesus and other cities which had 
the charge of important temples in Asia Minor. A drum of one 
of the huge- columns of this temple of Diana is now in the British 
Museum. Her worship at Ephesus continued as late as the 5th 
centui-y. [Wordsworth.) 

37 Robbers of temples. — A\ith., following Tynd., " robbers of 
churches." The word '" churches," now totally inappropriate in 
reference to heathen temples, was frequently so applied by writers 
of the Elizabethan age. The Gr. word which is here iised to 
describe the crime of sacrilege has been found in inscriptions 
among the ruins of the temple at Ephesus, denoting an offence to 
which the severest penalties were attached. {Phimptre.) 

38 The courts are open.— Auth., " the law is open," literally, 

THE ACTS— XX. 235 

" the court days — the days for holding trials in the agora, or forum 
— are going on." For this sense of i-y^adai compare Matt. xiv. 
6 ; Luke xxiv. 21. 

Accuse. — The same woi'd is thus translated here and at cliap. 
xxiii. 28 by all Engl, versions except Auth.,whicli here has '" im- 
plead;" but the Gr. is not, like "implead," a teclinieal term. 
(Comp. Rom. viii. 33.) 

39 The regular assembly. — Aiith., "a lawful assembly," i.e., 
tJie assembly of the citizens convened by the proper authority, 
and legally capable — which this tumultuary meeting was not — of 
passing decrees. Among the inscriptions discovered by Mr. 
Wood at.Ephesus is one requiring that at every " regular as- 
sembly " (the same words as hero) an image of Minerva (Athena 
in Gr.) shall be placed "above the bench on wliich the boys sit." 

40 Accused. — Auth., " called in question." They were all in danger 
— even the town clerk himself, as one who was present — of being 
charged with riotous conduct. 

Biiot. — Auth., " uproar," which is moi'e properly used in chai>. 
XX. 1 for another word. The one, o-rao-is, signifies a commotion 
of the people, an insurrection or riot (see Mark xv. 7) ; the other, 
e6pv^os, is the uproar or tumult caused ))y the commotion. (See 
Matt. xxvi. 5.) 


1 Took leave of them.— So Wycl.. Tynd., Cranm., and Rhem. 
Auth., following Genev., " embraced them." The Gr. is properly 
" to salute," either in leave-taking, as here, or on arrival, as at 
chaps. xviii. 22, xxv. 13. "Embracing," at verse 10, is for another 
Gr. word. 

3 He determined. — Auth., "he purposed." He had " purposed " 
this before (chap. xix. 21), but had been for a time prevented. 

4 As far as.— Auth., "into;" Gr., SxP'- 

7 Discoursed with them.. — Auth., " preached unto them." The 
Gr. is often properly rendered " to reason ; " but in Auth. 

236 THE ACTS— XX. 

" dispute," as in chaps, xviii. 4, xix. 8. Here also Yiilg., followed 
by Wycl. and Rheni., has disputavit. 

8 We. — By change in Gr. text for Auth. " they," showing that St. 
Luke himself was an eye-witness of this miracle and of the 
attendant circumstances which he has narrated with such full 

9 The window. — Tlie one large opening in the chamber. Auth., 
"a window." The Gr. is, literally, "on the window," i.e., on 
the window-sill. Compare with this the fall of King Ahaziah 
through a lattice in his upper chamber (2 Kings i. 2). 

Borne down with deep sleep. — Auth., with Wycl. and 
Tynd., "being fallen into a deep sleep." Yulg., cum mergeretur 
somno gravi. The same word wliich is here in the present tense 
is repeated in the past; Auth., "he sunk down with sleep." The 
meaning appears to be that as he sat he drooped in sleep, and by 
and by sunk down in it and fell over into the court below. 

We may observe that the phrase " deep sleep " is idiomatic both in 
Greek and English. 

Discoursed yet longer. — Auth., "was long preaching." The 
Gr. is in the comparative, fTri ttK^'iov, and is so rendered in Auth. 
in the few places of this book and St. Paul's Epistles in which 
alone it occurs in the New Testament. 

10 Make ye no ado. — So Auth. in Mark v. 39, but here " trouble 
not yourselves." The Gr. verb, like the cognate noun in verse 1, 
is suggestive of excitement and noise rather than " trouble," 
though, etymologically, " trouble " may be nearly allied to it. 

11 The bread — i.e., of the Eucharist. The article is added in 
the Gr. text, being found in all tlie best MSS., and other author- 

12 The lad.^Auth., with Tynd. and Cranm., " the young man." 
Yulg., puernm. The Gr. is, rhu TraTSa, not ueavlav, as in verse 9. 

13 By land. — Margin, " Or, on foot." The former is the literal 
meaning ; but to go by laud was usually to go on foot. (Compare 
Matt. xiv. 13.) 

15 We touched at Samos. — The Gr. has this sense in classical 
Tvi'iters, but is not used again with regard to navigation in the 
New Testament. So Yulg., cqjpUcuimus. Axith., " we arrived." 

16 To sail past— i.e., without stopping there. Auth., " to sail 
by Ephesus," which might mean to take that route — to take 
Ephesus in his way. Yulg., transnavigare Ejphesum. 

THE ACTS— XX. 237 

17, 18 "Elders," " bisliops," or, as in tlie Margin, "2)resbifters," 
"overseers." The names of tliese officers show that the Cliurcli 
was becoming organised, and that Greek was the predomiuaut 
language of its members; but the two names "elder" and 
"overseer," or, as in the Gr., " presbyter " and "bishop," do not 
indicate the existence at this early period of the two distinct 
orders of the ministry to which they were afterwards applied. 

18 Set foot in Asia.— Auth., " came into." The Gr. eVeySTj^ 
properly means " stepped." So Vulg., ingressus sum. 

All the time. — So Rhem. and Yulg.,j5er omne tempus ; Tynd. 
and Auth., " at all seasons ; " probably because of the preceding 
words, " I have been with you," as the Apostle could not say " I 
have been with you all the time " when he had been a long while 
absent ; but with the corrected rendering " I was," pointing back 
to his continuoiis residence, the difficulty and consequent error 
of the English translation is removed. The same correction as 
to time, by omission of " have," is made throughout the speech of 
St. Paul. 

19 Lowliness of mind. — The Gr. raireivocppoa-vvr] is used only by 
St. Paul and (once) by St. Peter : it is more exactly rendered 
thus than by " humility," which is complete in itself, without 
the addition of " mind " (as in Auth.). 

20 I shrank not. — The Gr. is a nautical term, signifying to lower 
or take in the sails, and is appropriate in the mouth of one who 
had just landed from a sea voyage, and may have had tlie sails of 
ships in Adew as he spoke. St. Paul uses it again in verse 27. 
Here it is paraphrased in Auth., " I kept back nothing ; " there 
it is rendered, " I shunned not to declare." 

31 Admonish. — Auth., " warn," which represents another Gr. in 
Matt. iii. 7, and, like the Gr. in that place, does not of necessity 
imply the utterance of words, as does the Gr. here used by 
St. Paul. 

35 In all things I gave you an example.— Auth., "I showed 
you all things." The setting or being an example is the sense of 
this verb and its cognate noun in the New Testament ; and that 
sense requires to be here emphatically expressed, as it shews the 
motive which the Apostle had for his conduct at the time, and 
for his mention of it afterwards. In all that he then did he 
gave them an example. 

He himself said. — Auth., " he said." It is satisfactory to 
find that in the Gr. the word " himself " is used in reference to 


this, tlie only saying ascribed to our Lord in the New Testament 
■which is not recorded in the four Gospels. 

38 Behold. — Auth., " see ; " Gr., BewpeTv. St. Paul, speaking of 
liiniself in verse 25, had used a more modest word, " ye sliall see 
my face no-mox'C " (ujj'eo'fle). He would not say, as his disciples 
might affectionately and truly say, that his face was an object to 
be "beheld." (Wordawortli.) 

Brought him on his way.— So Aiith. at chap. xxi. 4 ; but 
here, "accompanied him" (with Tynd.), which is the rendering 
of other words. The Gr. here is, literally, " sent him forward." 


1 "Were parted from them.— The same Gr. is used in Luke 
xxii. 41 and Acts xx. 30, and seems to imply a separation attended 
with pain or difficulty (literally, "torn away "). Beza has avulsi 
ab eis, as an improvement upon Yvilg., abstrudi. Auth. (alone), 
" gotten away," which may, perliaps, have been intended to 
express colloquially the dithculty which the travellers had in 
'• getting away " from their sorrowing friends. 

1,2 Set sail.— Auth., "launched," "set forth." See Xote on 
chap. xiii. 13. 

Crossing over. — See Note on Matt. ix. 1. 

3 Had come in sight of.— "Had sighted." Auth., " dis- 
covei'ed," which in its old sense of " uncovered " was correct. 
The Gr., dvaipaivovTfs. was the nautical term for bringing the 
land in view by apin-oaching it, and so bringing it up, as it were, 
above the horizon. In tlie New Testament " discover " only 
occurs liere and in chap, xxvii. 39 (Auth.). In the Old Testament 
it is frequently found where " uncover " would now be more 
plain, as in Ps. xxix. 8. 

4 Set foot. — Auth., " go up to." Compare chap. xx. 18, and Note 

7 The voyage. — More literal than "' our coiu-se " (Auth.). 

13 What do ye, weeping . . , ? — (As we should say, collo- 
quially, " what are you about ? "} So all English versions before 


Aiith.. " what mean ye, to weep" — i.e., " by weeping ? " which 
is neitlier literal nor idiomatic. Gr., ti iroielTe, KXaiovns. 

15 Our baggage.— Genev., " our fardels." Anth., in the same 
sense, " our carriages ; " but that word has long since exchanged 
the passive meaning, tlie thing carried, for the active, the vehicle 
which carries. For its old sense compare 1 Sam. xvii. 22 ; Isa. 
X. 28 ; Shakspeare, K. John, y. 7. 

16 Ail early disciple. — One who had been a disciple from the 
beginning, from the great Pentecost. Compare Note on chaps. 
XV. 7 and xi. 15. 

24 Be at charges for them.— Auth., " with them ; " literally, 
" spend money upon them," a test then, as now, of sincerity. 

25 Giving judgement.— Auth., with Tynd., " and concluded." 
The Gr. is simply the participle KpivavTis. Compare, as to this 
combination of verb and participle, chap. v. 30. 

26 Declaring. — Auth., " to signify." The Gr. means not merely 
" signifying," as by an outward sign or token, but " announcing 
j)ublicly," up and down, to everyone whom he met {^layyiXKuv). 

31 Were seeking.— Auth., "went about to kill him," an obsolete 
phrase (as in John vii. 19). 

In confusion.— So Rhem., literally following the Gr. Auth., 
" in an uproar." 

Came up. —and 32 Ran down upon them. — Auth., "came" 
..." ran down unto." Attention to the prepositions in these 
and like instances tends to make the narrative more grapliic and 

33 Inquired.— See Note on Matt. ii. 4. 

34 To be brought.— Auth., "to be carried." The Gr., ^ytaOai, 
docs not imply anything more than the " conducting " of the 
prisoner, as at verse 37. 

37 Dost thou know Greek?— Vulg., literally, G)xeco nosti / 
The idiom is the same in Greek and Latin, and implies no 
ellipsis of \a\(7v {Alfonl, Wordsivorth). Wycl., " Canst tliou 
Greek ? " All subsequent versions, " Canst thou speak Greek ? " 
Luther, " Kannst du Grlechish?" 

38 Stirred up to sedition and led out.— The two Gr. verbs 
are both transitive. 

Men of the assassins.— So Tynd. and Rhem. ; Auth.,. " men 
that wei'e murderers." These cut -throats — sicarii as they were 


called in Latin, from the dagger in form of a sickle or scimitar 
with which they were armed ; " bandits " or " brigands " as they 
would now be called — were at once zealots and mercenaries, ready 
to kill on their o-vtu account, or to let themselves out to others for 
any deed of violence — e.g., to Felix, for the assassination of tho 
high priest Jonathan. (Josephus, Antt. xx. 8, § 5 ; B. J. ii. 
13, § 3.) 

39 I am a Jew. — So Wycl. ; Auth., after Tynd., " I am a man 
that am a Jew," thus giving prominence to the word " a man," 
which, though idiomatic in Gr., is a redundant expletive, almost 
a vulgarism, in English. 


2 They were the more quiet.— Auth., "they kept the more 
silence." The Gr. is here rjffvxia, " quietness,' not, as in chap, 
xxi. 40, (Tiyf}, "silence." 

It may be observed that the Apostle, speaking to his Jewish 
audience, gives himself the same honourable and distinctive title, 
dvrip, with which he addresses them ; whereas, in his answer to 
the Roman commander, chap. xxi. 37, he calls himself by the 
humbler generic name dudpuiro!. See Note on chap. xxi. 39. 

3 Instructed.— So Genev. and Rhem. ; Auth., " taught." Com- 
pare Acts vii. 22. 

Strict. — Auth., " perfect." So again in chap, xxiii. 15. The 
Gr. denotes " precision." Compare chap. xxvi. 5, " the most 
straitest sect." 

Zealous for God. — As in chap. xxi. 20, "zealous for the law." 
Auth.. "zealous toward God." The meaning is "zealous for 
the honour and glory of God ; " " zealous toward God " would 
rather mean " in my personal devotions and obedience to Him." 

4 This Way.— In a speech to the unbelie^-ing Jews the Apostle 
does not use the more familiar expression " the way," by which 
the believers among themselves spoke of their common faith. 

5 Thorn also which were there.— The Gr. kuI, not translat<^d 
in Auth., has the same emphasis as in chap. xxvi. 11, "I perse- 
cuted them even unto strange cities." 


To bring them also which, were there— i.e., tlio disciples 
wlio were there— unto Jerusalem in bonds.— For Auth., 
" which were there bound imto Jerusalem." The inversion of tlie 
order precludes the supposition that there were already some in 
Damascus " bound," imprisoned for their faith, whom he was to 
bring to Jerusalem. 

7 Unto. — Not " upon," as in chap. ix. 4 Here the preposition is 
els, not i-tl. 

13 Margin, " Or, recovered my sight and looked upon him." The 
Gr., d;'o/3Xeirai, is capable of two meanings, (1) " to recover sight," 
(2) " to look up," according as the preposition dvd, which enters 
into it, is taken to mean " again " or " up." In verse 12 it has 
the former meaning, "receive thy sight; " in this verse, accord- 
ing to the suggestion of the Margin, it may be a pregnant 
phrase, involving both meanings, " I saw again, and seeing 
looked up on him." 

14 Hath appointed.— See Note on chap. iii. 20. 

The righteous one.— See Note on chap. iii. 14. 

Hear a voice from his mouth.— Referring to the voice 
heard by the Apostle at his conversion. So Rliem. alone ; all 
other versions, " to hear the voice of his mouth : " one of the 
inaccuracies caused by the fluctuations and uncertainty of our 
translators with regard to the article, which is not either 
expressed or implied in the Gr. The preposition e/c, " from," is 
in the Gr., l)ut not in Auth. 

15 A witness for him. — All English Versions, " his witness." 

Gr., fidpTvs avTcjj. 

16 His name. — By change in Gr. text for "the name of the 
Lord." This passage, therefore, becomes an authority for 
invoking the " Righteous One," tlie Lord Jesus, especially at 

20 Thy witness. — The Gr. is the same here as in verse 15 ; and 
so all the versions before Auth., which here has "martyr;" this, 
though altered in meaning, is only the Gr. /j-dprvp, " witness," 
in English letters. 

21 " To his death." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text, and 
not given in Yulg., Wycl., or Rhem. 

24 Shouted.— Auth., "cried against him." The Gr. is not the 
same as in verse 23. Corap. chap. xii. 22. 

25 Tied him up with the thongs— i.e., with the ligatures 


wliicli kept the body extended and fixed -while under soonrgiug. 
Auth., " bound with thongs," overlooking the significance of 
the article. 

26 "What art thou about to do?— By change in Gr. text for 
Auth., " Take heed what thou doest." 

28 This citizenship. — Auth., with Wycl. and Tynd., '" this free- 
dom," which may be defended on the analogy of our municipal 
franchise, which is called the " freedom " of the city, borough, 
&c. It was the Roman jus civitatis, here expressed in Gr. by 
iroXiTflu, another form of which in the New Testament occurs 
once again, Phil. iii. 20, and is there inappropriately rendered 
" conversation " (Auth.). 


4, 5 The vehement emphasis laid on the title " high priest" by the 
bystanders, and the toning down of that emphasis by the omis- 
sion of the article in St. Paul's reply, if at all to be given in 
translation, would be represented thus : " the high priest of God 
revilest thou ... I wist not, brethren, that he was high 

6 A son of Pharisees.— So by change in Gr. text, with Vulg., 
Wycl., and Rliem., for "a son of a Pharisee " (Auth.) ; his ances- 
tors were Pharisees. 

9 Clamour.— The word is so translated in Eph. iv. 31 (Auth.); 
here, as elsewliere, " cry." 

" Let us not fight against God " (Auth.). Omitted by change in 
Gr. text, as ha^^ng probably been interpolated to complete the 
sentence from the speech of Gamaliel, chap. v. 39. 

14 To taste nothing.— So Wycl., following Yulg., nos nihil 
giistahirof. All other Versions, "We will eat nothing." Gr., 

15 As though ye would judge of his case more exactly. 

— Auth., '• enquire something more perfectly concerning him." 
The Gr. Siaytyvwa-Kny denotes the inward mental process of dis- 
cernment, which is to be the ground of judgment, not the 
" enquiry " which leads to it, for which the usual word is em- 
ployed in verse 20. 


16 The margiual alternative is not improbable whicli takes the Gr. 
participle, not as " having come to the castle," bnt as " having 
come in npon them, the conspirators," so as to overhear them 
■while concerting their plot together. 

22 Signified. — Auth., " shewed." The same Gr. as in verse 15 ; 
ifxcpaviCoo is properly " to give information." 

25 After this form.— Auth., " manner." Tlie Gi*., rinrov, '■ type," 
as applied to the contents of a letter, is a precis, or summaiy. 

27 "Was about to be.— More perspicuous than Auth., " should 
have been," which is now understood as an indirect way of 
saying, "ought to have been." "Slay," not "kill," has been 
the rendering of ayaipe'ia-eai in chap. xxii. 20 (Auth.). 

The soldiers. — Those, namely, that were under his command. 
Auth. (alone), "an ai-niy," strangely overlooking the article, 
which is given in Rhem., " the band," and even by Wycl., "mine 
host." Vulg., cum exercitu, whence Tynd., "with soldiers," and 
Auth., "with an army," returning more nearly to the meaning 
of the noun, but making more necessary the expression of the 

There are several slight alterations, caused by changes in the 
Gr. text of this letter and the following chapter, which it seems 
needless to specify, as they scarcely afEect the interpretation. 

35 I will hear thy cause.— This is the full meaning of the Gr., 
not simply "I will hear thee," as Auth. The compound verb 
implies a thorough " hearing " in a judicial sense, not a listening 
to what the prisoner had to say. This was according to the rule 
of Roman law, which required that a case sent from one authority 
to another, with a statement in writing, should be heard over 
again ab initio. Digest. 48, tit. 3, cap. 6. 

Herod's palace. — Auth., "judgment hall." (Comp. Mark 
XV. 16 ; John xviii. 28.) The city of Csesarea was built in a 
style of great magnificence, with a breakwater to make it a safe 
harbour for shipping, and all the other requirements of a port, 
as well as a splendid j)alace, amphitheatre, and other edifices 
required for a city of the first magnitude. The palace was 
at this time occupied by the Roman governor, the Procuraior of 

244 THE ACTS— XXiy. 


2 Much peace.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., -n-ith Tyncl., 
" quietness," which represents a different word. See chap. xxii. 
2 ; 2 Thess. iii. 12. It is important to observe this, as the adroit 
flattery of Tertullus is shewn by his thus addressing Felix, who 
had assumed tlie title of "Pacificator" of the province, in con- 
sequence of the partially successfiU measures which he had taken 
for suppressing the assassins (the sicarii mentioned in chap xxi. 
38) and the outlaws, whom he afterwards employed as instru- 
ments of his own cruelty (Josephiis, ^«^/. xx. 3, 4, and Bell. Jud. 
ii. 3). 

Evils are corrected. — So Wycl. and Rhem., following Yulg. 
multa corrigantur. By change in Gr. text for Auth., " very 
worthy deeds are done." In spite of these reforms, Felix was 
recalled two years afterwards, on the complaint of the Jews, for 
his misgovernment. Another piece of sycophancy on the part 
of Felix is his speaking of the "providence" of Felix, a word 
used by the Romans only of their gods, and, as may be seen on 
the coins, of their emperors. 

3 In all ways. — All English versions, "always." The phrase 
has no reference to time. 

6 " And would have . . unto thee " (verse 8). — (Auth.). Omitted 
by change in Gr. text. 

14 A sect. — AU English versions, "heresy," which is the Gi-eek 
word in English letters. Though now applied specially to 
erroneous Christian doctrine, as a consequence of choosing for 
oneself, tlie word in its oi-iginal meaning is " a choice, or choos- 
ing," and was in ancient times used to designate the Jewish 
and Grecian sclwols of philosophy, not specially their particular 
doctrines. The same word is used by Tertullus in verse 6 ; and 
to his use of it the Apostle is here alluding. 

15 Look for. — So Yulg., Tynd., and Rhem. The Gr. denotes 
expectation rather than acceptance, in which sense Auth. has 
"allow." Comp. chap, xxiii. 21. 

18 Amidst which. — By change of Gr. text for " whereupon " 
(Auth.). The relative eV ah refers to the "alms and offerings" 
in the last verse. 

But there were . . . — The change of construction and the 
consequent break in the sentence result from the insertion of Se 
in the Gr. text. 

fHE ACTS— XXV. 245 

19 To make accusation.— Auth., " to object." The Gr. is the 

same as in verse 2. 


I will determine. — Comp. Note ou chap, xxiii. 15, where the 
Gr. is the same, also xxv. 21. 

23 Indulgence. — Auth., " liberty," which would be in coutradic- 
tiou of what is said as to his being still detained in custody. 
What is meant is a remission of the military rales of im- 

25 Temperance. — Margin, " Or, self-control" gives the true sense 
of the Gr. iyicpaTeia and the Latin temperantia, as those words 
were used of old. 

Was terrified.— Auth., with Tynd., "trembled," following 
Vulg., tremef actus. The Gr., fiJ.(po0os yevSfxeuos, denotes the 
inward feeling, not the outward sign of alarm. 

The judgement to come. — By which even judges must be 
judged. The article is omitted in all English versions except 

27 To gain favour with the Jews.— Auth., "to shew the 
Jews a pleasure." The Gr. is, literally, "to lay do^vn or deposit 
a favour vrith the Jews." 


4 Was kept in charge. — The full meaning of the Gr., Tripe7a9M, 
is not shewn by " was kejit " (Auth.). 

5 Them . . . which are of power among you. — i.e., "your 
principal men" (verse 2). So, in substance, Wycl. and Rhem. 
with Yulg., ^o^en^es. Auth., "them which ai'e able," following 
Tynd., thus leaving it uncertain whether men of ability are 
intended (as Rhem.), or men who were able to go. For the sense 
of "powerful" given here to Swaroi see 1 Cor. i. 26; it is 
common also in Joseplius and classical authors. 

Amiss. — Comp. Luke xxiii. 41 and Acts xxviii. 6 (and Note 
there) for the same rendering of Utottov, which Auth. in this 
place paraphrases by " any wickedness." 


6 Not more than eight or ten.— By change iu Gr. text for 

" more than teu " (Auth.). 

9 To gain favour.— Comp. cliap. xxiv. 27, and Note there. 

11 If then I am a wrong-doer.— Auth., " If I be an offender." 
The Gr. dSiKcS signifies hurt or vn-ong committed by one against 
another; " an offender " is one who breaks the law. 

Can give me up unto them.— So Wycl. and Rhem., follow- 
ing Vulg., donare. Auth., with Tyud., " deliver me up xmto 
them." The literal rendering woidd be " grant me by favom-," 
corresponding to the word tmce used by St. Luke above, in 
verse 3 and xxiv. 27, as to the treatment of St. Paul by the 
Roman governors with a view to "gaining favour" of the 
Jews ; so that his use of this word has probaljly a special signi- 
ficance, showing an apprehension that Festus would yield to this 

14 Laid Paul's case before the King.— So. in substance, 
Tynd. ; Auth., "declared; " Vulg., indicavit. Like most of the 
fifteen words for which " declare " is used in Auth., the Gr. has a 
special sense of its own, " to refer or submit a matter to another 
person," as in Gal. ii. 2, the only place of the New Testament, 
besides this, in which it occurs. 

15 Sentence — i.e., of condemnation; KaTaSlKrjv, for S/k^jj/, "judg- 
ment " (Auth.), by change in Gr. text. 

16 Custom. — Auth., " manner." See Note on chap. xvi. 1. 

Give up. — Festus repeats the word used by Paul at verse 11. 

" To die." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

Opportunity.— Auth., " licence." Literally, " place," as in 
Heb. xii. 17. 

18 Evil things. — " E^il " is adc\ed in Gr. text. They brought no 
criminal cliargc against him, but questions relating to their own 
religion. They were not so wise in their generation as those 
who brought our Lord before Pilate, and, dropping their own 
grievance against Him, charged Him with an offence of which 
they knew tlie Roman Governor could not decline to take 

19 Keligiou. — Auth., following Tynd. and Rhem., " supersti- 
tion." Sec Note on chap. x\ii. 22. 


20 Being perplexed.— Autli., " I doiibted." Comi). chap. ii. 12. 
The Gr. is literally " being perplexed as to the inquiry concern- 
ing these things." 

21 The decision.— Auth., " the hearing." Tlie Gr. is the same as 
in chap. xxiv. 22. 

The Emperor. — Auth., " Augustus." This title was conferred 
by the Romans on Octavius, B.C. 27, and adopted by aU succeed- 
ing Emperors as an official title, as we entitle a sovereign " His 
Majesty ; " " Augustus " was represented in Gr. by 2e)3a(rT<Js 
(Sebastus). The "Augustus," or Emperor, at this time was 

22 I could wish. — Comp. Rom. ix. 5. Auth., " I would." Gr., 
literally, "I was wishing." 

24 Made suit to me. — " Have dealt with me." The Gr. is, " to 
entreat one person on behalf of, or against, another." Comp. 
Rom. viii. 26, xi. 2. 

27 In sending a prisoner. — This idiomatic rendering of the Gr. 
participle is rarely so convenient as it is here. Auth.," to send a 
prisoner, and not," &c., which, in meaning, is the same. 


5 The straitest sect.— Auth., following Tynd., "the most 
straitest." There is nothing in the Gr. corresponding to this 
hyperbole : and it is the only instance of the double superla- 
tive in the Bible, though the expression "the Most Higliest" 
occurs several times in the Psalter of the Prayer-book ; and 
there are a few such phrases as "most imkindest" in Shak- 
speare. — (Bishop Charles Wordsworth, "Shakspeare and the 

6 I stand here to be judged.— Auth., " I stand and am 
judged." The Gr. is, literally, " I stand being judged." 

7 Earnestly. — Auth., "instantly." Comp. chap. xii. 5. 


To attain.— All English versions, " to come." Comp. Phil. 
iii. 11. The Gr. Karavrdu is used several times by St. Paul in 
this sense. 

Concerning.— Auth., " for the sake of." Gr., inpl. 

By the Jews. — The emphatic mention of the Jews is enforced 
by the subsequent appeal to the king, as himseM knowing that 
this hope was entertained by the Jews. The article being now 
omitted by change in the Gr. text, the words might be rendered 
with a still stronger emphasis, " by Jews, O King ! " 

S Why is it judged incredible with you, if God doth 
raise the dead?— Auth., following Tynd., "Why should it 
be thought . . . that God should raise the dead? " This gives a 
verv clear meaning, but not all the significance of the original. 
" It God raises the dead (as He does), why is it pronounced with 
you (in your judgement) to be a thing incredible ? " The con- 
junction ei, here joined wiih. the indicative mood of the verb, 
assumes the thing stated to be true. " Supposing the thing to 
be a fact, as it is, why by you self -constituted judges is it pro- 
nounced incredible? " 

10 My vote. — Auth., " voice." Vulg., detuli sententiam. Tynd., 
" gave the sentence." Gr., ^ri(poy, properly the pebble used in 

11 I strove to make them blaspheme.— AH English versions, 

" I compelled them to blaspheme," following Vulg. compellebam ; 
a notable instance of the serious misconceptions which are caused 
in translation by not distinguishing carefully the tenses of the 
Greek verb. The rendering of Auth. implies that Said succeeded, 
by his threats, in inducing some of the saints to renounce their 
faith and blaspheme tlieir Lord ; what he really says is, that he 
endeavoured to make them do so. Had he been successful he 
would have used not the imperfect tense, but the aorist. 

18 That they may turn. — Margin, " Or, to turn them." The 
verb may be either transitive or intransitive, as in verse 20 ; all 
English versions previous to the Auth. and the Yulg. take it 
intransitively ; and St. Luke, who uses it in his Gosjjel and in 
this book much more frequently than any other writer of the 
New Testament, scarcely ever makes it transitive. 

20 Worthy of.— Auth., " meet for." See Note on Matt. iii. 8. 

22 Having therefore obtained the help that is from God. 

■ — That help which He alone can give. Auth., " having obtained 


help of God." The word rendered " help " is properly " succour " 
given to one who is beset with enemies. 

I stand.— So Wycl. and Rhem. ; Vulg., sto ; Auth., following 
Tynd. (weakly), " I continue." Gr., eVxTj/ca. " Stand therefore," 
says the Apostle, " having girded your loins with truth." It 
was a favourite word with him, and ought not to be taken away 
from him here. 

23 IVCust suffer. — Auth., "should suffer," as 'Beza, passuruvi esse. 
Tlie Gr. ■n-adr]T6s, " subject to siiSeving," passibilis, does not occur 
again in the New Testament. Comj). Luke xxiv. 26. 

That he first by the resurrection of the dead (i.e. 

by the general resurrection of the dead, of which he was the 
first example should proclaim, &c. — Auth., " that he should 
be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew." 
The Gr. is literally not " by," but " out of " (e|), " the resurrec- 
tion of the dead.". " Out of," or " by means of," that universal 
fact, exemplified in his own person. He was to " proclaim a 
light " {KarayyeWeiv), not as Auth., " to shew." He was to " bring 
life and immortality to light." 

24 Thou art mad. — Auth., " beside thyself." The verb here is 
cognate to the noun at the end of the sentence. 

Thy much learning. — The English idiom aptly gives the 
force of the Gr. article, which is lost in Auth., " much learning." 
Vulg., viultce litercB. 

Doth turn thee to madness.— So Rhem., following Vulg., 
te ad insaniam convertunt, and Wycl., " many letters turn thee to 
woodness" (madness). Auth., "doth make thee mad." The Gr. 
irepLTpeireL is, literally, " doth turn thee roimd," reminding us of 
the English phrase, "his head is turned." 

25 Most excellent. — The same title of honour is given to Theo- 
philus in Luke i. 3. 

28 With but little persuasion. — This diflSeult and in some 
degree ambiguous sentence has received various interpretations. 
The word "almost," derived by the Auth. from the Genevan 
Version (and Beza, propeviodum), gives a clear and pointed sense 
both to the words of Agrippa and to the reply of St. Paul, and 
fm-nishes a text which for many generations has been enlarged 
upon as an undoubted saying of the Apostle. But a meaning is 
thus put on the phrase, eV oKiy<f, which it has not elsewhere iu 
the New Testament, nor in any classical author, and which 
would be expressed hy -nap oKi-yov, Its true and oiUy meaning is 


" in a little" (as iu EpL. iii. 3, "in few words"), " in a short 
space or time," and thus the sentence would run, " In a few words 
thou art persuading me." At this point another difficulty arises 
from the adoption in the Gr. text of " to make " instead of " to 
become" (ironjcrat for yivfo-dai), and the sentence is completed thus : 
" In a few words thou art persuading me with a view to making a 
Christian of me." This conjunction of words, though harsh both 
in Greek and English, is not without example in the New Testa- 
ment, and it may be softened by a paraphrase which preserv'es the 
meaning, and makes the sentence consistent with the position of 
the speaker. He says with a sneer, " In a short speech, in a sum- 
mary way, thou art persuadiug me, working upon me, to make a 
Christian of me ; " or in other words, " With but little persuasion 
thou wouldest fain," &c. To which St. Paul replies, " Whether 
with little or much [and he is ready to xise few words or many, 
little or much persuasion, as the case may require] I would to 
God," &c. As to the construction of ireidfis voiria-ai comp. chap. 
XV. 10, 14. 

Chiysostom considers that Agrippa used the phi'ase, «V oxiyw, in 
one sense, and Paul took it in another. Erasmus says " it is not 
easy to give a satisfactory translation of the passage." He 
renders it, modicd ex parte persuades. 

30 " When he had thus spoken." — (Auth.) The omission of these 
words in the Gr. text leaves us to imagine a movement on the part 
of Agrippa, followed by an abrupt termination of the hearing. 


1 The Augnstan band.— Auth., " of Augustus' band." The 
Gr. is an adjective. The Augustan cohort or " baud " was pro- 
bably the bodyguard of the Emperor Nero, consisting of 3,0U0 
yovmg men of the equestrian order, who attended him for the 
pm-pose of applauding him at the theatres in which he gave his 

3 Kindly. — Is a better equivalent of the Gr., " philanthroj)icaUy," 
than the rendering of all English versions, " courteously," follow- 
ing Vulg., humane. (Comp. chap, xxviii. 2, " shewed us no 
common kindness." ) 


4 Under the lee of Cyprus. — Autb., with Rhem., "under 
Cyprus," following Vulg. subnavigavimus. Wycl., " under- 
sailed." Tyud., "sailed hard by." Their course was probably 
along the east coast of the island, from Salamis to Dinaretum, 
the most northern ijoiut, and thence along the north-west coast 
till they struck across the open sea straight to Myra, on the coast 
of Asia Minor. 

7 Were come with diificulty.— All Engl, versions, " scarce 
Avere come." The Gr. is tx6\is ; and so in verses 8 and 16. 

8 Coasting along it — i.e., Crete. Auth., " passing it," which 
would refer to Salmone. The course was along the south coast 
of Crete, the wind being now from the north-west. 

9 The voyage. — Auth., " sailing." The same Gr. as in next 
verse, i.e., the voyage to Italy. 

Gone by. — Avoids the jingling sound of " fast . . . past " 

10 Injury and much loss.— Auth., "hurt and damage," but at 
ver. 21, for the same words, "harm and loss." (Comp. Phil. iii. 7.) 

12 To put to sea.— Auth., " to depart." The Gr, is the same as 
in verses 2, 4. 

13 They weighed anchor.— Auth., " loosing thence." The Gi*., 
&pavres, "lifting," is a nautical term used in Gr. authors {e.g., 
Thucyd. ii. 23), but not again in the New Testament. 

Sailed along Crete, close in shore,— Auth., " sailed close 
by Crete." The Gr., aaa-ov (iisson), "close," was in early times 
supposed to be the name of the small island Assos lying to the 
north of Crete, or of a town on the south coast which the ship 
was passing ; and it was so rendered in the Vulg., and in Engl. 
versions previous to the Genev. of 1557. 

14 There beat down from it — i.e., from the land, from Crete. 
Genev. and Auth., " against it," i.e., against the ship. The Gr., 
Kar' avTTjs, is the same construction which is found in Homer to 
express the wind " blowing down from the motmtains." {Alford.) 

Euraquilo. — The Latin name for the north-east wind. By 
change in Gr. text, for Auth. " Euroelydon," which is not known 
to have been the name of any -wind, but may have been the local 
or nautical term. Vulg. has Eiiraquilo, and so have Wycl. and 
Tynd., who translate it " north-east." 

15 Face the wind.— Auth., " bear up into the wind," expresses 


the same thing better thau Yulg., conari in ventv/m, or Tynd., 
" resist ;" but better still is " face the wind," as the equivalent of 
the idiomatic avT0(pda\iJ.e7v, " look at the wind, eye to eye." A 
large eye was commonly painted on Greek ships, and the practice 
is not uncommon now on the boats of the Mediterranean. 

We gave way to it, and were driven.— Auth., "we let her 

drive." Literally, "giving way, we were borne along." 

16 Cauda.— By change in Gr. text for " Clauda " (Auth.), an isle 
about twenty miles south-west of Crete. 

We were able, with difB.culty. — Auth., " we had much 

To secure.— Auth., " to come by." Gr., literally, " to become 
masters of." 

17 The Syrtis. — The much dreaded quicksand on the north coast 
of Africa, lying south-west of Crete. Autli., following Wycl., 
translates it " the quicksands." Tynd., following Yulg., leaves 
it untranslated. 

Lowered the gear — i.e. (probably), they sent down on deck 
the hea\'y yard which carried the mainsail, together with the ropes 
and rigging attached to it. So Bede, laxantes antennas. Yulg., 
submisso vase, which, however, has been misunderstood by the 
English translators, rendering it " vessel," except Auth., which has 
"strake sail; " this in its tm-n has been objected to by nautical 
authorities as being the worst thing that could have been done, as 
in that case the sailors, foreseeing a danger, would have deprived 
themselves of their only means of avoiding it. Some sail, though 
a low one, was necessary to keep the ship steady, otherwise she 
would pitch about, and knock herseK to i^ieces. The very careful 
investigation which this and every detail of St. Luke's narrative 
received from the late Mr. Smith, of Jordanhill, has thrown a 
flood of light upon tliis chapter, and his views have been fol- 
lowed by all recent expositors. 

So were driven. — " So," i.e., " in this state," with the ship 
undergirded, with stormsails set, and on the starboard tack, 
which was the only course by which she could avoid falling upon 
the Syrtis. (Smith, Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul, p. 72.) 

18 Laboured exceedingly. — The Gr. does not mean "being 
tossed," as Auth., following Yulg., tempestate jactatis, but 
" being hard pressed;" in nautical phi-ase, "labouring." 

To throw the freight overboard.— Auth. (in general terms), 
"lift-iitened the ship." Yvilg., jactum fecerunt. The Gr. is a 


technical term, used in Jonah i. 5 (LXX.) and in classical authors, 
as ^schylus (S.C.T. 755), for throwino; overboard the carjjo 
and whatever the ship carried that could be spared. 

19 They cast out. — By change in Gv. text for "we" (Auth.). 
According to this reading the passengers were not called upon 
to help the ship's company. 

The tackling. — Margin, " Or, furniture," as beds, &c. The 
Gr. is wide enoi;gh to include all movables. 

20 Shone upon us. — More exact than Auth., "appeared." Vulg., 


21 When they had been long without food. — Auth., "after 
long abstinence." So Tynd. ; Wycl. and Rhem., "fasting." 
" Abstinence " implies a voluntary refraining from food, which 
is not in the Gr. ; their anxiety may have taken away all inclma- 
tion for food. 

Gotten. — Is more according to Engl, idiom than "gained" 
(Auth., with Geuev. and Rhem.), as applied to " injmyand loss." 
The Gr. idiom KtpSria-ai is preserved in the Latin liicri facere 

27 To and fro. — So Genev. ; here a more appropriate phrase than 
" up and down " (Auth.). The Greek is rendered " spread 
abroad " in chap. xiii. 49. 

The sea of Adria. — Auth., " in Adria," whicli is not very in- 
telligible to the English reader. The name at that time included 
much more than is now meant by the " Adriatic." The ancient 
geographer Ptolemy applies it to the whole of the sea that 
washes the shores of Sicily on the west, and Crete on the east ; 
so that the ship, in going from one island to the other, was in 
the Adriatic all the while. The southern part of it, however, 
was also known by the Romans as the "Ionian Sea," and the 
most northern part, the GuK of Venice, was called the " Adi'iatic 

Surmised. — Auth., "deemed," which denotes a more decided 
opinion than the Gr. virtvSow, " suspected," the cognate noim to 
wliich is rendered " surmising " in 1 Tim. vi. 4 (Auth.). 

27, 30 Sailors. — Auth., " shipmen," which, thougli corresponding 
exactly to the Gr., and to the Latin nauta, is now obsolete. 

29 Be cast ashore. — Auth., "fall upon rocks." The Gr. is 
literally "fall oif," i.e., be cast off from the sea by the actiou 
of the waves, 


Rocky ground.— Antli., " rocks," literally, " rough places." 

30 Seeking.— So Wycl. and Rhem. The Gr. signifies not that 
they were about to do it (Auth.), but that they were seeking, 
planning, how to do it. 

Would lay out anchors.— i.e., at cable's leugth, for which 
purj)ose they would liave to go off in a boat. Auth., " cast out." 
Vulg., followed by Wycl. and Rhem., extendere. 

34 For your safety.— Genev., " safeguard." All other versions, 
" health," which was formerly not limited as it now is to the 
condition of body and mind. Thus in Luke i. 77 Wycl. has 
" science of health," where all that followed have " knowledge of 
salvation ; " and in Ps. Ixvi. 2 we have, both in the Auth. and 
the Prayer-book, " thy saving health." 

There shall not a hair perish.— (So Wycl. and Rliem.) 
By change in Greek text for "fall" (Auth.). Vulg., peribit, 
whence probably Shakespeare, Tempest, i. 2 — 

" Prospero. But are they, Ariel, safe? 
Ariel. Not a hair perish'd. " 

39 Perceived. — Auth., "discovered;" Kmevoovv here has its usual 
sense, as at Matt. vii. 3, &c. 

A . . • bay. — Auth., "a creek." Previous English versions, 
"a haven." Vulg.. simim (a bay). The Gr. is "a bay," whether 
small or large. The place now identified as the scene of the 
events here narrated may be described as a small bay, a creek.' 

With a beach. — A smooth shore, alyiaK6s, as opposed to a 

rocky shore, S/cttj. (Comp. Matt. xiii. 2, &c.) 

Drive the ship upon it — i.e., upon the beach. Auth., 
" thrust in the ship," i.e., into the " creek." The Gr. is properly 
to " strand " a ship, to run it aground, and is used in that sense 
by Thucydides. 

40 Casting off the anchors.— i.e., detached them from their 
connection with the ship; the very reverse of "taken up the 
anchors," as all English versions, following Vulg. Compare 
verse 20, where the same Gr. is " taken away." 

They left them in the sea.— i.e., the anchors. See verse 
29. Auth., following Tjaid., "they committed themselves to the 
sea," and so Vidg. ; by themselves probably meaning the ship, 
for' they themselves continued in the ship. But the Gr. entirely 
forbids this interpretation. 


The foresail. — It could not be " the mainsail," as Auth., with 
Tynd., the yard and rigging of which had been brought down 
upon deck (verse 17), and afterwards, most probably, thrown 
overboard. The Gr. word, artemon, has been used in uiediieval 
times by the French and Yenetian saUors, and applied by the 
former to the sternsail, by the latter to the foresail, which Avas 
also with the Yenetians the mainsail ; and hence probably has 
arisen the mistake with regard to the meaning which it had iu 
ancient times, and which it has in this place. The Avord is not 
found in any other Gr. writer (Smith, " Voyage,'" &c.). 

41 The vessel. — All English versions, " the ship." The word is 
here changed. That which hitherto has been a TrXohv, capal)le of 
saUiug, is now reduced to a wreck, a mere hulk, and is called 
vavs, a word not again used in the New Testament. ( Wo nlsivorth . ) 

Began to break up.— Auth., "was broken." The Gr. 
imperfect denotes a process of dissolution or breaking up 


43 Desiring to save Paul.— Not " willing " only, as Auth., but 
intent iipon doing it, ^ov\6ixivos. 

Should cast themselves overboard, and get first to 
the land — i.e., that the others might be encouraged by their 
example, and might also have their assistance, if they required it. 


2 The barbarians.— So Auth. in verse 4, and in the four places 
in which the same word occurs in St. Paul's Epistles; but here, 
" the barbarous people." The word was used to designate those 
who were neither Greeks nor Romans, without implying that 
they were, in the modern sense of " barbarous," rude and 

No common kindness.— Auth., " no little kindness," but in 
chap. xix. 11, " no common miracles." Gr., oh tV rvxovaav. By 
the same word Longinus describes Moses as "no common man;" 
literally, " not to be met with by chance," or "every day." 


3 By reason of the heat.— Auth., "out of the heat." The 
Gr. preposition is by change in Gr. text airS, not (k. For air6 in 
this causal sense see Matt, xviii. 7. 

4- The beast.— The Gr. is ejiplov, "wild beast." There is no need 
to insert venomous, as in Auth. 

Justice. — Anth., "vengeance." Gr., v SiKrj. With this personi- 
fication of justice may be compared Sophocles, Antigone, 544. 

Hath not suffered.— The verb is in the past tense, the aorist. 
The horrified bystanders consider him to be already as good as 

6 Expected that he would.— Auth,, with Tynd., less exactly, 
" looked wlien he should." 

Swollen. — The Gr. Trl/xvpacreai properly means "to take fire," 
" to become inflamed " (as applied to a wound) ; and one of the 
serpents of Africa was named Prestes from this word, which was 
tliought to describe the effect of its bite. Compare Lucan, 
Pharsulia, ix. 790. 

Nothing amiss. — Auth., " no harm." The Gr. ironos, which 
occurs also in chap. xxv. 5, and in St. Luke's Gospel xxiii. 41, 
means properly " out of place," and may be applied either to a 
misdeed or to physical derangement and suffering : its best 
equivalent in English is " amiss." 

7 Lands. — So Cramu. and Rhem. ; Auth., foUoAving Genev., 
" possessions ; " Vulg., prced.ia, whence Wycl., " manors," and 
Tjiid., " a lordship." The Gr. is x'^P^^, for which compare 
chap. 1. 18. 

Entertained us . . . courteously. —Auth., "lodged us 
courteously." The Gr. verb is properly to entertain a guest, as 
at chap. x. 23 ; Heb. xiii. 2. The adverb (not the same as in 
chap, xxvii. 3) is <(>i,\o(pp6vuis, " with a friendly disposition." 

8 Fever and dysentery. — Auth., "a fever and a bloody flux." 
The malady is specified by St. Luke with medical precision. 
" Fever " in '■/he Gr. is the plural "fever fits," and signifies an 
intermittent fever, which Hippocrates describes as an accompaui- 
ment of dysentery. The same type of that disease is said to be 
still prevalent in the island of Malta. 

9 Were cured.— Auth., " were healed." The Gr. is not the same 
as in verse 8. The one properly refers to the actual removal of 
the malady, the other to the care or " cure " {cura), the treat- 
ment by means of which the restoration to health is effected. 


10 When we sailed, they put on board.— Auth., " when we 
depai-ted, tliey laded us." Tlie Gr. for " sailed " is the same as at 
chap. XX. 34, and attention to the meaning of it, and of the verb 
which follows, prevents the otherwise possible suijpositiou tliat 
the departing travellers were themselves " laden " with things 
needful for the voyage. 

11 The twin brothers— i.e., as in Auth., "Castor and Pollux." 

12 Touching at.— Auth., "landing at." The Gr. isthe reverse of 
the word rendered " set sail " at verse 11. This is properly 
"going down from sea to shore," that (in verse 11) is " going tqj 
from shore to sea." 

13 Made a circuit.— Auth., following Tynd., "fetched a com- 
pass," a good old English phrase, occurring in 2 Sam. v. 23 and 
2 Kings iii. 9, but now obsolete, and liable here to be misimder- 
stood, from the special sense in which the word " compass " is 
used on board ship. Rhem., " compassing by shore," which repre- 
sents the Yulg., circumagentes, " going round by the shore," as 
opposed to putting out to sea. The true meaning appears to 
be that the wind being contrary they could not go straight 
across ; so they worked to windward by tacking, and the next 
day a favourable wind sprang up from the south. 

Sprang up.— AU English versions, " blew." The word means 
literally, "arose upon," or "in succession to," that which had 
been so adverse. 

14 Were intreated.— Auth., " were desired." For this meaning 
of TrapaKaXfw compare verse 20, also chap. xiii. 42. 

We came to Rome.— So Wycl., Tynd., and Cranm., with 
Yidg., sic venimus Bomavi. Genev. and Auth., "we went 
towards Rome," not expressing the dej&nite past tense of the 
vei'b, which is the same as in verse 14, " we came to Puteoli." 
We are to understand that, without breaking the Journey again, 
they came to Rome, and on the way they were met by the 
brethren who came out to them from Rome. 

15 The m.arket of Appiiis.— In Latin, ^jjpii/orHwi. This and 
" The Three Taverns " [Tres tabernce) were two towns or stations, 
the former 33, the latter 23, miles from Rome, on the great 
Appian Way, the road between Rome and Brundisium, in South 
Italy, from which port, then as now, travellers embarked for 
Greece, Egypt, and the East. 

16 " The Centiu-iou," &c.— (Auth.) Omitted in all the great MSS., 
the Vulg., &c. 



The soldier that guarded him.— According to the usual 
mode of close custody, beiug attached to liim by a chain. Auth., 
" a soldier." 

17 I, brethren. — " I," by change in Gr. text, is made more em- 
phatic than before, being the first word in the sentence. 

Done.— Auth., " committed," pointing to offences against the 
law. The G-r. is simply ■Koi-})ffas. 

20 Did I intreat you, &c. — The ambiguity in this verse (see Mar- 
gin) arises from there not beiug in the Gr. any pronoun following 

" see," and "speak with," and consequently it is doubtful whether 
the omission shoidd be supplied by " me," as in the text, or by 
" you," as in the Margin and Auth. 

21 Report. — Auth., " shew." The Gr. is the same as in chaj). 
iv. 23. 

23 Expounded <7ie irtrt/ier. — This insertion is intended to show 
that " expounded " does not (as it seems to do in Auth.) apply to 
" the Kingdom of God." 

24 Disbelieved. — As in Luke xxiv. 11. Auth., "believed not." 

28 This salvation. — " This " is inserted by change in Gr. text. 
Compare chap. v. 20, " the words of this life." 

They will also hear — i.e., as well as have it sent to them. 

29 This verse is not found in any MS. of the first rank. 

31 Boldness.— Rather than " confidence " (Auth.). The Gr. 
irappriffla is properly " boldness of speech," which does not of 
necessity imply confidence. 




3 Who was born.— Autli., Avitli WycL, Geiicv., and Rhem., 
" wliicli was made." Tyud., "begotten ixuto him." Compare 
John i. 14, "the Word became tiesh," where the Gr. is the 
same, though a few verses previously, where the same Gr. verb 
is used of the creation of the workl, " was made " has been 

4 Declared. — Margin, " Gr., determined " (as in Margin of 
Auth.), i.e., " defined," the Gr. being dpiadevTos. The Vulg. has 
prcedestinatus. This was corrected and the present rendering 
adopted by Tynd. The Apostle uses a compound of the same 
verb concerning himself in verse 1, there translated " sexiarated." 

With power is to be connected with " declared." Compare 
Mark ix. 1, " till they see the kingdom of God come with 

By the resurrection of the dead— i.e., by the universal 
resurrection accomplished in Him— not " from the dead " 
(Auth.), as if it were by His o^vn rising from the dead. The 
same expression is used by St. Luke (Acts xx\'i. 23), where see 

5 Jesus Christ our Lord. — These words, which are placed in 
Auth. (following Genev.), at the beginning of the 3rd verse, after 
" his Son," are brought back to the position which they have in 
the Gr., Avliere the sequence of thought requires them to stand. 
The intervening clauses are an amplification of the title " big 
Son," and the words " Jesus Christ our Lord " introduce the 
mention of Christ in relation to men, to his Apostle first, then to 
the world in general, and then to the saints at Rome, to whom 
the Epistle is addi'essed. 

260 ROMANS— I. 

Unto obedience of faith..— The Apostle reverts to the pur- 
pose for which he had beeu separated — viz., " iiuto the Gospel " 
(verse 1). Auth., following Rhem., has " for obedience," which 
obscures the connection with verse 1 ; previous versions have a 
paraphrase, which loses eight of it altogether. 

Obedience of faith. — Not, as all English versions, " obedience 
to the faith " as to a creed or f onn of doctrine, but obedience 
springing from faith in Christ as its motive. These words are 
repeated at the end of the Epistle (chap. xvi. 26). 

6 Called to be Jesus Christ's. — As St. Paul himself was 
"called" to bean Apostle (verse 1), so they are "called to be 
Christ's," not " called by " Him, as Auth., following Cranm. and 
Rhem., " called of Jesus Christ ; " and in the next verse they are 
described as " called to be saints." 

8 Proclaimed. — The Gr. requires a stronger word than " spoken 
of" (Auth., with Cranm.), or " published" (Tynd. and Geuev.). 
Compare Acts xiii. 5. The news that the Christian faith was 
established at Rome woiUd spread quickly throughout the 
Empire, and from thence go forth into nations not subject to tlie 
Romans. The word for " world " here used by the Apostle is 
6 K0<xfj.6s, not h o'lKoviievri. 

9 Whom I serve in my spirit.— So Wycl. and Gcnev. Auth., 
as Tynd. and Cranm., " with my sj)irit." The Gr. Xarpevu, " I 
serve," properly denotes the scrA^ce of worship : that service the 
Apostle says he renders in his own spirit, as in a temple ; and in 
beautiful harmony with this thought he says to the Cori'nthians 
(1 Cor. iii. 16), " know ye not that ye arc a temple of God?" If 
Sou\6i;£o had been the word, the rendering, " I serve with my 
spirit," in the sense of " obey," would not have been in- 

Always in my prayers is better connected with what 
follows than, as in Auth., with the in-eceding words ; " always " 
being tautologous in connection with " unceasingly." 

10 I may be prospered.— The Gr. properly means " to be pros- 
pered in a journey," but is used without any reference to a 
journey in 1 Cor. xvi. 2, and 3 John 2, " I pray that in all 
tilings thou mayest prosper," the only places besides this in which 
it occurs in the New Testament. Here the desire of the Apostle 
is not that liis journey may be prosperous (as in Auth.), but that 
the course of events may favour his intention of coming to them. 

12 The Greek is involved, but the meaning to be derived from 
it is clear, " that I with you may be comforted in you (in my 

ROMANS— I. 261 

intercourse with you), each of us by the other's faith, both 
yours and mine " — i.e., he by the faith which is in them, they by 
the faith which is in him ; it denotes the recognition on each 
side of faith toward God as existing on the other side, not of a 
"mutual" faith or confidence as existing between the two. The 
paraphrase in Auth. obscures this meaning, especially by sub- 
stituting " the mutual faith " for " the common faith " (which 
stood in previous versions). 

13 Hindered.— All English versions," let," except Rhem., " stayed." 
" Let " in this sense has become obsolete, but is used several 
times in the Auth., as 2 Thess. ii. 7 and Exod. v. 4 ; also in Shake- 
speare, Twelfth Night, act v., scene 1. 

14 Foolish. — Auth., " unwise," which is the proper and literal ren- 
dering of another word, &<rocpos, in Eph. v. 15, "not as unwise, 
but as wise." 

17 A righteousness of God.— All English versions, "the 
righteousness." What is liere ■ meant is not God's essential 
righteousness, nor His righteousness in dealing with mankind, 
nor a plan by which we may become righteous, but a righteous- 
ness of the same natm*e with His, derived from Him, an inhe- 
rent quality or i^erfection imparted to us by Him through Jesus 

By faith unto faith— i.e., by means of faith in its small be- 
ginnings unto faith in its fulness ; or as Margin and Auth., 
" fro)n faith to faith," from, out of, faith in the germ, unto faitli 
in the fruit. The same meaning must be given to 4k in both parts 
of the verse, and " by faith " seems to suit both places better 
than " from." 

18 The wrath. — Margin, " Or, a wrath." It is quite open to us, 
80 far as the Gr. is concerned, to ado^jt the alternative of the 
Margin, a for the (wliich has been done inverse 17), but " a wrath 
of God " would receive no explanation eitlier from the context or 
from the teaching of Scripture. " A righteousness " is revealed 
from God, derived from Him, imparted to us ; God's wrath is re- 
vealed, not that we may have anything like it in ourselves, but 
that we may take warning from the revelation that has been 
made of it. 

Who hold down.— Margin, " Or, who hold " (as Auth.). Both 
senses, though very dissimilar, are permissible, the question being 
whether in the verb Karexu the preposition has the sense of sup- 
pressing or of holding fast. In the one case it refers to those who, 
living in unrighteousness, stifle the growth in their hearts of the 

262 ROMANS— I 

truth which their conscience has approved ; in the other case, to 
those who hold, maintain, profess the truth, but only as a lifeless 
principle which has no effect on their conduct. For the former 
sense of Karex<^ see Luke iv. 42 and 2 Thess. ii. 6 ; for the latter, 
Luke viii. 15. 

20 Since the creation. — Not "from" (Auth.), in the sense of 
" being inferred from," which would be e'/c, but " from the time 
of," in which sense dirS is used in Matt. xxy. 34, " the kingdom 
prepared for jow from the foundation of the world." 

Being perceived. — The Gr. does not say " being understood " 
(as Auth.) ; nor can it be truly said, except in the loose way in 
which we talk of imderstandiug what we infer or suppose, though 
it is not plainly set before tis. 

His divinity. — So Rhem., following Vulg., divinitas. All 
other English versions, " Godhead." To speak of the " Godhead" 
of God, i.e., of his being God (Gr., ee6Tr]s), is a tatitology. 
His "divinity," meaning the various attributes bound up in our 
concej)tion of God, represents as nearly as possible the Gr. 

Everlasting. — Auth., "eternal," which is the proper rendering 
of cd^vios. The Gr. here is aiStos, which occurs only in this place 
and Jude 6. 

21 Knowing God. — Auth., following Wycl. and Tynd., "when 
they knew." The participial rendering avoids the suggestion of 
a temporal sense, of a time now past when they knew God. So 
Rhem., " whereas they knew." 

Neither gave thanks. — So "Wycl. and Rhem. The Gr. de- 
notes the outward expression of thanks, thanksgiAnng ; corre- 
sponding to " glorified," the outward adoration offered to God on 
account of His Divine perfections. Auth., as Tj-nd., "were 
thankful," which refers to the inward feeling only. 

Reasonings. — Auth., with Tynd., " imaginations," a sense which 
nowhere in the New Testament is given to the Gr. SiaXoytvixos. 
Compare Luke ix. 46. 

Senseless. — Auth., " foolish," the i-endering of another word 
in the next verse. 

23 Changed the glory . . . for the likeness.— Auth., 

" into an image." The meaning is that they substituted the 
one for the other, as an object of worship; not that they changed 
the one into the other, which was a thing impossible. The words 
are a quotation from Ps. cv. 20 (LXX. version). 

ROMANS— I. 263 

Into the likeness of an image of corruptible man— 

i.e., " into the resemblance of the image or figure of a corruptible 
man." Auth., " into an image made like to corruptible man," a 
paraphrase which fairly gives the sense, though with a con- 
siderable departure from the weighty phrase of the original. 

27 Which was due. — Auth., "which was meet." Gr., V eSei. 
Wycl., " that meed which behoved." 

28 They refused. — Margin, "Gr., they did not approA^e;" and 
so the word is rendered in Phil. i. 10, " that ye may approve the 
things that are excellent ; " it is in direct contrast to that wliich 
in the following clause of this verse is rendered " reprobate." 
The Yulg. preserves the j)lay of words, which cannot well be 
represented in English, Non probavemnt Deuvi habere in notitia, 
tradidit illos Deus in reprobum sensiim. The meaning in sim- 
ple English may be thus expressed : " As they would have 
nothing to do with Him, He would have nothing to do with 

Fitting. — Auth., ■with E-hem., " convenient," a word which now 
Las a lower sense than belonged to it in its original Latin, or 
than it had in the Elizabethan age (see rubric at the end of the 
Marriage Service in the Prayer Book). The Gr. is literally, 
" things unbecoming," not consistent with the nature which God 
had given them. Tynd., " not comely." 

32 The ordinance of God.— So Genev., "the law ordained of 
God;" Auth., "the judgment." The Gr., Si/caico/xo, means 
properly the " just decree," or " ordinance." Compare chap. ii. 26 ; 
Luke i. 6. 

Practise. — The Gr. irpda-creiy, twice used in this verse, is thus 
rendered in chap. vii. 19, where it stands, as it does liere, in con- 
tradistinction to TToieij/, " to do." Like the English " practise," 
which is formed from it, it conveys the notion of a continued or 
repeated doing. The phrase, " commit such things " (Auth., after 
Tpid.), is not consistent with the modem sense of " commit." 

264 ROMANS— 11. 


1 Dost practise.— The Gr. is the same as at the end of the last 

2 We know. — Auth., "we are sure," as in John xvi. 30. 

3 Reckonest.— Auth., "thinkest." The Gr., Ao^i^r;, presents the 
matter as one of calculation and forecast. 

5 In the day. — SoWycl. — i.e., to be revealed in the day. Auth., 
" against the day." The meaning may not be very difBerent, but, 
proi^erly speaking, to lay u-p treasure against an evil day is to 
provide against the danger or emergency of the day, which is 
a sense not applicable, except ironically, in this case. Compare 
Exod. vii. 15. 

7 Patience.— Auth. (alone), "patient continuance." The Gr. is 
a single word signifying " endurance," 

Incorruption.— So Wycl. and Rhem. ; Auth., as Tyud., "im- 
mortality." a.(peaparia properly means " incorruption," and is so 
rendered in Auth., 1 Cor. xv. 53. 

8 Factious. — Auth., " contentious ; " so other versions, misled by 
a Avi-ong derivation of the Gr. from epir, "strife," instead of 
fpidos, which means (1) a working man, (2) a hireling, (3) a venal 
partisan; and hence the word obtains the sense, in which it 
is here used, of self-seeking factiousness. Compare Gal. v. 20 ; 
Phil. i. 16. 

12 Under law.— Auth., "in the law." The omission of the article 
here, as well as in the former part of the verse, shews that the 
Apostle has in view not the Jews only, but the Gentiles also, who 
were not under the law — i.e., the law of Moses; and the insertion 
of the article here, after its omission just before, only tends to 
produce confusion. 

13 For not the hearers of a law. — A general observation, 
exijlanatory of the foregoing. The article is omitted by change 
in Gr. text. 

14 Which have no law — i.e., no specially revealed law. Auth., 
" which have not the law." The Gr. has not the article. 

15 In that they shew. — Auth., "which shew." The Gr. rela- 
tive pronoun {oinves) often has a causal sense, like quippe qui in 
Latin, " inasmuch as," or " in that" they shew. The Gr. would 
be more nearly represented by " being persons who." The same 

ROMANS— II. 265 

rendering might be adopted in places where it is not so necessary 
for the sense — e.g., in chap. i. 25. 

Bearing witness therewith — i.e., with "the work of the 
law," which they, as by an independent testimony, confirm by 
doing it without knowing that it has been commanded in a reve- 
lation from God. Not "witnessing' with them," as Margin of 
Anth., following Tynd. ; nor simply "bearing witness," as Auth, 
in text. 

And their thoughts.— Auth., "their thoughts the meanwhile 
accusing or else excusing one another," with Margin, " Or, 
between themselves." The previous versions vary in their ren- 
derings. The Yidg. correctly has inter se invicem cogitationibus 
acmsantibiis, aut etiam defendentibus. The Gr., /xera^v, " be- 
tween," does not stand absolutely, as in Auth. "the meanwhile;" 
nor is it to be joined vnth. " themselves " (understood), as in 
the Margin of Auth. ; but with the word following it, d\\r)\a>v, 
literally " between one another," or in English idiom, " one with 
another." Thus the " thoughts " are in a manner personified, 
and are represented as among themselves accusing or defending 
them whose thoughts they are; "them" being suiDplied as the 
object of these two verbs, from the former part of the sentence. 

16 In the day is to be connected, not with what immediately 
precedes, but with the main sentence, which is broken oil at 
the end of verse 10 by the parenthetical explanations in verses 

17 But if.— For " behold " (Auth., with Tynd.), by change in Gr. 
text, supported by aU the oldest MSS. and Vulg., followed by 
Wycl. and Rhem. " Behold " apj)ears to have been introduced 
into the later MSS. to remove what was thought to be a break in 
the sentence at the beginning of verse 21. 

Thou bearest the name. — Auth., as Tynd., "thou art 
called." The preposition eVi prefixed to the verb denotes that 
the appellation, "a Jew," is here regarded as an honourable dis- 
tinction. So Yvdg., cognominaris. Rhem., " if thou be sur- 
named a Jew." Compare Gal. ii. 15, " We being Jews by 
nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles." 

Blestest upon. — i.e., as on an external support. All English 
versions, " restest in," following Vulg., requiescis in lege. The 
difference in meaning is considerable: "restest in" would mean 
"art satisfied, content, well pleased with it;" "restest on" 
means " dependest on it as thy vantage ground," from whence 
thou mayest look down on men, and hold nearer converse than 
they with God. 

266 ROMANS— 11. 

Gloriest in God.— So Wycl. and Rliem., following Vulg., 
glorians in Deo. This rendering here as elsewhere has been 
adopted for the Gr., Kauxao/ww. Auth., with Tynd., " niakest thy 
boast of God." 

18 His will. — Literally, " the will," the supreme wiU. This ex. 
pression does not occur again. 

20 A corrector of the foolish.— Aiith., "an instructor;" and 
so all previous Engl, versions and Vnlg. The same word occura 
once again in the New Testament (Heb. xii. 9) in the phrase, 
" fathers ... to chasten us," literally, " our correctors or 
chastisers." This meaning of the word seems the more probable 
h^re, as there follows immediately another word signifying "an 
instructor," " a teacher." 

22 Dost thou rob temples ?— Auth., following "Vulg. and Wycl., 
"dost thou commit sacrilege ? " Tynd., "robbest God of his lionour." 
The cognate noun is rendered " robbers of churches " in Acts xix. 
37 (Auth.). The temples of the heathen gods are here meant ; and 
tiiough there is no instance on record of the Jews committing 
stich an offence, we must suppose they were thought capable of 
it. from the law against it mentioned by Josephus, Ant. iv. 8, § 10 

23 Transgression is the literal and usual translation of irapd^aa-ts. 
Compax-e chap. iv. 15 (Auth.), which here has " breaking." 

24 Because of you.— Expresses the true force of the Gr. preposi- 
tion, and gives a more definite meaning than Auth., " through 


25 If thou be a doer. — The Gr. signifies the "practice," the 
" habitual doing." Auth,, " if thou keep the law." 

Is become. — Auth., "is made;" yeyovev, "is become," as we 
should say, " to all intents and pm-poses, for any good it can do 

26 The ordinances. — Auth., "the righteousness." Tynd., "the 
right things contained in the law." Tlie Gr. is the same word, in 
the plural, that is used in chap. i. 32, where see Notes. 

27 With the letter.— Auth., " by the letter." The Gr. preposi- 
tion does not mean that by means of the outward letter and 
ceremony the Jew is a transgressor, but that loitli these external 
advantages, having them, he yet transgresses the moral ordinances 
of the law. For the same use of 5id see chap. iv. 11 ; 2 Cor. ii. 4. 
In its primary meaning it is " tlirough," then " passing through," 
" being in the midst of such and such circumstances." 



2 First of all.— Autli., with Genev., " chiefly." The_ Apostle 
begins with " first," but instead of proceeding to mention other 
advantages, he goes ofE into a digression chai-acteristic of his 
mind and his mode of epistolary wi'iting, from which he does not 
return till chap. ix. 4, and then, though he answers the question 
fully, he does so without resuming the euumei'ation which is here 

3 The double sense of the Gr. word for " faith," ■Kiaris, is she^vu in 
this verse : (1) faith on tlie part of him who trusts towards him 
who is trusted ; (2) f aithf idness on the part of him who is trusted 
towards him who trusts ; and to keep up this mutual relation in 
English, it is necessary to render the words at the beginning of 
the verse " were withoiit faith," not as aU Engl, versions, " did 
not believe," and so to bring in " faith " twice, and " faithfulness " 
instead of " believed," " belief," and "faith," as Auth. 

4 God forbid. — Literally, " may it not so come to pass," an ex. 
clamation of vehement deprecation, found only once in the 
Gospels, in Luke xx. 16 ; frequent in St. Paul and later Gr. 

Let God be found true.— Auth., with Tynd., "let God be 
true." The Gr. yi-yvoixai, properly " to become," here, as often, 
by an easy transition passes into the sense of " being proved or 
found to be." Compare 2 Cor. \\\. 14, " our glorying was found to 
be truth" ("found," as in Auth.). The sense therefore is, "let 
God's truth be proved and made patent to all, though at the 
cost of shewing every human being to be false." 

Mightest prevail— t.e., " judicially ;" the only instance in 
the New Testament of the Gr. vi.k3.v used in the technical sense 
of " gaining a cause." All Engl, versions, " overcome." 

"When thou comest into judgement— le., when thy deal- 
ings are called in question. All Engl, versions, " when thou art 
judged." This also is a classical use of the Gr., Kpivofjiai, applied to 
one who has a contention or controversy with another, either as 
accuser or accused. Compare 1 Cor. vi. 6, " brother goeth to law 
w4th brother." So God is said to have a " controversy " with 
man, Isa. xliii. 26 ; Jer. xxv. 31 ; and in other passages of the 
prophets (LXX. version). 

5 Who visiteth with wrath.— Literally, " who inflicteth his 
wrath." Auth., with Tynd., " who taketh vengeance." Vulg., 


qui infert iram (not vindidam). There is notliing Tindictive in 
the wrath of God, nor is that sense elsewhere given in Auth. to 
the Gr., 0^777. 

After the manner of men. — Tlie Gr. is so rendered in 
Auth. at Gal. iii. 1.5, but here, "as a man." 

7 Through, my lie abounded.— The Gr. order is followed, not 
as differing ui sense, but as being more perspicuous than that of 
the Auth. 

Why am Z also still judged?— Auth., " why yet am I also 
judged ? " Compare chap. ix. 19, " why doth he still (erj) find 
fault ? " The sense is, "If it were the case that my lie, my 
imfaithfidness, has had the good effect of promoting the glory of 
God, what groimd exists any longer for condemning me also with 
others whose lies have not had such a result p " 

9 Are we in worse case than they? — This gives to the 
Gr., irpoex^fMeea, the passive sense, " are we suriiassed ? " which it 
has in all other places where it occurs ; in the New Testament it 
is not foimd again. All Engl, versions have, " are we better 
than they P " following Vulg., prcBcellimus eos ? which would 
require the verb to be in the active voice (irpoexo^ej/). There is no 
example of the sense given in the Margin, " Do we excuse our- 
selves p " i.e., of the verb standing absolutely, without an accusa- 
tive of the thing put forward as an excuse. The meaning is, 
" Are we (Jews) in a worse case than the Gentiles ? " this infer- 
ence being suggested by what is said in verses 4, 5 (Field, 
otium Norv.). 

Laid it to the charge.— The Gr. never has the sense given 
to it in Auth., " pi'oved." 

19 May be brought under the judgement of God.— The 

Gr. denotes not guilt (as Auth. in text, corrected In Margin), but 
liability to God's judgement. The Yulg. misses this by the 
rendering, ut suhditus fiat omnis mundus Deo, followed by Wycl. 
and Tynd. 

20 This A-erse states not the consequence, as Auth. " therefore," but 
the reason of what is said in the preceding (Gr., SiSrt). Because 
in God's sight no man can be justified by the works of the law, 
therefore the Jews who have the law, and the Greeks who have it 
not, are alike liable to His judgment. 

Through the Isuw cometh. — Anth., "by the law is." " It is 
through knowledge of the law," or generally " of law," " that the 
consciousness of sin is produced iu us," i.e., through the sense 

ROMANS— IV. 269 

of our having broken an external commandment that has been laid 
npon us. 

21 But now, apart from the law (which could not " justify " 
or make righteous) a righteousness of God {i.e., derived 
from God, see Note on chap. i. 17).— Aiith. gives the same sense, 
but very obscurely, the words " without the law " being in such 
a position as to make their meaning and connection doiibtf ul. 

22 Through faith.— Contrasted with " through the law," verse 20. 
25 Set forth.— Literally, " set forth unto himself " (the middle 

voice) — i.e., "purposed," as in Margin; and so it is rendered 
in Ephes. i. 9, "according to his good pleasure which he 

By his blood. — The prei)osition iv is here ambiguous ; it may 
be taken in its primary meaning, " in his blood " (as Auth.), or in 
that which it often has in the New Testament, " by : " " set forth 
by the shedding of His blood to be a propitiation through faith." 
"Faith in His blood " is in itself a frequent and intelhgible com- 
bination of words, but it was through His death that Christ was 
made " a propitiation," and the propitiation becomes eifectual to 
us through faith in Him, not specially in His death. 
30 If so be — i.e., "if it be the case, as it certainly is;" by change 
in Gr. text. Auth., " seeing that." 

Through faith. — Margin, " Or, through the faith," the differ- 
ence being that " faith " is the abstract priucij)lc, "the faith" 
the ]Darticular form of it which is called " faith in Christ " — the 
Christian faith. The converse of this alternative is presented 
with regard to law : " the law " means the law of Moses, " law " 
(in the Margin) means "law" as a general principle. 


2 Toward God— i.e., " in relation to God " {-n-pSs). Auth., " be- 
fore God." 

4 As of grace — i.e., "as a matter of grace " {Kara %"?"'). Auth., 
" of grace." 

6 Pronounceth blessing upon the man.— Aiith., " describeth 
the blessedness of the man." The Gr., jxaKapia-uSs, is not the 

270 ROMANS— IV. 

" blessed state," 'out tlie " benedictiou," the declaration of blessed- 
ness. The cognate verb in Luke i. 48 is rendered " shall call me 

Reckoneth.— Auth., " imputeth," and so in Terse & The Gr. 
is the same as in verse 5. 

10 How then was it reckoned ?—" Then " is not temporal, as 
• it woidd appear to be in Auth., '' how was it then reckoned ? " 

11 The reiteration of words and phrases in these vei-ses is according ■ 
to the Greek. The variations in Auth., if they relieve the 
ear, tend somewhat to confuse the miud of the reader, and to 
obliterate one of the characteristics of the Apostle's style and 

13 For not through the law.— This is the order of the Gr., as 

also of Vulg., Wycl., and Rhem. 

16 For this cause.— Auth., " therefoi-e," as in John ^-ii. 22, and 

According to grace — i.e., dependent on. Auth., "by grace." 
Compare verse 4. 

18 In hope believed against hope.— This collocation of the 
words is intended to show that " in hope " is not connected with 
" believe," as it is commonly understood, with this meaning — 
" who against all himian expectation believed in a heavenly hope;" 
but stands as an adverb, qualifying the verb which follows, but 
not depending on it : " who hopefully, or in a hopeful spirit, 
believed, against aU eartlily hope." The same phrase, eV eATn'Sj, 
is used in tlie same manner at chap. viii. 20; 1 Cor. ix. 10, " he that 
ploweth ought to plow in hope " — i.e., hopcfidly ; and Titus i. 2. 

19 And without being weakened in faith.— The participle 
in the Gr. being iu the past tense points to a change from strength 
to weakness, " not having grown weak in faitli " hj re^isou of the 
improbability of what was promised. Auth., " being not weak," 
which would be a needless reiteration of what has been already 

" Not " (Auth.) is omitted by change iu Gr. text. " He considered 
these difficulties, and was not staggered by them." With "not'' 
in the text, the meaning is but slightly varied, " he gave no heed 
to them, so as to be staggered by them." 

Now as good as dead.— Literally, " deadened." Auth.. fol- 
lowing Tyud., "now dead." Wycl., "nigh dead." Rhem., 
" quite dead." Vulg., emortuuvi. Compare Heb. xi. 12, where 
for the same Gr. the Auth. has " as good as dead." 

ROMANS— V. 271 

20 Tea, looking. — This sentence rei^eats what lias been said as to 
liis " not being weakened in faith," and makes an advance upon 
it ; and in such a case " yea " is a better connecting link tlian 
either of the usual renderings of 5e — " and " or " but ;" " Looking 
unto the promise, having it in his view, he was so far from 
wavering that he waxed strong." 

Wavered. — The Gr. is jn'operly "disputed," " debated " with 
himself. Auth., with Tynd., " staggered." Vulg., hcesitavit. 

24 Who believe on him. — The effect of the Gr. article here is 
to define a class, " unto whom, namely, them that believe ; " not 
to lay down a condition, as Auth., "to whom it shall be imputed, 
if we believe." Had this been intended the article would not 
have been used. 

25 Was delivered up. — So Rhem. The omission of "up" in 
Auth., following Tynd. and Cranm., obscures the meaning. The 
Gr. is ■irap(S6eri. Compare Isa. liii. 12 (LXX. version) ; Matt. 
xvii. 22. Genev. has "delivered to death," the words in itahcs 
being from the passage of Isaiah. 


1 let us have peace.— So Wycl. and Rhem., following Yulg., 
paeeiin liabeanms. This reading in the Gr. text, iX'^l^^", has in 
its favour a great j)reponderance of the MSS. Auth., following 
Tynd., " We have i^eace," according to another reading of the 
Gr., exoM^", which commends itself as more in keeping with the 
context. The impei-ative " let us have " is an exhortation to be 
at peace in our hearts with God, through Jesus Christ. Com- 
pare Heb. xii. 28, "Let us have grace," ex'^Mf" X"P"', where 
there is a similar diversity in the MSS., but those which have 
there the indicative, " we have," are comparatively few. 

2 We have had our access.— We have obtained the access 
Avhicli we now enjoy. Auth., " we have access." The verb is in 
the perfect tense ; and the noun has the article, which is not the 
case with " peace " in the preceding verse. 

Let us r^oice.— Auth., "we rejoice." The Greek may be 
either the imperative or the indicative of the verb; but the 

272 ROMANS— V. 

construction is governed, by the necessary connection of this 
clause with " let us have peace " in verse 1. There we ai-e 
exhorted to be at peace, here to rejoice. Similarly in verse 3. 

Rejoice. — The subsequent words, " glory of God," prevent the 
adoption here of the ordinary rendering, " let us glory," which is 
noticed in the Margin. 

4 Probation. — Auth., following Tyud., "experience." Rliem., 
" probation," following Yulg., jn-obationem. " Experience " is, 
indeed, a consequence of patience, but not the consequence signi- 
fied by the Gr., Soki^t}, which is the test or probation exhibited 
before God by our patience. Compare 2 Cor. viii. 2. " Ap- 
proval " woiild indicate the favourable issue of the probation, and 
would therefore not be a strictly accurate reudei'ing : and the 
probation "worketh hope" — i.e., the state of trial, in which we 
are able to stand firmly, gives us hope that we sliall finally be 

5 Puttetli not to sha^me.— Literally, " covereth not with 
shame" — i.e., by mocking and deluding us. Auth., "maketh 
not ashamed," as it would, if in itself a shameful hope. Yulg., 
non confundit. Compare chap. ix. 33. 

Which, was given to us — i.e., when we became Christians 
and were baptized. Auth., " which is given to us." The verb 
is in the i)ast tense. 

7 For the good man. — The adjective, rov dyadov, may be cither 
masculine or neuter, as -rov irov-qpov in Matt. vi. 13 : " the good 
man," or "good "in the abstract, "'the good principle," "the 
good cause." In the preceding clause the masculine, "a righteous 
man," is without any doubt to be taken, the adjective being with- 
out the article in the Gr. , and therefore not capable of an abstract 
sense ; and the masculine prevailing there detei-miues in favour 
of the masculine here, " the good man." 

11 The reconciliation. — So Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., following 
Tynd., " the atonement." The Gr. is the cognate noun to the 
verb rendered in the last verse " reconciled." 

12 For that all sinned. — All sinned implicitly in Adam's trans- 
gression, not as Auth., follo^ving Genev. only, " all have sinned," 
i.e., by their own actual transgressions. The verb in Gr. is the 
aorist, ^fj-aprov, not the ijerfect. Compare verse 15, also chap. \i. 
2, 3, where a similar correction has been made. 

15 The many died — i.e., by and at the time of the trespass of 
Adam. The Gr. verb here also (as in verse 12) is in the aorist. 

ROMANS— V. 273 

The rendering of Auth., " many be dead," supposes the reference 
to he to the present state of sinners ; misled by Yulj;., mortui 

Throughout this i^assago there are three points to which careful 
attention must be given : — (1) To the contrast between " the one " 
and " the many : " "the one" being at first Adam the trans- 
gressor, and aftei'wards Christ the Redeemer, and " the many " 
being not a limited number but all mankind, of whom it is said 
that tlicy all died in Adam, and that thoy aU live, potentially, in 
Christ ; 

(2) To the use of the preposition "through" instead of Auth., 
" by." We may not always be able to feel or explain the differ- 
ence which there is between the two ; but, speaking generally, it 
is said, concerning Adam, that through his sin, as a channel, the 
sentence of death passed from God on all the posterity of Adam ; 
and, as regards Christ, that through His righteousness. His merits 
and mediation, the free gift of life passed from God upon His 
outcast children, i.e., upon all mankind ; 

(3) To the distinction of the tenses, the aorist and the perfect, 
in the original — a distinction which has not been oljserved in any 
Engl, version, nor in the Vulg. ; nor, indeed, is the Latin capable 
of representing it except by periphrasis. 

16 The judgement came of one.— So Tynd. Auth., "was 
by one." The sentence, if expanded, would run thus : " The 
judgement of God came from one transgressor, Adam, unto the 
condemnation of all mankind (who all sinned in him) ; but the 
free gift of God in Christ came from many transgressions unto 
justification." The free gift of God, besides cancelling the judge- 
ment which stood against all mankind as being all involved in 
Adam's guilt, also cleared men individually of the guilt attaching 
to their o\vn actual transgressions. 

20 The law came in beside— i.e., by the side of transgression, 
and as a subordinate ally, co-operating with it, and by its prohi- 
bitions enhancing the deadliness of sin. Auth., with Tjmd., 
" entered in." Yulg., subintravit. The Gr. Trapeia-ri\9:-v occurs 
again in Gal. ii. 4, where Auth. has " came in pri^dly," 

21 Sin reigned in death.—" In death," as its domain, its realm ; 
not " unto death," its end or consummation, as all Engl, versions, 
following ViJg., in inortem. The Gr. is iv, uot as in the next 
verse, els, " unto eternal life." 

274 ROMANS— VI. 


2 Died to sin. — i.e., at baptism, as is sliewn in verse 3. Auth., 
" are dead." Compare cliap. v. 15, and Note tliere. 

3 All we.— All we believers who, &c. So all Engl, versions before 
Autli., which lias, " so many of us as were baptized," which would 
appear jioiutedly to exclude some as not having been baptized. 
Gr., 00-01. 

4 Were buried. — Auth., " are buried." Compare verse 2. 

5 Become united with him. — The Gr. is properly " connate," 
" born together with," and it denotes the growing together in vital 
unity of a parasitic plant or graft with the stem or stock to Avhich 
it is joined. Auth., "planted together," following Wyel. and 
Vulg., complantati. Tynd., " grafted in him." " Him " is sup- 
plied from the context. Christ and no otlier must be the living 
stem or tree to which the believer is united. 

By the likeness of his death — i.e., by our conformity to 
his death, not "in," as Auth. Yulg., complantati siinilitudini, 
Avhence Genev., "planted into the likeness," which is not an 

admissible sense of (Tvix<pvroi. 

6 Was crucified with him — i.e., at His crucifixion. 

Done away. — All Engl, versions, " destroyed," from Vulg., 
destniatnr. The same Gr. is rendered iu chap. iii. 3, " make of 
none effect " (Auth.). 

Be in bondage.— All Engl, versions, " serve." The Gr. is, 
"to be a l)ond-servant," SovXivtiv. 

7 Is justified. — So all Engl, versions except Auth. and Genev., 
which have " is freed," following Beza, liberatus est. The Gr. 
is the word usually rendered "to justify," "to acquit." A 
different word is used in verses 18, 22. 

9 No more hath. — So Wycl. and Rliem. "No more," oiiKert, 
has relation here to time, not to quantity or extension, in which 
sense the Auth. is liable to be misimderstood, " hath no more 
dominion." Vulg., non ultra illi domitiahitur. 

10 The death that he died.— The Gr. is literally, " as to that 
which he died," t dnfOave, i.e., " whereas," " in tliat," as Auth. 
The same phrase in Gal. ii. 20 is rendered in Auth., " the life 
that I now live." Vulg., with a felicity due to the adverbial 
relative quod, Q.nodenim movtuus est. 

ROMANS— VI. 275 

11 Dead.— Autli., " dead indeed." The pcarticle i-ifv is not cmpliatic, 
l)eing merely the correlative of " but," 6e', in the next clause. 

13 Present— i.e., for acceptance. The Gr. is thus rendered in 
Luke ii. 22 (Auth.); it has not the idea of compulsory surrender 
which is contained in " yield." 

Present your members unto sin as instruments.— 

More clear than Auth., " as instruments . . . unto sin," which 
might be understood, "with a -vdew to sin," as it is in verse 16, 
where "unto " represents not the dative case, but the preposition 

17 Whereas ye were. — The Gr. Ve obtains this significauce 
from its position, and from the " but " which follows, though it 
is literally, as given in the Margin and in Auth., " ye were;" but 
manifestly the fact that they had been servants of sin was not in 
itself a cause of thankfulness. 

That form of teaching whereunto ye were delivered. 

— It might be rendered, " the moidd {tv-kov) into which ye were 
cast." The metaphor would suggest itself readily to the Apostle 
in the city where he was writing, Corinth, famous for casting 
statues in bronze. {Wordsworth.) 

19 Sanctification. — So Tynd., Cranm., and Rhem. Auth., " holi- 
ness," with Geuev. and Bcza. The Gr. denotes the process of 
becoming holy, not the grace of holiness itself. 

20 Free in regard of— i.e., not in ser^^ce to it, since the servant 
of one master owes no obedience to another. Auth., " free from," 
in modern English means " exempt from." Tynd., " you were 
not imder." " Made free from," in verse 22, is a different word 
in the Gr. 

23 Free gift.— Auth., with Tynd., "gift." Wycl. and Rhem., 
" the grace," foUowiug Vulg., (jratki. The Gr. is xop't^M'*. 



5 Sinful passions.— Aiith., " motions of sins." Tynd., " lusts 
of sius." The exact meaning is " emotions tending to sin." 

6 Having died to that — i.e., having died to the law, 
according to the Apostle's words in verse 4. Auth., " tliat being 
dead wherein we were held," meaning that the law was dead, 
which certainly was not the case, according to the teaching of St. 
Paul. This rendering of Auth. was founded on a conjectural 
emendation of the Gr. text by Beza, aTodavSyros for airo6av6vrfs, 
which has no support in the MSS., and was suggested to him by 
Chrysostom's erroneous interpretation of the true reading. 

7 Coveting. — Auth., " lust." The Gr. is the cognate noun to the 
verb rendered "covet" in the latter part of the verse, and repre- 
senting in the LXX. version of Dent. xx. 17 the sin which is 
prohibited by the tenth commandment. 

8 Through the commandment. — These words are not to be 
joined with " finding occasion," as in TjTid. and Auth., but ■^•ith 
" wrought," as in Vulg., Wycl., and Rhem. 

9 Apart from the law — i.e., in a state of nature, ignorant and 
indei^endent of the law (or law). Auth., " without the law." 

10 "Which tvas unto life. — The purpose of which was to give life. 
Auth., "which was ordained to life," the meaning of which is 
not quite clear, considering how the same phrase is used in Acts 
xiii. 48 (Auth.). 

13 But sin . . . — The sentence is incomplete in the original, but is 
readily to be completed by the insertion of " became death unto 
me" (as Gcnev.), which is supplied from the preceding sentence. 

That it might be shewn to be. — All Engl, versions, "that 
it might appear," folloAving Vidg., aiypareat ; Gr., <pavfi. 

15 That which I do. — Margin, " Gr., worh." In iliis and the 
following verses there are three Gr. words, KaTep-yd^o/xat, iroiw, 
Trpao-o-co, which are properly rendered "work," "do," "practise," 
. respectively. As to " practise " see chap. i. 32, and Note there. 

18 Is not — i.e., is not present with me; by cbange in Gr. text for 
Auth., " I find not." 

21 I find then the law.— The law of the flesh— the law of sin, 
a A'cry different rule from tlie law which has been called " holy 
and righteous and good " (verse 12). This interpretation has 


been tlionght open to tlio objcctiou that it gives to " the law," as 
the word is used here, a different meauiug from that whicli it hao 
borne hitherto, and the alternative in the Margin, involving a 
broken construction in the Gr., has consequentl}"- been suggested. 
But the meaning given in the text, "I find tlio law, namely, 
that," &c., appears to be justified by what is said in verse 23, " I 
see a different law in my members," &c. 

To me who would.— Auth., " that when I would." Tlie Gr., 
T(^ diKovTi i/xo'i, puts the emphasis strongly on the person who would 
do good, not on the time when he would. 

24 Out of the body— Autli., "from the body." Gr., 4k. He 
regards himself as imprisoned in a body which is itself stricken 
with death, and will bring death to him, and out of which he 
cannot escape unless some one come to his rescue. 


1 " Who walk," &c. — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text, being 
an intei-polation not found in the chief MSS., and probably 
derived from verse 4. 

3 As an offering for sin. — This insertion is placed beyond question 
by the constant use of the Gr. phrase which we have here for a 
"sin-offering" in the Old Testament (LXX. Version), e.g., fifty 
times in the Book of Leviticus. Auth., " for sin." 

4 The ordinance.— See Note on chap. ii. 26. 

6 The mind of the flesh.— Auth., following Tynd. and Cranm., 
" to be carnally minded." Geuev. and Rhem., " the wisdom of 
the flesh," after Vulg., prudentla carnis, andWyel., " prudence." 
The Gr. is a noun akin to the verb in verse 5, which means 
literally, " to have the mind set upon a thing." 

8 And they . . . — This is not an inference from what has gone 
before, as it appears in Auth., " So then," &c., but is appended 
to the sentence by " and," Gr., 5e, as a further develoi^ment of 
what has been said. 

13 Ye must die.— So Tynd. All other versions, " ye shall die." 
The Gr. is fxiw^Ti a.iTodvT](TKnVy not the future of the verb. 


17 Glorified with him. — All Eugl. versions "glorified togetlier." 
not repeating the important and necessary insertion wliich they 
have with the previous word, " suffer." Compare chap. vi. 5, 
and Note. 

18 To US-ward.— Auth., " in us," following Yulg. Genev., 
" shewed to us." The Gr. is els ht^us. 

19 The creation — i.e., the natural world. Auth., " the creature," 
following, with all previous versions, Yulg., omnis creatura. 

The revealing. — Auth., "the manifestation." The Gr. is the 

noun corresponding to the verb in the preceding verse. 

21 In hope stands between two clauses, to either of wliich it may 
belong, and the sense either way is substantially tlie same : — (1) 
the creation was subjected, &c., yet in the hope that the ci'eation, 
&c. ; (2) as in the Margin and Auth., " The creation was sub- 
jected, &e., by reason of him (God) who subjected it thus in a 
state of hope, with a hope of recovery : for the creation itself 
also," &c. ; thus rendering 3tj, " for," not " that." Thus all 
Engl, versions, and Vulg. 

The liberty of the glory. — So Wycl. and Ehem. The 
phrase in Gr. is an example of the Hebraism so frequent in the 
New Testament and in the LXX., which has been eiTOueously 
treated as if it were equivalent to an adjective and noun — the 
adjective an epithet qualifying or inteusifjong the noun. Auth., 
following T)-nd., " glorious liberty." The true meaning is, " the 
liberty appertaining to the gloiy, to the perfect state, of the 
children of God." 

24; Who hopeth for . . . — By change in Gr. text for Auth., 
" why doth he yet hope for p " Another reading of the Gr. gives, 
" who awaiteth ? " 

26 Onr infirmity. — By change in Gr. text for " our infirmities," 
i.e., our various particulai* weaknesses, as Auth. 

How to pray. — Auth., " what to pray for." Wycl. and Rhem., 
" what we should i>ray," more correctly representing the Gr., 
vpo(, which is simply " to pray," and is not used transitively 
in the sense of pi'aying for, or desiring, a thing. " What we 
should pray " is a question wliich includes both the subject-matter 
and the manner of our prayer, and the Auth., though not an exact 
rendering of this pregnant expression, is a fair paraphrase of it, 
meaning, " What is the thing to be prayed for, and how is it to be 
prayed for aright? " 

ROMANS— IX. 279 

29 He fore-ordained.— So Wycl. and Tynd. The Gr., vpoopi(w, is 
so rendered 1 Cor. ii. 7 (Auth.) ; compare also Acts iv. 28. In this 
Epistle, and Ephes. i. 5, 11, Auth. has " predestinated," following 
E/hem. and Yulg., predestinavit. The word does not occur else- 
where in the New Testament. The change of English does not 
involve any doctrinal difference ; but the Gr. projierly means " to 
determine beforehand," and is so used in the above passages by 
St. Luke and St. Paul with regard to things inanimate, and tliere 
appears no reason why the rendering should not be the same in 
these two Epistles in which it is applied to persons. 

33 Several changes in this and the two following verses are due to 
slight changes in the Gr. text which do not materially affect the 

35 Anguish.— Auth., " distress." The Gr. is a stronger word than 
that rendered "tribulation," and is translated "anguish" where 
the two are associated, chap. ii. 9 (Auth.). 

38 Nor powers. — The position of this word being altered by a 
change in the Gr. text, for which there is irresistible authority, it 
cannot now take its meaning from the word " angels," next to 
which it stood, in the sense of " spiritual powers," but must be 
understood as comprehending powers of any kind in heaven or 
earth, visible or invisible. 

39 Creature. — Margin, " Or, creation." The Gr., Kriffis, means 
" a created being," whether individual or collective. The latter 
sense, adopted in other places in this chapter, does not seem here 
so suitable as the former. 


1 Bearing witness with me.— Auth., " bearing me witness." 
Compare chap. ii. 15, and Note. 

2 Great sorrow and unceasing pain. — All English versions, 
" great heaviness and continual sorrow." These changes are 
made for the sake of consistency in the rendering of the same 
words in this and other passages. 

3 Anathema is a Greek word meaning that which is devoted 
to God, whether for good or evil. In the former case the third 

280 ROMANS— IX. 

syllable is usually writteu witli a long vowel, and pronounced 
anatheema ; wlien it means a thing devoted under a curse, for 
destruction, it has the short vowel, anathema. In Latin sacer 
has the same double sense. The two meanings are broiight 
together in Lev. xxvii. 28, 29 (LXX.). The good sense, " offer- 
ings," occurs in Luke xxi. 5 ; the bad sense, " a curse," in Acts 
xxiii. 14 ; by St. Paul it is used in the bad sense only, see 1 Cor. 
xii. 3, xvi. 22 ; Gal. i. 8. The words " from Christ " — denoting 
a severance from, not a dedication to. Him — admit of no doubt as 
to the meaning here. It is left untranslated in the other passages 
of St. PaiU's Epistles. Auth. here, " accursed." 

9 This is a word of promise. — So Tynd. Auth., following 
WycL, " this is the word of promise." The Gr. is literally, " this 
word is a word of promise." The Apostle here explains his use 
of the word " the promise " in the preceding verse, by saying 
that the word, in fulfilment of which Isaac was born, is a promise 
from God. 

According to this season— i.e., at the return of this time of 
year ; a free translation, or rather paraphrase, of Gen. xviii. 10 
(LXX. version). 

15 I will does not here, as at verse 18, represent the Gr. 64\w, 
" to will," but simply the future of the verb. 

17 Might shew in thee my power— i.e., in thee, in thy case, 
as an example. Auth., " might shew my power in thee," would 
mean, " might show my working in thee ; ' and so it is taken by 
Tynd., " to shew my power on thee." Vulg., ostendam in te. 

Published abroad.— Auth., "declared." Gr., Sm7'7€A\a>, which 
occurs only here and in Luke ix. 60 ; Acts xxi. 26. 

19 Withstandeth.— Auth., " hath resisted." The perfect of the 
Gr. has a present signification. The word is in Auth. more 
usually rendered " withstand " than " resist." 

21 To make one part a vessel unto honour.— All English 
versions, " to make one vessel unto honour," taking the pronoun 
(S /ueV, f> Se) as an adjective in connection with " vessel." Compare 
a similar use of the pronoun in 2 Tim. ii. 20. 

25 Hosea. — The form " Osee " has prevailed in all English versions, 
following the Vulg., and the Vulg. follows the Gr., except that 
in the latter the first syllable has the aspirate ; thus, Hosee. 

27 It is the remnant that shall be saved— i.e., the remnant 
only, not the mass ; this is the emphatic significance of the Gr. 
article. Auth., with Tynd., "a remnant shall be saved," with 

ROMANS— X. 281 

the meaning, " they shall not aU perish, some few shall bo saved ; "' 
but this would have no cougruity with the former part of the 

2S The Lord will execute his word.— So by change in Gr. 
text, for Auth., " he will finish the work." The Gr. is, literally, 
" The Lord will do a word upon the earth, finishing and cutting 
it short." All versions before Auth. have "word," not "work." 

31 "Of righteousness," and 32 "of law," (Auth.) are omitted by 
changes in Gr, text. 


1 My heart's desire. — This place and Phil. i. 15 are the only 
passages of the New Testament in which evSoKia is used of the 
" good will " or "' desire " of man. It is occasionally so used in 
the Old Testament (LXX. version). 

3 Subject. — So Wycl. and Rhem., and so Auth. for the same Gr. 
in other places of this Epistle— e.g^., chap. viii. 10; here " sub- 

4 The end of the law unto righteousness.— As the city gate 
is the end of the long journey and the entrance into the city. 
Auth., " for righteousness." Gr., els. 

7 The abyss. — As in Luke viii. 31, where see Note. Auth., 
" the deep." 

9 Confess . . . Jesus as Lord— i.e., confess Him to be 
" Jehovah, the Lord." Compare Phil. ii. 11, " every tongue 
should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord ; " and 1 Cor. xii. 3. 
This is the earliest recorded form of a confession of faith. 

11 Put to shame. — Seo Note on chap. v. 5. 

12 The same Lord is Lord of all. — The Gr. is literally, " the 
same Lord of all, being rich," &c., requiring the insertion of 
" Lord." Auth., " the same Lord over all is rich," &c. 

13 This is marked as a quotation, being from Joel ii. 32 (LXX.). It 
is also quoted by St. Peter, Acts ii. 21. 


14 Whom they have not heard.— So Wycl. and Eliem., follow- 
ing Yulg., quem non audierunt. Antli., " of whom." The Loi-d 
Himself speaks to us in Christ, and in those whom He sends as 
preachers of His Gospel we not only " hear of Him," but " hear 

17 Belief. — The Gr. commonly rendered " faith " is here " belief," 
because of the cognate verb in the quotation from Isaiah (verse 
16), " hath believed." 

19 Void of understanding. — The usual and proper rendering of 
the Gi'. oKTweTos, Auth., " foolish." 

20 Asked not of me — i.e., " asked me no question," the ordinary 
meaning of the Gr. iirepwrdo). So Vulg., me non interrogabant, 
and Wycl. and Rhem. Auth., "asked not after me" — i.e., 
inquired not for me, which, though equally true, is not according 
to the Greek. 


1 Cast off.— The Gr. has this sense, rather than, as all English 
versions, " cast away." Compare Acts ^ni. 27, 39, xiii. 46 ; 
1 Tim. i. 19, where it is rendered, " thrust from him ; " also 
1 Sam. xii. 22 (LXX. version). 

2 Pleadeth. — Auth., '•' maketh intercession," which usually means 
to " plead for," not " against." 

6 " But if it be of works." — (Auth.) Omitted in the great majority 
of important textual autliorities, and in Wycl. and Rliem., follow- 
ing Vulg. 

7 Were hardened.— All English versions, " were blinded." The 
word is a medical term, signifying the petrifaction of the joints 
and bones by the deposit of lime ; and in some places of the 
Epistles, as here, it has apparently been confounded with another, 
■Ki)p6u, resembling it, which means " to blind." So in 2 Cor. 
iii. 14 ; Eph. iv. 18. In the Gospels it is correctly rendered in 
Auth., as at Mark vi. 52, " their heart was hardened," though 
there also Yulg., and all English versions except Auth., are in 

ROMANS— XI. 283 

8 A spirit of stupor.— Auth., " of slumber." Tlie word tlms 
roudered is from a verb wliicli means properly "to piu or nail 
down," and thence the stupefaction which arises from such treat- 
ment. Thus in Lev. x. 3 (LXX. version). Here Yulg. lias 
spiritum compunctionis, and so Wycl. and Rhem. ; Tyud. and 
Cranm., " uuquietuess ; " but Genev., " heavy sleep," following 
Beza, spiritum soporis. Hence Auth., " slumber," with Mar- 
ginal Note, " Or, remorse." In this primary sense the verb is 
used in Acts ii. 37, " they were pricked in their heart " (Auth.). 

12 Their loss. — That wherein they are lessened. Gr., ^TTq/xa. 
Auth., "their diminishing." Yulg., diminutio. 

13 To you that are Gentiles — i.e., to those of you that are Gen- 
tiles. Auth., " to you Gentiles," not marking sufficiently the 
force of the article in the Gr. In the next sentence, Avhere it is 
absent in the Gr., the Auth. expresses it, " the apostle of the 

Ministry. — Auth., " office." The Gr. SiaKovla always means 
" a ministry," a service, and is not elsewhere rendered '" an office " 
— i.e., a duty. 

17 And didst become partaker with them.— So, literally 
following the Gr., Yulg., and Tynd. : Auth., "partakest with 

The root of the fatness ("and" being omitted by 
change in Gr. text). — The source and origin of its richness. 

19 Branches — i.e., " some branches." AU English versions insert 
the article. 

20 By their unbelief. — Not " because of," as all English versions, 
following Yulg., propter increclulitatem. Unbelief, "their un- 
belief" (for this is the significance of the article), is regarded as 
the instrument, the force by which the branches were broken 
off, and in like manner it foUows, " by thy faith thou standest." 
Compare 2 Cor. i. 24. 

24 By nature a wild olive tree. — The word " by nature " 
does not in the Gr. attach only to the adjective " wild," as in 
Auth., " the olive tree which is wild by nature," and Wycl., " the 
kindly (i.e., naturally) wild olive-tree." 

25 A hardening. — Comp. verse 7. The Gr. denotes the incipient 
hardness, not the complete callousness. 

30 Were disobedient.— As at chap. x. 21. Auth., "have not 


31 By the mercy shewn to you.— Comp. Acts xiii. 34, " the 
sure blessings of David " — i.e., the mercies assured to him ; and 
1 Cor. XV. 31, " the boasting on your account," whero the Gr. is 
literally " your boasting," as here it is " your mercy," and is so 
rendered in Auth. 

32 Hath shut up all unto.— Auth., " hath concluded them all 
in," as Rliem., following Vulg., conclusit. " To conclude " has 
lost its original meaning, and is used chiefly with a logical sense, 
which does not adequately represent the Gr. Compare Gal. iii. 

33 Past tracing out.— Auth., " past finding out." The Gi-. is 
literally, "not to be tracked," "unsearchable," as it is rendered in 
Ephes. iii. 8. Yulg., investigabiles vice ejus. 

36 Unto him, as the end (Auth,, "to him"), "of him," i.e., 
from Him, as the beginning; "through him," as their Maker. 
Compare 1 Cor. viii. 6, where " of him " and " unto him " are 
said of " God, the Father," " through him" in reference to " our 
Lord Jesus Chriet." 


Reasonable service.— See Margin. The Gr. XaTpiia means 
the service of worship, and a " reasonable " or " spiritual " service 
is of the sj)irit and uuderstandiug, not of words and forms and 
ceremonies only. 

Fashioned . . . transformed. — Auth,, "conformed . . . 

transformed." Vulg., confonnamini . . . reformamini. (So 
Wycl. and Rhem.) Tynd., "fashion not yourselves . . . 
but be ye changed in your shape." The Auth. and Vulg. would 
lead us to suppose that the two words in the Gr. were of the same 
origin, and nearly of the same meaning. " Be not fashioned " 
well represents the Gr., which denotes the fleeting nature of this 
world's customs and opinions, and is used with a similar sense and 
construction in 1 Peter i. 14. Compare also 1 Cor, vii. 31, " The 
fashion of this world passeth away." "Transformed" in the 
Gr. is the word used of the " transfiguration " of Christ (Matt. 
svii. 2), and denotes not the momentaiy conformity of attitude and 
appearance, like the first word, but the change of form. The 


same contrast is signified in Phil. ii. 6, wliere it is said of Christ 
that, " being from everlasting in the form {iJ.op(pfj) of God, he was 
found (for a little while) in fashion (o-xtj^o't') as a man." 

The good.— Auth., with Tynd. and Cranm., " that good," over- 
translating the article, which is correctly given in Wycl., Genev., 
and Rhem. The rendering of the Margin resembles that which 
is given in Genev., "what is the will of God, which is good and 
accej)table and perfect." 

3 So to think as to think soberly. — Anth., "to think 
soberly," drox^ping the play on the word think," which represents 
that on (ppoveTv in the Gr. The meaning is "to direct the mind 
towards sobriety of thought." 

5 Severally.— Auth., "every one." The Gr. phrase is not com- 
mon in classical authors, but is used in Mark xiv. 19, signifying 
" one by one." 

6 Our faith.—" Faith " has the article prefixed here, not in verse 
3, to which there appears to be a reference. God deals to each of 
us a measure of faith ; and in proportion to the measure which 
we have received, we are to occupy ourselves in prophesying. 
The alternative rendering given in the Margin is preferred by 
many commentators, " according to the proportion of the faith," 
i.e., of the rule of faith, so as to set forth the Christian faith in 
its due proportions without laying undue stress on one part to the 
neglect or su^jpression of another. This is grammatically quite 
as correct as the rendering in the text, and perhaps preferable as 
regards interpretation. 

8 With liberality.— Auth., follow^ng Yulg., Wycl., and Rhem., 
" with simplicity." This, or " singleness" (as Tynd.), is the pro- 
per meaning of the Gr. an\6T7iTi : and this sense is very suitable. 
Beneficence is to be exercised in simplicity and singleness of pur- 
pose, for the good of others and the glory of God, not with any 
admixture of self-interest. But in 2 Cor. viii. 2, ix. 11, the idea 
of simplicity, though retained in Yulg., Tynd., and Cranm., is not 
appropriate ; and Auth., following Genev. and Beza, has 
" abounded unto the riches of their liberality," and " being en- 
riched in everything to all bountifulness," in each place with " Gr., 
sim;plicity " in the Margin. The same course is followed here, 
not because " simplicity " would here be out of place, but be- 
cause it would be so there ; and this passage appears to be ruled 
by those. " Simplicity," disinterestedness in giving, is nearly 
allied to liberality. Compare also James i. 5, " God also giveth 
to all liberally" {anKis), where Yulg. has a^iaenter, and is followed 


by Wycl., "largely," and Rliem., "abundantly," and where 
" simply " could not stand. 

9 Without hypocrisy. — The Gr. is so rendered iu James iii. 17, 
the adjective being akin to the noun viroKplrTis, " hypocrite." 

10 In love of the "brethren. — The order of the Gr. has been 
followed in this and the succeeding clauses, the subject or prin- 
ciple in regard to whicli the precept is given being put first ; 
and this transposition would be required by consistency through- 
out the 11th and 12tli A'erses, but woiddliave produced a deraiige- 
nicnt of the rhythm, and an awkwardness of expression which 
would not be comi)ensated by any gain in emphasis or signi- 

The title "brethren," with which St. Stephen and St. Paul ad- 
dressed tlie Jews at Jerusalem (Acts vii. 2, xxiii. 1), is here ex- 
tended to all Christians. Auth., " with brotherly love." 

Tenderly affectioned. — Auth., "kindly," in its ordinary 
modern sense, is hardly an adequate rendering of tlie Gr., wlucli 
denotes the ait'ection springing out of near relationship in 

In diligence. — Auth., with Wycl., Tynd., and Cranm., "in 
business," which would confine this precept to worldly affairs. 
The Gr. (tttovSt] means diligence, or earnestness, as a general prin- 

13 Communicating.— So Rhem., following Vulg. Auth., " distri- 
buting, " with Tpid. The Gr. Koivwvdi/ is properly to partake \nih 
a jjerson or in a thing ; and thence, in an active sense, as here, 
" to give a sliare," "to impart." (See Gal. A-i. 8; Phil. iv. 15.) 

15 Rejoice. — " Be merry " was the woi-d of Tynd. ; Rhem., " re- 
joice," adopted by Auth. with the addition of " do " in the first 
member of the sentence, apparently for the sake of the iambic 

16 Set not your mind on high things.— Autli., following 
Rhem., "mind not." Vulg., non alta sapientes. The Gr. is tJie 
word used in verse 3, and means, " have not your thoughts 
dwelling on." 

Condescend to things that are lowly.— Margin, " Or, 
them." Whether things or persons are to be understood is 
doubtful in ihe Gr. ; l>ut as the jiouter has been used just before, 
it seems probable that here also the neuter is intended; and the 


precept in this sense receives illustration from the well-known 
lines of the Christian Year : — 

" Tlie trivial round, the common task, 
Will furnish all we need to ask ; 
Room to deny ourselves, a road 
To bring us daily nearer God." -(Plumptre, Note.) 

Tynd., "make yom-selves equal to the lower sort." Auth., "to 
men of low estate." Vulg., h^vmilihus consentientes. The Gr., 
which is rendered " condescend to," means more exactly, " letting 
yourselves be carried away with ; " and is translated in Gal. ii. 
13, "be carried away with." Compare also 2 Pet. iii. 17; in 
both places it is followed by a word denoting a thing, not a 

17 Render. — The same Gr. is so translatetl in chap. xiii. 7. Anth. 
here, " recompense." 

Take thought for things honourable.— Anth., " provide 
things honest." This precept is adopted into the New Testament 
by tlie Aj)ostle from Prov. iii. 4 (LXX. version). See also 
2 Cor. viii. 21. Honourable, for " honest," Anth., following 
Tynd. The good old word " honest " is now in some cases (as 
in this) liable to be understood in the narrower and special sense 
which modern usage has put upon it. 

18 Be at peace. — This is the literal meaning of the Gr. Auth., 
with Craura.. "live peaceably." Other versions, "have peace," 
following Vulg., facem habeiites. 

19 Wrath. — Margin, " Or, the wrath of God; " an interpretation 
which is justified by wha.t follows : " Leave the matter in the 
hands of God. Give place tmto His wrath ; for He has claimed 
vengeance as His own." Otherwise, as it is in the text and in 
Autli., the precept bids us give place to the wrath of men ; 
retire before it, let it have its way, trusting that God will avenge 
onr cause ; according to the command of our Lord, Matt. v. 39, 
'• Resist not him that is evil," &c. 



4 An avenger. — Auth., from Rliem., " a revenofer," which, in it? 

present acceptation, is not siiggrostive of the righteous vengeance 
which is inflicted by Gotl, or by " the power," the magistrate, 
on God's behalf, but of private passionate retahation. Gr., e/cSi/cos, 
Vulg., vinclex. 

5 Yo must needs be in subjection— i.e., to the "powers." 
Tlie plirase is repeated from verse 1. 

6 Ministers of God's service.— Auth., " God's ministers." 
The Gr. for " minister " properly means one who discharges a 
public ministiy or service, and might liere be rendered, " God's 
ininistei'S to the people " — Xnrovpyoi, whence our word " liturgy." 
In verse 4 the word is the more common hidKovos, whence 
we have "deacon" in English, signifying a "minister" or 
"attendant," whether his service be of a public or jn-ivate 

8 Loveth his neighbour. — So Wyel. and Rhem., following 
Vidg., qui dillcjit lyroxlmuin. Auth., "loveth another" — a 
statement by no means so comprehensive as that of the Apostle. 
The Gr. is not here, as in the next verse, rhv irXriffiov, which in 
the Gospels is " my neiglibour," but rhv erepov, the " not me " of 
modern philosophy — any one who is not myself, and with whom 
I liave to deal. The plirase is used in the same way in cliap. ii. 1, 
though there it is not necessary to give it in translation the 
wide sense which is required for it here. Compare 1 Cor. -vi. 1, 
X. 24. 

9 Summed up. — Auth., " briefly comprehended." Gr., "brought 
to a head." 

10 The fulfilment. — Tiiat in which and by which the law is 
fulfllled ; not " the fidtilling," as aU Engl, versions except 
Rhem., which has " plenitude," following Yulg., jilenitudo. The 
Gr. ir\r)pa)fxa (phroma) is properly "fulness." 

11 Knowing the season.— Knowing your oppoi-tunity. Gr., 



2 Hath faith, to eat. — His faith is so strong that lie cats, 
looking ou such questions as of too little impoi'taucc to affect his 

3 Set at nought.— Auth., " despise." The Gr. is the same as 
at verse 10. 

4 Shall be made to stand.— A nth., "shall be holden up." 
The Gr. is the same verb which is used in the active voice at the 
end of the verse. 

5 Fully assured. — Auth. (from Genev.), " fully jjersuaded." 
Vulg., utmsqulsque in suo sensu abundet, followed by Rhem,, 
" Let every man abound in his own" The diversity and 
obscurity of the renderings in the earlier versions arose fronj 
uncertainty as to the meaning of irX-npocpopfTo-Bai, which, in its 
primary meaning, is " to be filled full," especially of assurance, 
as in Col. ii. 2 (Auth.); 1 Thess. i. 5. 

6 " And he that regardeth not . . . " — (Auth.) These words 
are omitted in the principal MSS., versions, and editions of the 
New Testament. 

9 Lived again. — "Lived" takes the place of "rose and lived 
again" in the Gr. text: again is supjilied in italics, being 
necessary to the sense, for which reason probaljly the words were 
interpolated which have now been omitted. 

10 But thou ... or thou again. " Those" is in both places 
emphatic; and the two questions arc addi-essed to two different 
classes of persons — (1) to those who eat not, their conscience 
being not yet free from the trammels of the ceremonial law ; 
(2) to those who eat and exult overmuch in their Christian freedom. 

14 Persuaded in the Lord Jesus— i.e., as one united with 
Him and dwelling in Him. Compare chaps, viii. 1, ix. 1. Vulg., 
confido in Domino. And so the Engl, versions, except Auth., 
"persuaded by," and Genev., "persuaded through," following 
Beza, per dominuni. 

15 Because of meat.— So Rhem., " For the sake of a question 
about meat." Auth., following Tynd., " with thy meat," thus 
making it a personal matter, which, indeed, in the next chapter 
it is shown to be ; but it is not said to be so here. 

Walkest no longer in love.— Auth., f(jllowing Tynd., " not 
charitably." This is the one place in which Tynd. renders 
aydiTTj otherwise than by " love." 


290 ROMANS— XV. 

17 Eating and drinking. — The words iu Gr. are verbs, denoting 
the act or occupation. All Engl, versions, " meat and drink," 
following Vulg., esca et potus, for the sake of having correlative 
nouns iu the two contrasted clauses of the sentence. Compare 
Col. ii. 16. 

18 Well-pleasing.— The Gr. ivdpea-Tos is often found in the 
Pauline Epistles, but not elsewhere in the New Testament. 
Auth., " acceptable." 

20 Overthrow not.— Auth., "destroy," which is the proper 
rendering of a.n6\\vi in verse 15 : here the Gr. is KaraAue. 

Clean. — So Wycl. and Rhcm., following Yulg., omnia quideni 
sunt mnnda. Auth., with Tynd., " pure. Gr., Kadapd. 

22 The faith which thon hast.— By change in Gr, text for 
Auth., " Hast thou faith ? " 

Approveth.— So Rhom. Auth., with T^Tid, " alloweth," which 
is now, in the sense of "approveth," an archaism. Yulg., 


2 For that which is good, nnto edifying— i.e., with good 
for the immediate, and edification for the more distant object. 
Gr., els . . . Trpdj, as iu Eph. iv. 12 {Vauglian). Auth., 
" for liis good," following Tynd. The application of the term 
" building," " edifying," to advancement in spiritual life is fre- 
quent in the Epistles of St, Paul, but occurs only once elsewhere, 
■ iu Acts ix. 31. 

4 Through comfort. — " Through " is by an addition in the Gr. 
text, shewing that "through patience "is not connected with 
" the Scriptures," but is to be taken by itself, " tlu-ough the 
grace of patience." 

5 Comfort. — The Gr. is the same as in verse 4. Auth., " conso- 
lation." The two aids to hope mentioned in the preceding verse — 
patience, and the comfoi-t which patience derives fi'om the 
Scriptures — are here referred to God as their giver. 

To be of the same mind. — So the Gr, is elsewhere rendered: 
here Auth. has "to be like-minded." Similarlv, in the next 


ROMANS— XV. 291- 

verse, the phrase which frequently occurs in the Acts, and is 
there always rendered in Aiith. " with one accord," in this the 
only other instance of its use in the New Testament is " with 
one mind " (Auth.). 

6 The God and Father. — Compare Eph. i. 3, where the same 
Gr. is thus translated in Auth. The usage of the Gr. article 
co\xpliug God and the Father together, 6 Oehs koI iraTvp, requires 
this rendering. Hei-e Auth., " God, even the Father." So also 
in 2 Cor. i. 3. In John xx. 17 the risen Christ speaks of God as 
His God and His Father ; in Epli. i. 17 St. Paul has the phrase 
"the God of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

7 To the glory of God is to he connected with the former as 
well as yntli the latter clause of the sentence, as the comma 
shews after " received you." 

11 Let all the peoples praise him. — Auth., " laud him, all ye 
people." The third person is substituted for the second by 
change in Gr. text, " peoples " for " i^eople " (Auth.), the woi-d 
being in the plural ; and " praise " for " laud," which has become 

12 Hope.— Auth., " trust." The Gr. is the same as in the next 
verse, and the reiteration of " hope " in that verse was probably 
suggested to the Apostle by its occiirrence in this quotation. 
Compare the reciu-rence of "patience" and "comfort" in 
verse 5. 

15 Putting you again in remembrance.— The Gr. is a 

doubly compounded verb [iiri, avd, fxLfj.vr]aKca), which is not again 
iised in the New Testament. Auth., "j)utting you in mind." 
This word, like other phrases in this A'ei'se, appears to be chosen 
Avith the view of courteously excusing the liberty which he takes 
in admonishing them. 

18 The sentence is cleared and made more perspicuous by turning 
the second negative (see Margin) into " save those," as in text. 

For the obedience of the Gentiles — i.e., with a view to 
that object. Compare chap. i. 5. Auth., " to make the Gentiles 

In the power of signs.— As it is said of Elijah, 1 Kings 
xix. 8, "he went in the strength of that meat." . Auth., "by 
mighty signs." 

20 Making it my aim.— More literally, "making it my ambi- 
tion." The same word, in reference to the things which should 
be the objects of a Christian man's ambition, is used by St. Paul, 

. 292 EOMANS-XV. 

2 Cor. V. 9 and 1 Tliess. iv. 11. He was "ambitious " of doing 
what was nioi*e difficult, and more for tlie furtlierauce of the 
Gospel, than preaching where Christ's Name was already kuo^vn, 
and biailding on a foundation which another Evangelist had laid. 
Auth., " so have I strived." Tjoid., " so have I enforced myself." 
The word is altogether passed over in Yulg., Wycl., and Rhem. 
Beza has contendens, whence probably the rendering of Auth. 

21 To whom no tidings of him came. — Auth., " to whom he 
was not spoken of." The Gr. signifies the bearing of a " mes- 
sage " or " tidings." 

22 These many times.— More literally, " for the most part," 
TO irowd. The phrase does not occm* again in the New Testament, 
Auth., " much." There is probably a reference to chap. i. 13, 
" often times (iroAXoKts) I purposed to come unto you, but was 
hindered hitherto." 

23 Having ... a longing to come unto you. — As he 

had said in chap. i. 11, using the same word, iTrnrodii, "I long to 
see you." All English versions, "having a great desire," fol- 
lowing the inadequate rendering of Yulg., cupiditatem habens. 

24 In some nieasiire satisfied with your company. — More 
literally, " filled with you." As in A'erse 15 he excuses his 
boldness, so hei'e he shows his tenderness by the phrase " in some 
measure ;''' fully satisfied with their company he cannot be. 

26 It hath been the good pleasure. — He uses here a word 
seldom applied in the New Testament to aiiy one but God, 

The good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia.— A bold 
figure of si)eech, by which the Apostle represents whole pro- 
■\nnces as joining in a contribution which was made by that small 
portion of their inhabitants who were Christians. To modify 
the seeming hyiJcrbole, the rendering " tliem of Macedonia " was 
adopted in Auth., following Tynd. 

The poor among the saints.— So Vulg., correctly, j) a wperes 
sanctorum. Auth., with Tynd. and Rhem., " the poor saints," 
as if all the believers at Jerusalem were poor. 

27 They owe it.-rThe Gr. is the verb corresponding to the noun 
" debtors " in the last sentence. Auth., " their duty is." 

28 Accomplished. — More nearly represents eViTeXeVay than Auth. 
" performed." 

Sealed this fruit.— Made it secure ; like the oil and wine 
which were stored in vessels, amphorce, and sealed. 


1 will go on "by you unto Spain.— Literally, " I will go 
away through {or, by) you " — i.e., after stopping with you on 
luy way, I will start afresh, I will go on. Auth., " I will come 
by you into Spain." 

30 By our Lord Jesus Christ.— The construction of the Gr. is 
the same as in chap. xii. 8, " I beseech you ... by the mer- 
cies of Christ (5ia)." Auth., " for the Lord Jesus Christ's sake." 

31 Them that are disobedient. — As at chaps, x. 21, xi. 30. 

32 Find rest.— This is the proper meaning of the Gr., and from 
this springs the derivatiA^e sense " be refreslied," wliich is hero 
given to it in all English versions, but not so suital)ly as in 

2 Cor. vii. 13, " his spirit hath been refreshed by you all." 


A servant. — Margin, " Or, deaconess." This alternative ren- 
dering has not been placed in the text, because, although the word 
diaconos became in the life-time of St. Paul the special title of 
an order of ministers in tlie Church, there is no proof that it was 
applied officially to women ; and the appellation was still given 
to servants or ministers who were in a secidar capacity. Com- 
pare chap. xiii. 4 ; xv. 8. 

For she herself also.— Auth., " for she," Her claim to their 
help is put emphatically, Kal yap avri]. 

Fellow-workers. — The word is so rendered in verse 9 (Auth.), 
and here it represents tlie relation of Prisca and Aquila to tlie 
Apostle, not merely assisting him (Auth., "lielpei-s"), but work- 
ing with him in the same trade as well as in the service of Clirist. 

Frisca, for PrisciUa (which is the diminutive of Prisca), by 
cliange in Gr. text, in accordance with all the chief MSS. 

Worthily of the saints. — In the manner in which Christians 
shoidd be received by Christians. Auth., " as becometh saints " 
would moan "receive her, as it becometh saints " — i.e., " in tlie 

Salute.— Auth., "greet." The Gr., varied in translation by 
Auth., is the same throughout the chapter. 


5 Asia. — By change in Gr. text for "Acliaia " (Autli.). Tlie phrase 
" first fniits of Acliaia " being applied to the house of Stephanas 
in 1 Cor. xvi. 15, may from thence have been introduced into this 

8 Ampliatus.— By change in Gr. text for " Amplias " (Auth.). 

9 TJrbanus. — All Engl, versions before Aiith., "Urban." By the 
addition of the final Aiith. many English readers have l^een 
led to pronounce the name " Urbane," as if it were feminine. 

18 Smooth and fair speech. — The distinction between the two 
words ajjpears to be (1) speech by which they try to pass tliem- 
selves ofl: as good men ; (2) speech by which they flatter others 
(" eulogy "). Auth., " good words and fair speeches." 

Beguile. — The Gr. is so rendered in chap. vii. 11 ; it is especially 
used to describe that kind of deceit which consists in giving a 
goodly outside to what is inwardly and essentially evil, as in 
2 Cor. xi. 3, " the serpent beguiled Eve." Auth. here, " deceive." 

19 Over yon. — Auth., " on your behalf." Gr., icp' v/iTv. 

22 Who write.— Literally, as Auth., " who wrote." The Gr. 
idiom, unlike the English, allows the writer to use the past tense, 
and thus, by a proleptic use of the aorist, to represent himseK, as 
he would be regarded by the receiver of the Epistle, as the person 
who " wrote" it. Compare Gal. vi. 11 ; 1 Cor. ix. 15. 

23 Treasurer. — So Wycl. and Rhem., "cofferer," after Yulg., 
arcarius. Auth., with Tynd., "' chamberlain." The Gr., oIkqvoixos, 
economus, properly denotes a financial oificer. 

24 This verse, which repeats the benediction already given in verse 
20, is omitted in the best MSS. 

25 Kept in silence.— Not as Auth., with Tynd., " kept secret." 

Through times eternal. — So Wycl. and Rhem. This phrase, 
represented in Tynd, and Auth. by the paraphrase, "since the 
world began," is used again by St. Paul, and by him only, in 
2 Tun. i. 9 ; Titus i. 2. 

27 To whom. — These words are in the received Gr. text and all 
the great MSS., but are not translated in Auth., following Tjnid. 
The sentence has a broken constraction, the words at the begin, 
ning, " Now to him," &c., being resiimed here by the relative " to 
whom," instead of being themselves the object of the doxology at 
the close. 





2 Even them that are sanctified. — A further description of 
the Church at Corinth, not a new class of believers. 

Their Lord and our's. — The insertion of Lord in italics is 
intended to guard against the interpretation found in Yulg. and 
Tynd., and followed by many modern expositors, according to 
which " both their's and our's " is connected rrith " every place." 
Thus Wycl., " in every place of their's and our's." By tliis com- 
prehensive clause of the salutation, every member of the Clmrch 
in every land is brought within the scope of the Epistle. The 
connection of "their's and our's " with " Lord " is apparently due 
to Beza, Domini, inquam, twin ipsorum turn nostri. 

4 In Christ Jesus. — So Wycl., Genev., and Rhem., following 
Vulg. and the Gr. (v ; i.e., " given to you as members of Christ, 
united with Him." Auth., " by." 

7 Revelation. — Auth., " coming." The Gr. is apocalypsis. 

8 Unreproveable. — So the Gr. is rendered in Auth. at Col. i. 
22 ; but here " blameless," which is used for several other words. 

9 Through whom ye were called. — The phrase " through 
whom," as applied to God, instead of " by whom " {Sid not inr6) is 
very imusual. It is, however, the rendering of Yulg., per queni : 
all Engl, versions have "by whom." Compare Gal. i. 1, and 
Note there. 

10 Perfected together.— Auth., " perfectly joined together." 
The Gr. is usually rendered by "made perfect," or " perfected," 
which is the prominent notion in it, and that of " joining " is 
sufficiently expi'essed here by "together." Tynd., "knit 
together." Yulg., sitis perfecti. Compare Matt. xxi. 16. 

296 1. CORINTHIANS- 1. 

11 Signified, — A milder word and less common than " declared '* 
(Auth.). The Gr., iSrjKiBri, is rendered thus in Heb. ix. 8, and 
elsewhere (Auth.). 

12 I mean.— Explaining what he has just been sajing. So Tynd., 
Genev., and Rhem. Auth., " this I say." 

18 The word of the cross. — In contrast with " wisdom of 
words," words of man, in the last verse. Auth., with Tynd., 
" the preaching of the cross." The Gr. is \6yos. 

Perishing . . . being saved.— This rendering is required 
by the Gr. participles, which are in the present tense, denoting 
an inchoate or progressive condition, (1) that of unbelievers; (2) 
that of the faithful. AU English versions have "perish . . . 
are saved," pointing in each case to the event as already accom- 
plished. Compare cliap. ii. 6, " are coming to nought," and Note 
on Acts ii. 47. 

19 Prudence of the prudent. — The noun is akin to the adjective 
in this as in the former member of the sentence. Auth., " under- 

21 Seeing that.— Auth., following Cranm., "after that." The 
conjunction, literally " since," by an easy transition passes, like 
" since " and other temporal particles, to a logical meaning. 
Vulg., qiiia. The same word stands at the beginning of the next 

Its wisdom. — The article in the Gr. gives this meaning more 
liglitly than our possessive pronoun, but it is not expressed in 
Autli.', " by wisdom." Compare Acts xxvi. 24, 

The preaching. — Hero also the article is omitted in the Auth., 
" preaching." The reference is to verse 17. The Gr. is properly 
"the tiling preached," the preachment. 

2t> Por behold. — The Gr. may be eitlier imperative or indicative. 
The former appears preferable on comparison of chap. viii. 9, 
where it is " take heed," and chap, x, 18, " Behold Israel after 
the flesh," and so Vulg., videte. 

~7 Put to shame. — Auth., " confound." Compare Rom, v. 5. 



1 Proclaiming. — Here as elsewhere represents the Gr., naray- 
ytWuv. Auth., " declaring." 

Mystery. — By change in Gr. text for " testimony " (Aiith.). 

11 The spirit of the man — i.e., the things of a man are known 
only to the man's own spirit. Auth., " the spirit of man," which 
seems, by suppression of the article, to attribute this knowledge to 
the spirit inherent, not in the individual man, but in humanity, 
in all human nature. 

14 Spiritually judged. — Margin, " Or, examined." The word 
is so rendered in Vulg., WycL, Tynd., andCranm. Auth. follows 
Genev., "discerned," The word is applied to the examination 
made by the judge (Luke xxiii. 14), and to the judgement 
which he pronounces (chap. iv. 3, 4 of this Epistle). The sense 
of " discerning " does not appear properly to belong to it, and 
" judging," which involves "examining," seems here the more 
suitable rendering. 


3 Te walk after the manner of men — i.e., according to 
your human, carnal propensities, not as those who are spiritually 
minded. Auth., "ye walk as men." Comxiare Rom. iii. 5. 

4 Men. — By change in Gr. text for " carnal " (Auth.). 

5 And each as the Lord gave to him— i.e., ye believed, 
each of you, as the Lord gave to him. Auth., " even as the Lord 
gave to every man." 

15 As through fire — i.e., as one narrowly escapes through the 
midst of fire. So Tynd, and Cranm. Auth,, " by fire," as Wyel.. 
Genev., and Rhem. — i.e., by means of fire. Tlie Gr. is 5m irvpoi ; 
in verse 13 it is eV irvpi. Vulg., per ignevi, which miglit be taken 
either way, but j)roperly is " through fire." " By fire " would 
mean " by the purifying effect of fire as of a furnace." This 


interpretation, derived from the ambiguous plirase of tlie Vulg., 
wonld commend itself to those who hold the Roman doctrine of 
a purgatorial fire of purification, and accordingly has j)revailed 
in the Roman Church. But the true meaning of tJbe whole passage 
is, that thougli tlie building erected of such frail materials shall 
be consumed, the builder himself shall escape with personal salra- 
tion through the midst of the flames. 

17 Margin, " Or, and such are ye " — i.e., " holy." The Gr. is the 
relative o'lnvfs, which, being plural and masculine, connects " ye " 
with " holy," the word immediately preceding, more naturally 
than with " temple ; " moreover, " which temple are ye " is merely 
a repetition of what has been said just before. Tynd. and A.uth., 
following Vulg., have "wliich temple," and as there is a diffi- 
culty in referring the relative to the adjective " holy " as its 
antecedent, the Marginal rendering has not been thought suffi- 
ciently established to be admitted into the text. 

18 Thinketh. that he is wise.— As in chap. viii. 2, the Gr. 
being Sofcel in both places. Compare also John v. 39. 


2 Here — i.e., on earth, added by change in Gr. text, in accordance 

witli all the chief MSS., the Vulg., &c. 

3 Judgement. — Tlie Gr. is "day," the day of man's judgement, 
in contrast to " the day of the Lord " spoken of in chap. i. 8, the 
day of His judgement, of whom it is said in verse 5 that He 
" wiU bring to light the hidden things of darkness." 

5 Each man — i.e., separately. Auth., "every man." Gr., e/coo-Tos, 
not iras, as also in chap, iii., where the same change has several 
times been made. 

Shall have his praise.— The praise that is his due, whether 
more or less : his proper share of honour. Auth., " shall have 
praise," overlooking the significance of the article, 6 enatvos. 

6 Not to go beyond the things. — The omission of to thinJc, 
due to change in Gr. text, makes it necessary to complete the 
sentence with the words in italics, suggested by the context. 


8 Already — i.e., without us, independently of us ; said ironically. 
Autli., " now." Gr., ^S??. 

9 Meu doomed to death. — Prisoners at Rome wlio were sen- 
tenced to be thro-^^ni from tlie Tarpeian Rock are described by 
the same word in Dionysius Halic, ^di. 35. 

And to angels . . . — Margin, " Or, both to angels and 
men." This rendering of Kal, "both" instead of "and," seems 
reasonable and probable when we consider that the preceding 
word, "the world" (t6? KO(r;uij), the whole created universe), in- 
cludes all, and that what follows is said, not in addition, but in 
explanation. So Bcngel ; and Alford, " The world is afterwards 
specialised into angels and men." 

10 Ye have glory, but we have dishonour.— A uth., with 
T)^ld. , " ye are honoiirable, but we are despised." The former 
word in the Gr. is connected with 5o'|a, " glory," the latter with 
Tt/x-f], " honour." 

14 Admonish. — All English versions, " warn," which has a darker 
shade of meaning than the Gr. Yulg., moneo. So in Epli. vi. 4. 

15 Tutors. — Autli., " instructors." The iraiSaywySs, " pedagogue," 
among the Greeks was the trusty slave in a family, who had the 
general care and superintendence of a child, but did not himself 
give instruction. 

16 Imitators. — Yulg., imitatores. This word, derived from the 
Gr., expresses Jietter than any other in our language the meaning 
of ixifj.7]Tr]s. AU English versions have " followers," which does 
not at all indicate what is meant ; and though " followers of 
my example " would be an improvement, it would be a cum- 
brous paraphrase, not denoting the close observance and adop- 
tion of another person's ways wliich are implied by " imitation." 

17 Child in the Lord. — My spiritual child, having been through 
me converted to the faith — a favourite ]}hrase of St. Paul, wliich 
he uses at the beginning of each of his Epistles to Timothy. 
Auth., " faithful in the Lord," a rendering admissible according 
to the collocation of the Gr., but not probable, considering tliat 
the Apostle has just been speaking of himself as a spiritual 
father, and that in 1 Tim. i. 1 he calls Timothy his " true child in 
the faith." 

19 Word. — As in verse 20. Auth., " speech." 



1 Actually. — Anth., following Tynd., " commonly." Tlie Gr. Sxcoy, 
" wholly," is in the English versions vai-ionsly rendered ; in Yidg., 
ovinino (entirely, absolutely). Our word actually in its present 
usage is well suited to represent the vividness which the expletive, 
though an adverb, acquires in the original from its position as the 
first word in tlie sentence. It occurs again in a somewhat similar 
way in chaj). vi. 7. 

That one of you hatH. — Auth., " that one should have his 
father's wife." This rendering with " should " leads to the sup. 
position that it was a general principle, that for a man to have 
his father's wife as his own wife was a thing allowed and author- 
ized. Consistently with English idiom there appears no way of 
giving expression to the subtle subjective force of Sxrrf with the 
infinitive, on which there is a very scholarly dissertation in the 
Expositor oi March, 1882; and though by inserting "of you" 
the considerate and courteous indetiniteness of the original 
(rti/a) is obliterated, the words " one hath " without some such 
assistance would not be sufficiently plain to the English reader. 

3 Being absent. — "As" (Auth.) omitted by change in Gr. 

Judged him. — The sentence is involved both in the Gr. and 
in the English, but may be connected and arranged thus, " I 
judged him {i.e., decreed concerning him) in the name of the 
Lord Jesus, ye being gathered together and my spirit mth the 
power of our Lord Jesus, to deliver such an one {i.e., that 
such an one should be delivered) unto Satan." 

7 For us. — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

For onr passover . . . — The order of the Gr. is here 
followed, and the sense, suggested by the allusion in the pre- 
ceding sentence to leaven and the mileavened passover bi'ead, is 
as follows : " For we Christians also have our passover, which has 
been sacrificed, namely, Christ." So Yulg., Etenim Pascha 
nostrum immolatus est Christus. The point and connection of 
the passage is obsciu-ed in Auth., following Tj-nd., by the trans- 
position of " Chi'ist " from the end of the sentence to the 
beginning, " For Christ our passover is sacrificed for us." 

10 In my epistle. — The Gr., which has the article, may be trans- 
lated tlms, or " in the epistle j " but not as Auth., " in an epistle." 


The alteration, however, is not decisive of the vexed question 
whether tlie Apostle is roforring to a former part of this Epistle, 
or to another Epistle wliich has not come down to ns ; but the 
latter interpretation appears the more probable, if only because 
there is not in the earlier part of this Epistle anything to which 
these words can be referred. 

"Not altogether with — i.e., Not that you were altogether to 
abstain from associating with such persons. The Margina/ 
rendering is the same in effect, " not at all meaning," not 
having in my riew " the fornicators of this world," of the non- 
Christian world around you. 

12 Also, and 13, therefore. — (Auth.) Omitted by changes in Gr. 


1 His neighbour. — Compare Rom. xiii. 8, and Note there. 

The unrighteous — i.e., the infidels, the heathen, as opposed 
to " the saints," the Christians. Both words are here used 
without reference to their moral significance. Auth., " the un- 
just," following Beza, injihstis, Genev., and Rhem. ; Tynd. and 
Cranm., " the wicked," following Yulg., iniquis, and so Wycl. 

4 If ye have to judge. — Literally, as in Auth., " if ye have 
judgements." Gr., as in verse 2, Kpirripwu, criterion, which has 
the several meanings of a judgement, a judicial tribunal, a cause 
to be judged. It occurs once again in the New Testament, 
at James ii. 6, where it has the second sense, and is rendered 

Do ye set . . . ? — This is one of the many cases of ambiguity 
arising in the New Testament Greek from the identity of the 
second person plural of the verb in the indicative, imperative, and 
interrogative. Here also the context does not decide beyond 
doubt which of the three is to be preferred. Taking the inter- 
rogative, the sense of the passage beginning from verse 1 is this : 
" Wliy do ye take your quarrels before heathen judges ? The 
saints are to judge angels ; much more are they competent to 
judge in worldly affairs. If these questions as to worldly affairs 
arise among you, why do ye constitute them your judges, who are 


of uo account, are not thought anything of in tlie Church, namely, 
the heathen ? " Auth. takes it imperatively in this sense: " Since 
we are competent to judge angels, any of us are sufficient for 
worldly affairs ; therefore set the lowest and meanest among you 
to judge such matters, rather than take them before the heathen 
judges." But this in logical force and consecutiveness is not so 
probable as the interrogative rendering. 

5 To move you to shame. — The Gr. is literally, " with a view 
to your shame," not as Auth., "I say this to your shame" — i.e., 
as a shameful thing in you. The same phrase is used again in 
chaj). XV. 34. 

7 Already. — Gr., ^5?) — i.e., antecedently to any question as to the 
tribunal before wliieh their lawsuits were to be tried. Auth., 

A defect. — A falling short; Auth., "a fault." "Viilg-, 
delictum ; or, according to the change in Gr. text by the omission 
of eV, it may be rendered, as in the Margin, "a loss to your- 

Have lawsuits. — Auth., following Tynd., " go to law," 
which represents a different phrase in verse 6. 

8 Ye yourselves.—" Ye " is emphatic in the Gr. 

11 Ye were washed.— Tlie Gr. is the aorist of the middle voice, 
" Ye caused yourselves to be washed clean of your sin by bap- 
tism." The other verbs which follow in this sentence are also in 
the aorist. 

12 Not all things are. — This, the order of the Gr., is more 
perspicuous than Auth. " all things are not," in which the nega- 
tive may grammatically attach to eitlier of the words between 
which it stands. 

15 Take away — i.e., from Christ, whose members they have be- 
come. Auth. " take " does not fully express this meaning. 

16 The twain. — Auth., "two," omitting the article. Compare 
Matt. xix. 5, " They twain shall be one flesh," and Gen. ii. 24'. 

20 " And in your spirit." — (Autli.) Omitted in all the earliest 
MSS., and in most of the anciout versions. The object of the 
Apostle liere is to insist on the necessity of oiu* keeping holy the 
body, as it is God's temple. 



2 Because of.— So Wycl. and Rlicm. Aiitli., "to avoid." Tlio 
article in the Gr. points to the prevalence of tlie sin at Corintli ; 
the i)lural number to the various forms of it {Bencjel and 

3 Her due.— " Benevolence " (Auth.) is omitted by change in 
Gr. text. 

5 "Fasting" (Auth., with Tynd.) is omitted in the chief textual 
authorities, and in Vulg., Wycl., and Rliem. The interpolation 
appears to have been made at a comparatively late j)eriod, for the 
purpose of encouraging asceticism. 

6 By way of permission. — Gr., Kara avyyvwix-nv. He lays this 
down not as a command, but as a thing permitted and disci'e- 
tionary, as to which each person should judge for himself. 
Auth., "by permission," woidd imply that he himself delivered 
this coimsel by the permission, and not by the command, of God. 
Wycl., correctly, " as giving leave,", following Vulg., pro;pter 

10 I give charge. — The word is not the same as that rendered 
" command " in the previous verses. 

Leave. — Auth., " put away," which is used for another word, 
&iro\veLv, in Matt. i. 19, &c. ; " leave," atpuvai, is applied to the 
case of the believing husband and wife (verses 12, 13). 

12 Is content.— So Tynd. and Genev. Wycl., Cranm., and 
Rhem., " consent," after Vulg., consentit. Auth., " be pleased." 

14 The brother— i.e., a Christian. By change in Gr. text for 

As an historical illustration of these injunctions, it is remarked by 
Dean Stanley, in commenting upon tliem, that they probably had 
a direct influence on the marriage of Clotilda with Clovis, and 
of Bertha with Ethelbert ; and consequently on the conversion of 
the two great kingdoms of France and England to the Christian 
faith (Stanley on 1 Cor.). 

15 In peace — i.e., to be in a state of i^eace and concord one witli 
another ; and conjugal lights therefore are not to be insisted on, 
if the unbelieving husband or wife desires to separate. Auth. 
(alone) here has " to peace." So Gal. i. 6, " called you in the grace 
of Gln-ist," is in Auth., " unto grace." 


16 How knowest thou . . . ? — This plirase in classical Gr. 
would imply that the thing spoken of, the conversion of one 
party by the other, is nnlikely. But the contrary inference has 
been drawn from this jmssage by Chrysostom and other exposi- 
tors both in ancient and modern times. Auth., "what knowest 
thou ? " (Gr., Ti oJSas €{), following Beza, ecquid. 

21 But if . . . use it rather.— This rendering admits of 
the interjjretation " if thou canst obtain thy liberty, use the op- 
portunity of becoming free " (supplying t^ iKevefpla after xp'j<''«')- 
The Marginal alternative rendering, " Nay even if," supports the 
other view of the passage : " Even if thou canst obtain tliy 
liberty, prefer to make the best of thy condition as a slave. ' 
The former is the interiiretatiou of Tynd., Cranm., Autli., Vulg. 
(apparently), Chrysostom (who argues against the latter). Alford, 
&c. The latter is followed by Erasmus, Beza, Wordsworth, and 
others. If classical usage is to decide the question, the Gr. is in 
favour of the latter interpretation and the Marginal rendering. 
But the usage of the New Testament is not so conclusive. See 
Phil. ii. 17 ; 1 Peter iii. 14. Compare verse 28. 

22 Freedmau. — So Rhem., " the franchised of the Lord," fol- 
lowing Viilg., libertus. All other English versions, " freeman." 
A " freedman " was the Roman term for one who, having been a 
slave, had been made free, " manumitted." By this phrase, '* the 
Lord's freedmau," it is not meant that he had been enfranchised 
by Christ, but that he was a freedman belonging to Christ. The 
Gr. air(\(vd(pos is not again usetl in the New Testament. 

26 To be as he is.— This meaning of the Gr. suits the context 
in the next verse better than '" so to be " (Auth.) — i.e., " un- 

29 The time is shortened.— In other words, " our salvation is 
nearer than it was." All English versions, " is short," following 
Vulg. The time is contracted, dTa^vn in (a metaphor from the 
drawing in or furling of a sail), and God's purpose in shortening 
it is, that for the time remaining those that have wives may 
be, &c. 

31 As not abusing it. — In the sense of " not using it to excess." 
Margin, "Or, not using it to the full," which would limit the 
sense to a use going to the full extent that is legitimate, and not 
beyond. Compare chap. ix. 18, where the Gr. is used with the 
same meaning. 

32 Free from cares. — Auth., •* without carefulness," following 
Rhem. But " carefulness " is a good quality if not carried to 


excess, and " careful " has a good sense in verse 34. The Gr. 
here signifies freedom from causes for care — i.e., according to 
English idiom, from cares. 

33 The Margin represents another reading of the Gr. text. 

36 Unseemly. — Auth., " uncomely." Oomp. chap. xiii. 5. 


1 Sacrificed.— Auth., " offered; " at verse 4, " offered in sacrifice." 

2 Not yet.— For Auth., "nothing yet," by change in Gr. text. 

4 No idol is anything — i.e., represents anything that has exist- 
ence. All English versions, following Vulg., " an idol is nothing." 
Either rendering is admissible ; that which has been adopted is 
logically the more correct. 

6 Unto him. — Auth., " in him." Compare Rom. xi. 36. 

7 Being used until now to the idol.— By change in Gr. 
text for Auth., "with conscience of tlie idol unto this hour." The 
meaning is, " they still, from long habit, even now that they are 
Christians, regard it as having been sacrificed to a being of some 
sort ; and so in eating they offend against their conscience, which 
is weak in entertaining such a scruple, and is defiled by eating 
what is supposed to be a sacrifice to a demon." 

12 When it is weak.— Auth., "their weak conscience." The 
change is required by the position and meaning of the participle 
in the Gr. 



3 This verse refers to vrliat lias gone before, not to what follows, ac- 
cording to the punctuation in the Anth. 

5 A believer. — Literally, "a sister," as "a brother" is tised in 
chap. vii. 1-i for " a believer ; " here, to prevent misapprehension, 
that word is brought into the text. 

7 What soldier ever serveth. ? — By turning the Gr. in this 
way an idiomatic rendering is given to the Gr. iroTf. Auth.. 
" who goeth a warfare at any time ? " 

9 The ox when he treadeth. — The Gr. specifies the work 
which the ox is doing, not the particular ox. Compare chap, 
•viii. 12, and Note there. 

Is it for the oxen that God careth ? — i.e., in giving 
this command is it for the oxen that He shews his care ? All 
English versions, " doth God care for oxen ? " To this question 
the proper answer would be, " Yes, He does care for all His 
creatures;" but by following the Gr. order, and expressing the 
article, the true meaning is vividly set forth. The same illustra- 
tion is used by the Apostle in 1 Tim. \. 18. 

10 Altogether. — For the alternative sense of iravTus, given in the 
Margin, see Acts xxviii. 4 ; Luke iv. 23. 

And he that thresheth . . . — By change in Gr. text. 

12 Bear.— The Gr. is not "sxiffer" (Auth.), but "put up with." 

13 Sacred. — Auth., "holy." The word is Upi, not ayia. 

Eat. — As in chap. viii. 7. Auth., with Cranm., " live," which 
in verse 14- is properly used for C^v. 

Have their portion with. — The word thus rendered does 
not occur again in the New Testament. Its proper meaning is 
" to have a definite prescribed share." Auth., with Tynd. and 
Cranm., '• are partakers," which does not imply apportionment, 
and is the rendering of another word. The portion reserved by 
the law of Moses for the priests and Levites is laid down in 
Numbers xviii. See also Levit. vi., \\\. 

15 I write.— Compare Tim. xvi. 22, and Note there. 

17 I have a stewardship intrusted to me.— The Apostle 
probably has in mind what he said in chap. iv. 1 as to the 


" stewards " of tlie mysteries of God, and as to its being re. 
quired " here," in this world, that "stewards should be found 
faithful." So he says that, whether willingly or unwillingly, he 
must preach the Gospel, for he has a stewardship intrusted to 
him. This strong compulsory motive is not brought out in Auth., 
" a dispensation of the Gospel is committed unto me." 

18 Not to use to the fall.— See Note on chap. vii. 31. " My 
reward is this, to preach the Gospel without charge to tliose who 
receive it, without earthly reward or wages to myself ; thus setting 
an example of disinterested zeal, not straining my real rights, 
and looking for my reward to God." Compare 2 Thess. iii. 9. 

23 Joint partaker.— Auth. adds " with you," which is not in the 
Gr., nor is the Apostle contemplating those only whom he now 

24 Attain.— Auth., " obtain." The Gr. is " to catch," " to reach 
unto," as in Rom. ix. 30. 

25 Striveth in the games.— Literally, "in a contest." Yulg., 
qid in agone contendit. The contests from which tlie illustra- 
tion is drawn are the foot-races, boxing, and other athletic exer- 
cises of the Isthmian games held near Corinth, and familiar to 
his readers. Auth., " striveth for the mastery," does not suggest 
this comparison, and gives no definite meaning in its stead. 

27 Buflfet my body.— Auth., "keep under;" Vulg., castigo ; 
Wycl. and Rhem., "chastise;" Tynd. and Cranm., "tame;" 
Genev., "beat." The Gr. is properly "to inflict bruises on the 
body," such as a " black eye " with the fists. The word occurs 
in Luke viii. 5, and is there rendered " wear me out." 


5 With most of them. — The Gr. is the comparative, " the more 
part," " the greater number." Auth., " with many of them." 

9 The Lord. — For Auth., " Christ," by change in Gr. text. Tliis 
emendation is supported by the chief MSS. {e.g., the Sinaitic and 
the Vatican) ; it appears best to suit the context, and has been 
adopted by the chief critical editors of the Gr, text. 


13 Such as man can bear.— Auth., "such as is common to 
man." Tynd., " snch as pertaineth to the nature of man." The 
Gr. is avepiinn'os, literally "hximan," here in the sense of "pro- 
portioned to human powers of endurance." So Chrysostom, 


17 The marginal rendering is added, not as being probable, but 
because it is grammatically admissible, and it commends itseK to 
some expositors as being more in logical sequence" with the 

18 Have not they . . . communion with the altar ?— 

Auth., " are not they partakers of the altar ? " The Gr. is akin 
to that rendered " communion " in verse 16; and here the Gr. 
requires " with," not " of," to express participation with the 
altar. " So," he says, "it is with Israel, the earthly type of the 
Christian Church ; they eat of the sacrifices, and by so doing 
join in the worship. In like manner, if you eat of the heathen 
sacrifice you associate yourselves with the heathen worship." 

20 Communion.— Auth., with Tynd., "fellowship," following 

Vulg.,^eri socios doBmoniorum. 

24 His neighbour's good. — Tynd., Genev., and Auth., "another's 
wealth." Cranm., "that which belongeth unto another," alto- 
gether mistaking the sense, which is freed from obscurity by 
the substitution of good for the archaic wealth. As to " neigh- 
bour's " for " another's " (Auth.), compai'e chap. vi. I, and Note 
on Rom. xiii. 8. 

27 One of them. — Auth., " any," which now, like " many," is used 
as a substantive plural, but is a singular in the Bible and Shake- 
speare, being originally ane, "one," "an." Wycl. here has 
" ony." Compare James i. 5. 

28 "For the earth ..." (Aiith.), an interpolated repetition of verse 
26, not found in the chief MSS. 

30 By grace. — Margin, " Or, with thankfulness." The Gr. x«p'^ 
as indeed the English "grace," may be used in either sense; it 
enters into the word " eucharist," which is expressive of thank- 
fulness, and the cognate verb to which, " to give thanks," comes 
immediately at the end of the verse, giving probability to the 
Mai'ginal rendering in this place. 

33 The many. — As at Rom. v. 15. 



2 Hold fast.— Autll., " keep." Gr. /farexere, not Tijpure. 

The traditions. — The word is cognate to the verb here ren- 
dered " I delivered," and occurs again in 2 Tliess. ii. 15, where 
Auth. has " traditions," but here " ordinances," following Tynd. — 
a sense not properly belonging to the word, and probably adopted 
by our translators in their dislike of many practices entailed on 
the Church in their time, not by primitive but by mediaeval usage. 
The traditions handed doAvn by St. Paul were matters of regi- 
men, iJolity, and doctrine. Compare Acts xvi. 4. 

5 Unveiled.— Auth., " uncovered." The Gr. is not the same as 
at verse 4, which is literally, " having on the head." 

It is one and the same thing.— This idiomatic phrase 
exactly represents the Greek. Auth., following Cranm., " that is 
all one as if." Tynd. and Genev., "were all one and the very 
same thing." 

10 A sign of authority. — The words in italics are added to throw 
some light on this olDScure passage, though without removing 
the doubt whether by " authority " is meant the authority which 
the husband has over her, or that which she derives from him. 
Auth., with Tynd. and Rhem., " power." 

13 Seemly.— The Gr. has reference to "propriety," not to 
" comeliness " in the modern acceptation of the word. 

14 A dishonour. — Compare chap. iv. 10, and Note. 

17 In giving you this charge.— The same word as in chap. 
\'ii. 10 ; there Auth. has " I command," but here " I declare." 
The reference is to the injunctions which he has already given, not 
to what he is about to say. " Though I have been praising you 
(see verse 2), for this I praise you not, namely," &c. 

19 Heresies.— Margin, "Or, /acfioTCs." The Gr. aipecrets, hwresies, 
appears in the apostolic age to have denoted factions or parties 
within the Church, not, as in later times, erroneous doctrines, 
tending to cause separation from the Church. 

20 It is not possible.— Gr., ovk icm. So in the Margin of 
Auth., "ye cannot eat " (from Tynd.). 

24 The words " take eat " and " broken " (Auth.) are not found in 
the earliest MSS., and were probably interpolated to bring this 
narrative into closer harmony with that of St. Matthew. They 


are in the Vulgate, with the variation " which is delivered," 
traditur, for " which is broken." 

27 The bread. — Auth., " this," which is not found ui any of the 

best MSS. 

Froclaim. — Auth., following Tynd., "shew," The Gr. is 
KaTayjfWco, as in chap. ix. 14. 

28 Prove himself. — So Wycl. and Rhem., aft«r Vulg. probet.. 
Auth., with Tynd., " examine," which is used for another Gr. 
word in chap. ix. 3. To " i^rove himseK " is not merely to 
question himself as to his conduct and motives, but to subject 
them to some test that may assure him. 

29 " Unworthily." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text ; an 
interpolation probably thought necessary to complete the sense. 
No such insertion, however, is i-equired when the proper force is 
given to the Gr. particle m^i which follows, " if he discern not." 

If he discern not the body. — Auth., with Rhem., " not 
discerning the Loi'd's body." Vulg., non dijudicans. Tynd., 
" because he maketh no difference of the Lord's body." The woi'ds 
" of the Lord " are omitted in the Gr. text, ia accordance with 
the Siuaitic, Vatican, Alexandrine, and other MSS. ; and their 
removal raises the question whether " the body " which is not 
recognised and duly estimated is the Body of Christ in the 
Sacrament, or that of the Church as a holy congregation, not to 
be treated as a common assembly meeting for a secular purpose. 
The former alternative is the more probable, as the body and the 
blood of the Lord have been spoken of just before (verse 27), as 
well as in verse 24 and chap. x. 16, while no mention has been 
made of the Church as being " the body ; " and in chap, xii., 
where that expression is applied to the Church, it is with the 
addition of " of Chinst." To infer such a meaning here from the 
Avords in chap. x. 16, "we who are many are one bi-ead, one 
body," would be to build too much on a phrase used there for the 
fii'st time, in a figiu-ative manner, without explanation. 

30 Not a few. — The Gr. is not the same as that rendered " many " 
just above. 

34 That your coming together be not unto judgement. 

— The difference in rendering the -^'ery similar Gr. of this and 
the preceding verse is intended to mark more strongly the 
difference of meaning. In verse 33 they come together for the 
purpose of eating (eis rb <i)ayuv) ; here a caution is given lest 
they come together " unto judgement " {els npTna) ; not with that 
as the purpose, but as the consequence, of their coming together. 



2 Led away . . . led. — The formei* of tlio two A'ci-bs in tlip 
Gr. diifers from tlie latter in being componnded of airo (away). 
Autli., " carried away . . . led." " To lead," not "to carry, " is 
the usual sense of &yeiy. Compare Matt. iv. 1 ; Luke iv. 1 . 

Howsoever ye might be led. — Auth., "even as yo wer«r 
led," which does not give the indefiniteness of the Gr. : " What- 
ever way ye were led, hither or thitlier, ye were led astray to the 
worship of idols." 

3 Anathema. — Compare Rom. ix. 8, and Note there. We may 
suppose that an unbelieving Jew, when he met a Christian, 
would cry out insultingly, " Anathema Jesus," and the Christian 
would reply, " Lord Jesus." 

6 Ministrations. — Auth., following Tynd., "administrations," 
which, except as it is used in the Frayer Book in reference to 
the Holy Communion, has lost the sense which it had in the time 
of Tynd. and Cranm., and which the shortened form of the word 
still retains. 

6 Workings. — So Wycl. ; Tynd. and Auth., following Yulg., 
" operations." The Gr. properly denotes the effect of an inward 
working, here of the Spii-it's working in the soul. The working 
of the Spirit within the man is accompanied with the power of 
manifesting to others, for their good and his own, the spiritual 
gifts which he has received through that inward working. (See 
next verse.) 

9 Healings (plural), i.e., of different diseases, requiring different 
modes of cure. So Auth. in verse 28. 

15 It is not . . . — This and the similar clause in the next 
verse are not put interrogatively in the Gr. text. 

28 Secondly. — Auth., following Tynd., has the now obsolete form, 
" secondarily." The word does not, in either form, apj)ear else- 
where in the Bible. 

31 Desire earnestly. — Auth., " covet earnestly." The Gr. is 
not expressive of covetous, but of earnest desire {Cv^oiiv, not 
eiridvfj.e'iv), and is used in the same sense in chap. xiv. 1, " Desire 
earnestly spiritual gifts " (Auth.), and chap. xiv. 39. 

The greater. — By change in Gr. text for "the best" (Aulli.). 



The restoratiou of "love" for "charity" as the renclering of 
ayaiTT) in this chapter is one of the most conspicuous features 
of the Revised Version, and calls for some words of historical 
retrospect and explanation. The Gr. agape is peculiarly a 
Christian word, not found in any classical author, and only a few 
times in the LXX. version of the Old Testament, though tlie 
kindred verb ayairu, " to love," and tlie verbal adjective ayaTrrjTos, 
" beloved," are of frequent use both in classical Gr. and in the 
LXX. In the New Testament the noun agape occui's once in 
each of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke, and in each 
place is translated " love " in Auth. : the verb is frequent in aU 
the first three Gospels. In St. John's Gospel the noun occurs 
seven times, in his Epistles eighteen times ; and in all places 
is rendered " love " in Auth., except in 3 John vi., where it is 
" charity." In the Pauline Epistles (including that to the 
Hebrews) it is found in seventy-five passages, in fifty-five of 
which it is " love " in Auth., in seventeen (including seven verses 
of this chapter) it is " charity," and in two it is rendered by para- 
phrase. In St. Peter's Epistles it occurs in three places, and in 
each is " charity." 

In the Latin Vulgate the word is uniformly rendered caritas, the 
only other possible equivalent (amor) having reference exclu- 
sively to human and earthly affection. Tyndale, the first English 
translator from the Gr., uniformly rendered the noun, as well as 
the verb, by " love ; " and this rendering was one of the chief 
grounds for Sir Thomas More's virulent attack upon Tyndale's 
version, in which he denounced it as only fit to be burnt, for 
" it had corrupted the New Testament to a clean contrary 
thing." Notwithstanding this invective, Tyndale's successors — 
Coverdale, Cranmer, the Genevan, aud the Bishop's Bible in 
the first edition of 1569 — everywhere retained the rendering 
of " love " for agape, with the exception of two passages, 
Jude 12 aud Rev. ii. 19, where " charity" appears in Genev. It 
should also be added that Tyndale and his successors have 
" walkest chai-itably " for kut' a.yaTT-r)v in Rom. xiv. 15. The 
second edition of the Bishop's Bible (1572), and, after its 
example, the Authorised Version, replaced "love " by " charity " 
about twenty times in the Epistles, thus following timidly and 
without any guiding principle in the steps of Wycliife's translation 
of the Vulgate. 

The Latin caritas, though applied by the cLicsicrJ Latin writers 


to a higher order of affections than amor, had not the high 
spiritual meaning which was put upon it as a rendering of agape 
in the New Testament ; nor has it attained to that meaning in 
the passages of the English version into which it was introduced 
in 1611. Neither has it maintained in common usage the simple 
meaning whicli it had in heathen writers, but has become a 
synonym for the virtue of beneficence, with which agape is 
shown in this cliapter (verse 3) to be by no means identical ; and 
in its widest scope it is limited to the affection of man for his 
brother man. We never speak of having " charity " towards 
God ; nor do we say, as does the Vulgate, that " God is charity." 
The woi-d " love," according to its ordinary use in Auth., repre- 
sents the affection which the Fatlier has for the Son, which God 
has for man, which reciprocally man ought to have for God and 
for his brother man. 

It is desirable to observe consistency in the translation of the 
word ; but still more important to shew that St. Paul and 
St. Jolm are at one on tliis subject, and that both are enforcing 
the " great commandment of the law " as declared by our 
Lord ; and thus to bind together again the whole practical teach- 
ing of the New Testament by the restoration of the word 
which stood in the English Version until 1611. Whatever 
may be the lower earthly ideas connected with that word, 
they have not impaired the sacred associations which make it 
the holiest word in Scripture next to the Divine Name itself ; 
and it is more likely that the earthly love is sanctified by 
association with the Divine, than that the Divine perfection 
is dishonoured by bearing the same name with that earthly 
affection, which men believe, perhaps too fondly, but not quite 
foolishly, to have in it a heavenly element. 

It is to be observed that there being in Latin no cognate verb 
to caritas, " charity," the feeble woi'd diligere, meaning pro- 
perly "to choose," is used in the Vulg. to render the Gr. 
agdpdn. It need not be said that no such difficulty is occa- 
sioned in English, where the verb and the noun are identical 
in form. (See an excellent discussion on this subject in Canon 
Kennedy's " Lectures on the Revised Version," 1882, p. 63.) 

As the word agape does not occur in any classical Greek au- 
thor, it may possibly have been suggested to the writers of the 
LXX. version by the Hebrew agab, in its feminine form shabah 
signifying human love, passionate desire. In that sense it is 
used in 2 Sam. xiii. 15, Jerem. ii. 2, and throughout the Canticles, 
and, in a more general sense, in Eccles. ix. 1, 6. (Dean Stanley, 
Commentary on 1 Cor., p. 233.) 


1 Clanging. — All Eugl. versions, " tinkling," after Yulg. tinniens. 
The Gi*. denotes a louder sound than that of tinkling. Compare 
Ps. cl. 5. The metaphor was suitable to Corinth, famous for 
its brass (Wordsivorth). The cymbals of the Hebrews were 
of two kinds, the one giving a softer sound than the other; 
the louder kind are distinguished in the Psalm (LXX. version) 
by the same word which is used here. 

5 Provoked. — Auth., " easily provoked ; " previous versions, " pro- 
A'oked to anger ; " Gr., napo^vvfrai. 

Taketh not account of evil. — Gr., Xoyl^trai, literally, 
" reekoneth it not," doth not keep account of it and brood 
over it. All Engl, versions, " thiuketh no (or ' not ') evil," 
following Yulg., non cogitat malum. 

6 Rejoiceth. with the truth.— So Rhem. ; Wycl. also (some- 
what imcoutlily) "joyeth together to truth," both with Yulg., 
congaudet veritate. "The truth" is personified as companion 
of "love." Not obser^-ing this, Tynd. and Auth. have "in 
the truth." The words, when translated out of the language 
of poetry into that of every-day life, denote that love rejoices 
in what is said and done for the truth's sake. 

7 Beareth all things. — Margin, " Or, covereth," which is the 
literal meaning of the Gr. ; but compare chap. ix. 12. 

11 I felt as a child.— The Gr. (\>pov^a> expresses the thoughts 
which spring from the affections, as Col. iii. 2, " Set your 
minds on things above," and 1 Pet. iii. 8, " be like-minded." 
All Engl, versions, " I imderstood," from Yulg., sapiebam. 

Now that I am become a man, I have put away.— 

Auth., " When I became a man, I put away." The verbs are in 
the perfect tense in Gr. 

12 In a mirror.— So Wycl., " by a mirror," following Yulg., 
2}er speculum — by reflection as from a surface of polished metal. 
TjTid. and Auth., "through a glass," as if through a trans- 
parent medium. The same Gr., ea-oirrpoy, not SloirTpov, is used 
in James i. 23. 

Darkly.— Gr., literally, " in a riddle," in such a way that we 
are set guessing and imagining and craving for knowledge. 



2 In a tongue. — Aiitli. inserts "unknown," following Genev., 
which has " strange," apijarently on the assumption that the 
o'ift here spoken of was the power of speaking in foreign 
languages, a point which is not beyond doubt, as the word 
for "a language" in the New Testament, StaAfKTos, dialectus, 
is never used in speaking of the gift of " tongues." 

7 Giving a voice. — So Wycl., with Yulg., vocem dantia ; and 
so Auth. in verse 10, but here "sound," using the same word 
again in this verse, where the Gr. jn-operly means " a musical 
sound," as in Rom. x. 18. The sense is, " There are inanimate 
things, such as the pipe and harp, which can be made to utter a 
voice ; but the voice is without significance unless it has a dis- 
tinct modulation." 

8 For war. — So Cranm. only, though Yulg. has ad bellum dent. 
All other versions, " to the battle." 

11 Unto nie.— Literally, " in me," in my estimation. 

12 Abound. — Autli., following Cranm. and Genev., " excel," i.e., 
surpass others, which is not the meaning of the Gr. Wycl., " be 

16 The amen. — The article is j)refixed, as amen was the accus- 
tomed answer of the congregation to the prayer or thanksgiving 
in the Synagogue, from whence it was transferred to the Christian 

20 Babes. — Auth. rejjeats " children," not noticing the variation in 
the Gr. 

21 By men of strange tongues.— Literally, of tongues differ- 
ing from your own, i.e., by the Assyrians whom God sent to 
scourge the Jewish nation, Isa. xxviii. 9 (Aquila's version). As 
tlie armies of the aliens Avere sent against the Jews who set at 
nought the warnings given them in their own language by God's 
prophets, so the tongues heard in the Christian community were 
for a sign to those who resisted the evidence of preaching and 
other signs. 



2 If ye hold it fast. — After these words we tave mentally to 
supply "as ye do," as a link connecting tbem with the clause 
which follows. The sentence of the Gr. is somewhat intricate. The 
construction which has been followed, and is approved by many 
commentators, is apparently that of the Vulg., and yields a clear 
meaning, with the connecting link supplied as above. 

4 Hath been raised. — The verb is in the passive voice many 
times in this chapter, and in Autli. is in some places rendered 
actively as here, " is risen," and in others as a passive (verse 17). 
Here it is in the perfect tense, the resurrection of Christ 
being viewed as a continuing fact, whereas his death was an 
event which did not continue as regards Himself, though it does 
in its consequences to us. 

6 He appeared. — In Acts ii. 3 (Auth.) and other places the Gr. 
is so rendered. Here Auth. has " was seen." 

10 Was not found vain. — Meaning, " did not in the event 
become." This rendering of eyevrjdn, " was found," is used with 
advantage in 2 Cor. vii. 14 (Auth.). 

20 " Become." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

27 Por, He . . . — Punctuated thus as a quotation from the 
Old Testament (Ps. viii. 6). 

Put in subjection. — Auth., "jnit." The Gr. denotes tho 
placing under rule, and is not the same as in verse 25. 

31 That glorying in you— i.e., the cause for glorying which I 
have in you as my disciples. The Gr. is literally, " your glory, 

33 Evil company. — Literally, " evil associations or companion- 
ships." Auth., following Rhem., " communications." Vulg., 
colloquia, and so Wycl. and TjTid. This proverb in the Gr. is a 
metrical line of the sententious poet Menander. The saying in 
the preceding verse is very likely to be from the same or a similar 
som-ce, though in it the metrical form has not been so exactly 

34 Awake up righteously.^ Auth., with Genev., " awake to 
righteousness." Vulg., vigilate jxisti ; but Walton's Polyglott, 
in the various readings of the Vulg. appended to the work at the 
end of vol. vi., records four MSS. as having juste. Modern 


editions, as that of Paris 4to, 1785, have justi, and so Wycl. and 
Rhem., " awake ye jnst men." Beza, correcilj, evigilate juste. 
The verb, fKvi\<peiv, " to awake out of," does not occur again in 
the New Testament, but in the LXX. version is joined witli 
words expressive of di'unkeuness and revelling. " Awake up 
righteously," i.e., in a righteous, godly frame of mind. 

To move you to shame.— Compare chap. vi. 5, 

36 Thou foolish one.— Auth., " thou fool." The Gr. is not the 
contemptuous term that nopi is in Matt. v. 22, or " thou fool " in 

38 A body. — The article is omitted by change in Gr. text. 

A body of its own. — The archaism "his" in Auth. may in 
this place be a stimibling-block to the unwary reader. 

44 If. — An addition due to change in Gr. text. 

45 Became a living soul. — Auth., " was made." Gr., eyevfTo. 
This sentence is quoted verbatim from Gen. ii. 7 (LXX. version). 
It was held by the Jewish Rabbis that a distinction should be 
made as to the meaning of the two statements in that verse of 
Genesis, and that whereas God at the first breathed into Adam 
the " breath of life," the spiritual life, he was degraded by his 
sin, and was not made, but " became," a " living soul," possessing 
only animal life. The existence of such a tradition is a reason 
for adhering to the literal translation of eyivero, " became." 
(Dean Stanley, Note on this verse, quoting Schottgen on 1 Cor. 
ii. 13.) 

Iiife-g^ving. — Auth., " quickening." The Gr. is the same as 
in verse 36, where the old English word " quickened " has 
been retained, the subject being natural life, not the true 
spiritual life, the gift of God through the spirit, of which it 
is said in chap. iii. 6, "the spirit giveth life" (Auth.); the 
Gr. being the same in that passage as in this. 

47 " The Lord " (Auth.) is omitted in abnost all the best MSS., 
and in the pi-ineipal ancient versions, including the Vulg. 
TertuUian, writing in the third century, attributes the inser- 
tion of the words to the heretic Marcion, who used them to 
prove that the Lord brought with Him from heaven His human 
body. (Contra Marcion, ii. 10.) 

51 I tell.— Auth., "I shew." Gr., Ae^. 

65 Death. — For " gi-avc," Auth. So it is (" grave," Hade^, being 


omitted altogether) iu all the great MSS., and in almost all 
ancient versions and patristic quotations of the passage. 

56 The power. — So Rhem. ; Auth., "the strength," which would 
represent iVxvy, rather than Sivafits. Vvilg., virtus peccati lex, 
a singular antithesis. 


2 As he may prosper. — Literally, " As he may be prospered." 
Auth., " as God may prosper him." Tlie word " prosper," now 
used intransitively, corresponds in sense to the passive form 
of the Greek verb. 

Collections. — Auth., " gatherings." The Gr. is the same as 
in verse 1. 

3 Bounty. — Auth., with Tynd., "liberality." Wycl. and Rhem., 
folloAviug Yulg., '' grace." "Bounty" represents x"/"^ (charis) 
in its double sense, lioth as the absolute quality of beneficence, 
and as the material sign or product of it. 

5 When I shall have passed through— i.e., " when I .shall 
have done what " (as appears from what follows) " I am now about 
to do." Auth., " when I shall pass through," overlooking the 
distinctive time indicated by the Greek, and expressed by Tyiul. 
and Genev., " after I have gone over," and by Yulg., cum 
Macedoniam pert)xinsiero. 

I do pass (the present tense) indicates the purpose, not that 
he was then actually passing. 

6 With you . . . that ye. — The Gr. pronoun is in both places 
emphatic, indicating the affectionate desire which he had to 
visit them, and after passing the winter months with tliem, 
while navigation was discontinued, to be set forward on his 
travels by their good wishes and prayers. This intention lie 
fulfilled. (See Acts xx.) 

12 I besought him much.— For this sense and construction of 
the Gr. compare Rom. xii. 1. 

His will. — The absence of the pronoim in tlie Gr. gives vise 
to the alternative rendering noticed iu the Margin, " God's will," 


whicli rests on the usage of the New Testament, applying the 
word 64\-r\na, " will," specially to the will of God. It is so 
applied in the great majority of cases ; but there are about 
SIX exceptions out of the sixty instances in which the word 
occurs. (Compare chap. vii. 37 ; Luke xxiii. 25.) 

14 Let all that ye do. — Auth., following Wycl. and Rhera., 
"let all your things." Tynd., "all your business." Gr.. 
■n-dvTa vfj-civ. 

15 Have set themselves. — Auth. (alone), " have addicted them- 
selves," a word not elsewhere used in the Bible, and apparently 
suggested by Beza's Latin, sese addixisse. 

22 Anathema.— See chap. xii. 3 ; Rom. ix. 3. 

Maranatha. — This phrase is not connected vnth. ihe preceding 
imprecation, but follows upon it as a warning. The meaning 
of it in the Hebrew spoken at that time in Palestine (tlio 
Aramaic) is, " the Lord (Maran) cometh {atha)," or " the Lord 
is come." The same abrupt exclamation or warning is given 
by St. Paul in Gr. in Phih iv. 5, " The Lord is at hand." 
Compare also Jude 14, 15. Augustine applies it against the 
Arians as a warning that the Lord will come to judgement, 
and so do some modern expositors. Chrysostom and Jerome 
take it as spoken of the past; the former applies it to the 
perverseness of the Jews, who denied that Christ was come, 
and called Jesus anathema : and so Dr. Lightfoot. (See 
Bingham, Ant. \\\. 2, § 16.) 





1 The whole of Achaia — i.e., the whole Roman province so 
called, including Attica and other districts lying outside the 
region to which the name was limited by the ancient Greeks. 
Auth., " in all Achaia." Gr., '6\ti r-p 'Axaia. 

3 The God and Father.— See Note on Rom. xv. 6. 

4 Affliction (twice). — Auth., "tribulation" — "trouble." Uni- 
formity of translation has been observed in this and the following 
verses with regard to the words rendered " affiction " and " com- 

6 Which worketh. — The transposition of this clause is in accord- 
ance with its place in the chief MSS. 

8 Were weighed down exceedingly, beyond our power. 

— The rendering of Auth., " were pressed out of measure, beyond 
strength," is neither literal nor harmonious. 

9 The answer. — Auth., " the sentence," following Beza, decrehim 
mortis. AH other Eugl. versions, " answer." The Gr. does not 
occur again in the New Testament. Its proper meaning is 
" answer," whether the opinion of the physician when he is con- 
sulted, or the decision of the judge wlien he has tried a cause. 

12 Holiness. — By change of Gr. text for " simplicity " (Auth.). 
The two Gr. words, when written in " uncial " (capital) letters, 
are nearly alike. 

We behaved ourselves. — So the same word is rendered in 
Auth. at 1 Tim. iii. 15. Here, " had our conversation," following 
Tynd. and Vulg., conversati sumus. Wycl., " we lived." The 


cognate uoun a.vaffTpo<p-}) is usually veuclerecl " manner of life," 
but in Auth., " conversation," wliich is now of more limited 

12 Glorying.— See Note on 1 Cor. xv. 31. 

17 Did I shew fickleness ?— Auth., " did I use lightness ? " a 
literal but not idiomatic rendering of the Gr. 

20 How many soever be the promises.— So Wycl. Auth., 
" all the promises of God in him are yea." The meanhig is, 
" however many may be the promises of God, in Him (in Christ) 
they are affirmed and declared, and through Him they are ratified 
and made effectual." Wherefore also through him is by 
change in Gr. text for Auth., " and in him." 

23 I call God for a witness— I invoke Him as a witness against 
my soul if I speak falsely. — Auth., follo^^aug Tynd., " I caU 
God for a record," as if the word in Gr. were "testimony," not 
the '■ witness that testifies." Vulg., testcm Deum invoco. 

I forbare to come— i.e., " I gave up coming." Literally, " I 
came no more." Auth., following Cranm., "I came not as yet," 
after Beza, nonclum, gi'S'ing to oi/Kin a sense which it never has. 

24- Have lordship over.— Auth., " have dominion." The Gr. is 
the same in Luke xxii. 25, where Auth. has " exercise lordship." 
Compare also 1 Peter v. 3. 


1 With sorrow. — Auth., " in heaviness." The Gr. noim is akin 
to the verl) in the next verse, rendered " made sorry." 

5 Not to me — i.e., " not to me alone, but in part, that I press not 
too hea^-ily upon him, to you all." By the change in pmictuation 
of the Gr. text a clearer meaning is obtained than that of Auth., 
" he hath not grieved me, but in part ; that I may not overcharge 
you all." The rendering in the text is that of Clirysostom, Beza, 
Meyer and others. Auth. follows Vulg., Luther, &c. 

10 In the person. — The Gr., eV irpoa-wirqi, may be either " iu the 
person of Christ," representing Him, or " in his presence." 


14 Leadeth ns in triumph.— As the Roman general, when he 
was rewarded with the honour of a triumph, led in procession the 
captives taken in war who had surrendered to him in battle. St. 
Paul ranks himself with those whom his aU-conquering Lord 
leads along, " making a show of them openly," as it is said in 
Col. ii. 15. There is no example of epiafifievnv in the sense 
here given to it in Auth. and Genev., " caiiseth us to triiunph," 
following Tynd. and Cranm., "giveth us the victory." But we 
may accept the interpretation of Chrysostom, " who maketh us a 
spectacle to aU," and consider that in using this word the Apostle 
was not thinking of himself as a captive led along by his con- 
queror, but as one who was brought before the world, exhibited 
for the furtherance of the Gospel. (So Field, Otium Nor v. 


15 That are being saved . . . that are perishing. — The 

Gr. in each case is the present participle. Compare 1 Cor. i, 18; 
Acts ii. 47. 

16 Prom death.— By addition of «« in Gr. text for " of deatli " 
(Auth.) : an odour of corruption proceeding from the death of sin 
which has already taken place, and which will end in the eternal 
death ; an odonr of sweetness arising from the new birth unto 
righteousness, which issues in eternal life. 

17 Corrupting.— Margin, " Or, mahing merchandise of." The 
Gr., which is used only in this one place of the New Testament, 
means properly "to be a retail dealer," and thence "to deal 
fraudulently," and in an active sense, " to adulterate," as here. 
Vulg., adulter antes. The same thought is expressed by another 
word (chap. iv. 2), " handling the word of God deceitfvdly." 


3 Tables that are hearts of flesh.— For Auth., " fleshy tables 
of the heart." By change in Gr. text, KapSiais for KapSias, 
" hearts " is in apposition with " tables." 

5 To account anything as from ourselves — i.e., to account 
any good thing in us as originating in ourselves. Auth., " to 
think anything as of ourselves." The Gr., Xoyl^tddai, here has 
its proper sense to "account," or " reckon." 


6 Suificient as ministers. — Autb., " made us able miuisters." 
The verb iu the Gr., rendered "made us sufficient," is cognate to 
the adjective in the in'e\'ious verse, and in chaj). ii, 16, " who is 

sufficient for these things ? " 

A new covenant. — The article is not expressed nor implied 
in the Gr. Compare Jer. xxxi. 31, " Behold, the days come, saitli 
the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of 

7 Came with glory. — Auth., " was glorious." Literally, " was 
made to be." (See 1 Cor. xv. 10, where the same word, 4yiVT)Qr), 
is rendered " was found.") 

Ziook stedfastly.— Auth., " stedfastly behold." The word is 
frequently used by St. Luke, especially in the Acts (compare 
chaps, iv. 4, xi. 6), and is there rendered, if as here it is in the 
aorist, " to fasten the eyes on." This place and verse 13 are the 
only other passages of the New Testament in which it is found. 
" Behold " is the rendering of words expressing a contemplative 
look or gaze. 

8 How shall not rather. — The connection of "rather" is tliis, 
and not as iu Auth., " be rather glorious." 

14 Were hardened.— Auth., "were blinded." Compare Rom. 
xi. 7, and Note there. 

Unlifted. — Auth., following TjTid., " untaken away." The Gr. 
is, literally, " unveiled," as at verse 18, and is a verb cognate to 
the noun just above : a different verb is used in verse 16. 

16 It shall turn — i.e., their heart. There is no need to supply 
" a man," as suggested in the Margin. 

18 Reflecting.— Or, as Auth., " beholding." The Gr. word is not 
used iu the LXX., nor elsewhere in the New Testament. 
" Reflecting in our hearts as in a mirror " is the interpretation 
of Chrysostom, Bengel, and others ; and this seuse is suitable to 
the context ; but the A^erb being in the middle voice, its proper 
meaning is not to act as a mirror, to reflect, but to behold oneself 
or another object in a mirror. 

Transformed.— Auth., " changed." The Gr. is the same as iu 
Rom. xii. 2, Matt. xvii. 2. 

Even as from the Lord the Spirit.— Auth., " by the Spirit 
of the Lord." The Gr. is ano ("from"), not inro ("by"), and 
cannot be rendered "by the Spirit of the Loi-d" (as Auth.), 
considering the order in which the words stand, and the absence 
of the article. 

324 11. CORINTHIANS— lY. 


2 The hidden things of shame— i.e., " tlie shameful things 
which a luau hides iu his owu bosom." Tyud., " tlie clokes of 
dishonesty." Craum. aud Geuev., " the cloaks of shame." 
Aiith., " tlie hidden things of dishonesty," that word ha^dng its 
now obsolete sense of "shame," as "honest" was equivalent to 
" honourable." 

3 It is veiled in them that are perishing.— Auth., " it is 

hid to them that are lost." The Apostle harps on the thoughts 
suggested by the mention of the '" veil " in the last chax^ter. 
The Gospel is veiled " m them" (as at chap. ii. 16), not "/o 
them ; " being in their minds and understandings, it is yet veiled 
from their hearts and affections by their sin ; in them, that is, 
who " are pei-ishing." The present particij)le denotes a process 
going on, not completed. (See Note on chap. ii. 16.) 

4 Should not dawn. — Auth., " shine." The verb is not used 
again in the New Testament. The kindred noun occurs once 
only (Acts xx. 23), where it is rendered " break of day." It 
denotes the rapid transition from night to day with In-ief interval 
of t^vilight, which takes j)lace in soutlierii latitudes. 

Light.— The Gr., as shewn iu the Margin, properly means 
" illumination," the shedtling of light on that which was in 

6 That said, Light shall shine.— By change in Gr. text, Aa^'f et 
for \dij.\pai. Auth., " who commanded the light to shine out of 

It is God.— The construction of the Gr. is elliptical, and may 
be completed by the addition of it is — & dehs [eVrlj/] 6 elirdv . . . 
hs e\afj.ypev. So Tynd. Auth., " for God . . . hath shiued." 

In the face of Jesus Christ.— The literal meaning of 
Trpo(Tci>iTCf> ('• face ") is retained, there being an imphed comparison 
between the glory of God as shewn in the face of Christ, and 
iu the face of Moses (chap. iii. 7). 

7 Exceeding greatness. — Auth., " excellency," wliich in its 
modern acceptation denotes superior goodness rather than trans- 
cendent greatness, wliich is the prominent idea in the Gr. 
virepPo\7] (" hyperbole "). 

8 Pressed on every side, yet not straitened.— Hemmed 
in, yet not cooped up. The metaphor is lost iu Auth., " troubled 
on every side, yet not distressed." 

11. CORINTHIANS— V. 325 

9 Pursued, yet not forsaken — i.e., pursued by euemies, but 
not forsaken (literally, "not left behind") by friends. Autb., 
" pei'secuted, but not forsaken." The Apostle compares himself 
in these verses to a soldier on the field of battle, hard-pressed, 
wounded, j)ursued, yet still holding out, and not cut off from his 

14 With Jesus.— By change in Gr. text for " by Jesus." Auth., 
" with Jesus," i.e., to be with Him, and in the same condition. 
Compare 1 Thess. iv. 14, 17. 

15 That the grace — i.e., " that the grace of God, in proportion 
as it is multiplied through the many that have received it, may 
cause the thanksgiving on account of it to abound the more to 
His glory." The construction of the Gr. is obscure, though the 
meaning is clear enough. The verb thus has an active sense, as 
in chap. ix. 8. In Auth. it is taken as a neuter, and in its 
ordinary sense, "redound;" "That the abundant grace might 
through the thanksgiving of many redound to the glory of 

16 Is decaying. — The Gr., in the present tense, denotes the 
progress of decay. Auth., " perish," is suggestive merely of 
the event. 

17 More and more exceedingly.— The Gr. is literally, " ac- 
cording to excess unto excess ; " a Hebraism like " from grace 
to grace," expressing the vastness or intensity of a thing hj the 
idea of accumulation. Auth. has an adjectival rendering, " far 
more exceeding." 


The earthly house of our tabernacle. — Auth., "our 
earthly house of this tabernacle." Yixlg., terrestris domns 
nostra liKJus habitationis. The Gr., as nearly as it can be given 
in Engl., is " our earthly tabernacle-dwelling." The Mai'gin has 
" bodily frame " as an alternative for " tabernacle," because the 
Gv. (T/c^i/os (" tent," "tabernacle ") was a term for the human 


body used by Greek medical writers, as Hippocrates, also by 
philosophers of the Pythagorean school, as Democritus (Sto- 
bseus, Florileg. x.). 

4 What is mortal. — Auth., following Tynd., "mortality." Gr., 
rh dvoT6v, meaning not mortality as a principle, but the mortal 
element in our present nature. Vulg., qiiod mortale fuit. 
" This mortal must put on immortality." 

8 To be at home. — As Auth. for the same Gr. in verse 6. This 
very apposite phrase is due to Tynd. In the previous verse 
Wycl. lias " we go in pilgrimage from the Lord," following 
Yulg., Dum sumus in corpore, peregrinamur a Domino. 

9 We m,ake it our aim. — Auth., "we labour." Gr., literally, 
"we make it our ambition," as in Rom. xv. 20. 

10 Must all be made manifest. — So Rhem., foUoAving Yulg. 
Auth., after Tynd., " appear." It is not our appearance but our 
manifestation, our exposui'e of ourselves before the judgement, 
seat of Christ, which is here spoken of ; as the Apostle has said 
in his former Epistle to the Corinthians (chap. iv. 5), " the Lord 
mil both bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and make 
manifest the counsel of the hearts." In this second Epistle, 
(pavepSo}, " to manifest," is a characteristic word, being used, in 
different ways, nine times. 

11 Xnowiug therefore the fear of the Lord.— This phrase, 
" the fear of the Lord," is many times used by St. Paid in a good 
sense, when speaking of the reverential awe which is shewn 
practically by obejaug the wiU of God. (Compare chap. vii. 1 ; 
Rom. iii. 18, where it is in a quotation from the Old Testament ; 
Ephes. V. 21.) It is once used in the same sense by St. Luke 
(Acts ix. 31), and not elsewhere in the New Testament ; but it 
occurs times wthout number in the Old Testament. In a few 
places, e.g., in Isaiah, it signifies the active fear, the "terror" 
inspired by dread of God's judgements. Here Auth. has "terror," 
with Genev., following Beza, i.e., the dread of God's final judge- 
ment, of which there is mention in the previous verse. This 
meaning suits well with the context, and is adopted by Chrysos- 
tom in his exposition of this passage ; but by retaining it (with 
Auth.) we should depart from the literal rendering of the Gr., and 
should exclude the milder and more ordinary sense of the phrase, 
which it has in all other places of the New Testament. 

13 Of sober mind. — Auth., " sober," in contrast with the derange- 
ment which was imputed to him. If he went beyond bounds ia 
his enthusiasm, it was from zeal for God ; if he was too modeirate 


and sober-minded, it was that he restrained himself in considera- 
tion for thera, for their sake. 

15 Who for their sokes. — This applies to both the death and 
the resurrection of Clirist. Auth. appears to limit it to the death : 
"unto him which died for us and rose again." 

16 We know him so. — So, i.e., " after the flesh." This, though 
not expressed in the Gr., may be inferred from the former clause. 
So Tyud. Auth., " know we him no more," following Yulg., 
WycL, and Rhem. St. Paid before his conversion had known 
Christ only after the flesh, had regarded Him (whether or not he 
had seen Him in the flesh) as an ordinary human teacher whose 
doctrine was at variance with Jewish law and custom, and was 
by all means to be suppressed. 

17 A new creature.— See Margin. The Gr., Krlffts, in its pri- 
maiy meaning is a creative act, then a thing created. 

They are become new. — "jAll things " (Auth.) being omitted 
by change in Gr. text. (Compare Rev. xxi. 4, 5 ; also Matt. xxiv. 
35, and Isa. xliii. 18, " Remember ye not the former things," 
&c., and the same passage in the LXX. version.) 

19 Not reckoning.- So Wycl. This is the usual meaning of the 
Gr., which here and in several passages is rendered " impute " in 
Auth., following Tynd. and Vulg., reputans. 

20 On behalf of (three times).— Atith., "for— instead of— for." 
The Gr., uirep, like "for" in English, may have the vicarious 
sense, " instead of," or the tutelary sense, " on behalf of," " on 
the side of." In verse 14, where it is said " Clirist died for all," 
and verse 21, " he was made to be sin for us," it may have either 
meaning, but we cannot properly say that the Apostles were am- 
bassadors in the stead of Christ, for Christ himself pleads with 
us by His Spirit, and His ministers in beseeching and pleading 
with men work with Him (as it is said in chaj). vi. 1) and for His 
sake. To make this clear, " in behalf of " has been taken as the 
rendering in both places. 



2 An acceptable time. — Aiitli., " a time accej)tecl." (Compare 
Liike iv. 19, " to preach the acceptable time of the Lord.") 

3 Our ministration. — The service with which we are charged. 
Auth., "miuistry." Yulg., ')ninistermm. Tynd., " our office." 
The word miuistry had uot iu 1611 the compreheusive scuse, iu- 
chidiug the j)ersous as well as the office of Christ's servauts, 
which it has now acquired. 

6 In pureness. — Auth., "by pureness," &c., the change from 
"iu" to "by" being probably made because the Apostle passes 
from recounting the states of suffering and trial imposed upon 
him to an enumeration of the graces received from God, which 
enable him to supi)ort Ids trials. But the word in Gr. is " in " 
throughout, and there appears no reason why it should be varied 
iu translation ; if he was in the midst of afflictions, he was also 
in a state of pureness, knowledge, and long-suffering. Iu verse? 
the Gr. is changed from " iu " to "by," or "by means of" (5ia) 
and the English is accordingly changed to " by." 

8 By glory and dishonour. — Auth., following Tynd., "by 
houom" and dishonour." The words in Gr. are not correlatives. 
Yulg., per gloriam et ignohilitatem, whence Wycl., " by glory 
and unnobleth." 

12 In your own affections. — The Gr. crTrKdyxva, "bowels" 
(Auth.), is used in this metai^horical sense many times by St. 
Paid, twice by St. Luke, and once by St. John (in his First 
Epistle). The kindred verb " to have compassion" occurs iu the 
first three Gospels several times, and not elsewhere in the New 

14 Righteousness and iniquity.— Here also, as iu verse 8, the 
words iised iu the antithesis are uot correlatives. In the follow- 
ing verse the words are correlatives, " believer " and " un- 
bc'liever," but are varied in Auth., "believer" and "infidel," 
following Yulg., quce pars fideli cum infideli. " Infidel " occurs 
in Auth. only here and in 1 Tim. v. 8 ; and it is now in these 
places likely to mislead, having passed from the original sense of 
" unbeliever," which it has in one of the collects for Good Friday, 
to that of " disbeliever," one who rejects the faith. 



1 Defilement. — The Gr. does not occur again in the New Testa- 
ment. AH Engl, versions, " filthiness," which is the rendering 
of other words. 

2 Open your hearts to us. — Auth., "receive us," following 
Genev. and Beza, recipite nos. Yulg., ccqrite nos, whence Tynd. 
and Cranm., " understand us." The Gr. is literally " make room 
for us," i.e., in your affections, of which he had complained that 
they were closed to him (chap. vi. 12, 13). So Theoj)hylact. 

We took advantage of no man.— Auth., with Tynd., 
" defrauded." Vulg., circumvenimus. Tliere is a reference 
probably to the charge which he meets in chap. xii. 17, where 
the same word is used. The Gr. has the notion of " overreach- 
ing " rather than " defrauding." 

3 To die together and live together. — The Gr. is m a more 
emphatic and proverbial form than Auth., " to die and live 
with you." To be companions in life and death was with the 
Greeks "and Romans an almost proverbial expression, denoting 
inseparable friendship. Thus Horace says (Odes III. 9) ; — 

" Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens." 
(" With thee I could love life, with thee could welcome death.") 

In many nations it has been not a mere form of words, but a 
fact, and sometimes imposed as a duty. (See A Lapide's com- 
mentary on this passage.) 

4 I overflow with joy. — Auth., " I am exceeding joyful." The 
Gr. is a strong metaphorical expression, used again in Rom. 
V. 20, corresponding with that in the previous clause — " I am 
filled with comfort, I overflow with joy ; " and the two together 
are a characteristic example of St. Paul's occasional bursts of 

5 Relief.— Auth., " rest." Compare chap. ii. 13. 

6 The lowly.— Auth., " those that are cast down." Tynd. and 
Cranm., " the abject." Yulg., humiles. The same word is used 
in the Magnificat (Luke i. 52). The Apostle speaks in chap. 
X. 1 as if it were applied to himself by way of reproach. 

7 Your zeal for me.— Auth., with Tynd., " your fervent mind." 
Yulg., emulationem. Gr., (^\ov {zelon). 

8 With my epistle.— Literally, " with the letter " (viz., " which 
I sent to you "). All Engl, versions, omitting the article, " with 
a letter." 


I do not regret. — Auth., following Tynd., " I do not repent." 
The Gr. is not so strong a word as that which is always rendered 
" repent," the cognate noun to which, " repentance," ex- 
presses in the following verses the deejier sorrow and change of 
mind of the Corinthians. Wycl., " it rueth me not." 

10 Which bringeth no regret.— Auth., " not to be repented 
of." The Gr. adjective is akin to the word at verse 8, where see 
Note. It may be connected either with " repentance " or with 
" salvation." The collocation is in favour of the latter construc- 
tion ; the sense seems to require the former, and this has been 
preferred, as is shown by the insertion of " a repentance " m 
italics, with the other alternative in the Margin. 

Godly sorrow.— This phrase of the Auth., due to Tynd., has 
been retained as being the same in sense with the Gr. /caro @e6v, 
and more expressive tliau the more literal rendering of the Gr., 
" sorrow which is after a godly sort," as in verse 9. 

11 What avenging. — Auth., "what revenge." Compare Note 
on Rom. xiii. 4. The Gr. signifies the proceeding to take 
vengeance, not the consummation of vengeance in retribution. 

Pure. — Auth., " clear." Gr., o7>'oi;s. The word occurs only in 
the Epistles, and always in this its proper meaning, " pure." 

12 That your earnest care for us might be made mani- 
fest unto you. — By changes in Gr. text, supported by nearly 
all the MSS., for Auth., " that our care for you . . . might 
appear unto you" {vnuiv for rjtJiuv, and ^yucSr for vf/.u>v). The 
meaning is, that he wrote as he did in order that their earnest 
care for him might be brought out and made manifest to 

Earnest care.-=-The Gr. (tttov^j) here and in the last verse, 
and in chap. viii. 7, requires a stronger rendering than Auth., 
" care," " carefulness," •' diligence." 

13 We have been comforted: and in our comfort. . . 

— By change in Gr. text for Auth., "we were comforted in 
your comfort," &c. 

15 Is more abundantly.— So Yulg., "Wycl., and Rhem., the 
adverb being repeated from verse 13. Auth., " is more 

16 I am of good courage concerning you.— This is nearer 
to the meaning of the Gr. than "I have confidence in you," as^ 
Auth., following Yulg., confido in vobis. Tynd. and Cranm., 
" I may be bold over you." 



1 We make known to you. — This is the ordinaiy rendering 
of the G-r. Tlie Auth. here has " wc do you to wit," following 
Tynd., which, though pure English, and very literal (" I make 
you to know "), is now too antiquated to be generally under- 

Given in the churclies. — More exact than Auth., " bestowed 
on," following Genev. and Beza, prcestitmn ecclesiis. So Acts 
iv. 12, " no other name given among men." " Given in " is a 
pregnant expression, denoting not only the bestowal of the gift 
upon the churches, but its working in tliem. (Wordsivorth) . The 
frequent use of the preposition " in " (eV) is a characteristic of 
St. Paul's style, when compared with that of the other writers 
of the New Testament. 

2 In much proof. — Not as Auth., " in a great trial," which 
would point to a definite occasion rather than a continuity of 

Liberality.— See Note on Rom. xii. 8. 

3 They gave of their own accord. — This represents the Gr, 
adjective " spontaneous," which, standing by itself, requires 
some such construction to be supplied. The like may be said of 
other clauses in this sentence, rendered obscure by their concise- 
ness ; as if, in dictating to his amanuensis, the Apostle delivered 
his thoughts without regard to their grammatical connection. 

4 The omission by change in Gr. text of the words " that we would 
receive" (Auth.) leaves the words "this grace" standing inde- 
pendently, and requiinng to be connected with the words at the 
beginning of the verse ; thus — Beseeching us with much 
intreaty in regard of this grace. 

7 Earnestness. — Auth., " diligence." See Note on chap. vii. 12, 

8 By way of commandment — i.e., as if I were gi^dng you a 
command. Compare 1 Cor. vii. 6, and Note there. Auth., " by 
commandment," i.e., as if I had received a command from God 
to speak thus. 

But as proving through . . . — The structure of the 
sentence is thus altered from Auth. " by occasion of . . . and to 
prove," in order to give to the Gr. uai its necessary meaning 
" also," instead of " and," as in Auth, 


10 Judgement. — Tlie G-r. is a more authoritative word than 
"advice" (Aiith.), indieatiag not the counsel of an equal, but 
the decision of a suj)erior. Comj)are 1 Cor. vii. 25. Still the 
judgement is given as his OTvn, and not as coming from God. 

Who were the first to make a 'beginning — i.e., who 
anticipated the movement made by the Macedonian Church. 
This meaning, thoiigh not so clearly expressed, may be intended 
by Aiith., " who have begun before," which would rather imply 
that they had once before begun, and given up their purpose. 

Not only to do but also to will. — They had been 
beforehand with others, not only in act, but in pui-pose. Auth., 
" not only to do, but also to be forward " (G-r., rb eeXeiv). 

11 Complete. — Auth., " perform." The Gr. is the same as at 
A'erse 6, where Auth. has " finish." We speak of performing a 
promise, but not of performing a course of action on whicli we 
have entered. 

Out of your ability. — According to your means; not, as 
Auth., " out of that which ye have." Tlie preposition here has 
the same force as in John iii. 3^, " He giveth not the Spirit 
by measure," i.e., " according to." 

12 If the readiness is there.— Auth., " if there be first a 
willing mind " (following Tynd.). The Gr. noim has the article. 
It is expressive, not of the will or purpose, as rh Qixnv at verse 
10, but of promptness and forwardness. The preposition TTp6, 
" before," which is combined with the verb, shews presence, not 
priority, to be the condition required. 

13 Distressed — The Gr. has this meaning, rather than " bur- 
dened," as Auth., following Genev. Tynd. and Cranm., " brouglit 
into cumbrance." Vulg., trihulatio. 

17 Very earnest. — Auth., " more forward." The Gr. is literally 
" more earnest," i.e., more earnest than to need such an exhor- 
tation, " too earnest to need it," according to Engl, idiom. 
According to the custom of the Ancients in letter-wi'iting, the 
past tense (the aorist) is used of matters pending or still future 
at the time the letter is written, Ijut expected to be j)ast events 
at the time when the letter would be received. See Rom. 
xvi. 22, &c. 

18 Is spread. — The insertion of a word of this meaning is reqiured 
by 8ta, " through," which follows. Auth., "whose praise is in 
the gospel throughout all the churches." Here the insertion of 


is breaks the true connection of tlie words by trausferriug " in 
the gosi^el " from the subject to the predicate. 

19 In the matter of this grace.— For Autli., "Avith," and 
our readiness for " your," by changes in Gr. text. 

20 Bounty. — Auth., "abundance." Previous versions, "plenty," 
or "plenteous distribution," aiievYwig., 2>leiMmline. The word 
occurs nowhere else hi the New Testament. In Gr. authors it 
means "fiduess," "largeness," and here refers to the bounty, for 
which the word " gi'ace " is used in verse 19, very much as a 
largess is a gift bestowed out of the abundance of tlie giver 
(compare Latin largior), and a " bounty " is that which is given 
out of goodness of heart {honitas). 

21 For we take thought for things honourable. — By 

change in Gr. text (the verb for the participle). TJie Apostle is 
not merely describing his conduct, but resting it on a general 
rule derived from Prov. iii. 4 (LXX. version). The same pre- 
cept is laid down by him in Rom. xii. 17, where see Note on 
honourable for " honest." 


Hath been prepared.— So Tynd. and Yulg., parata est. 
Auth., " was ready," the rendering adopted for another word in 
the last chapter, and indicating a state of mind, not, as the Gr. is 
in this place, a process of preparation {■Kapea-Kivaarai, the perfect 
tense). In verse 4, where the Gr. is a cognate word, the Auth., 
for the sake of variation, has "unprepared," though Wycl. and 
Rhem., wliich it follows here, have "imready," a good Shak- 
spearian word. 

Hath stirred up very many.— So Wycl., " hath stirred full 
many." All other versions, " hath provoked," following Yulg., 
provocavit. The English word, like the Latin, from which it is 
derived, may formerly have denoted a friendly rather than an 
angry incitement ; and it may still bear the more favourable 
sense, when the context helps it, as in Heb. x. 24, " to provoke 
unto love and good works." At Col. iii. 21, to preclude the 
favourable sense, the words " to anger " are inserted in Auth., but 
any such words are now unnecessary, the unfavourable sense 


being presumed ; and in modem usage, if a person " provokes " 
another, the word is suggestive of an irascible temper on the one 
side or the other. 

4 Be put to shame.— Auth., "be ashamed." Compare chap, 
vii. 14 ; and 1 Cor. xi. 22. The word is always used in an active 
or passive sense, but not as expressive of the feeling of shame, 
" the being ashamed." 

6 Your aforepromised bounty.— Auth. (alone), "whereof ye 
had notice before." They had promised it, and St. Paul had 
announced it to the Churches of Macedonia (verse 2). The 
Apostle here repeats the Gr. irpS, "before," "beforehand," as if 
in emphatic approval of the forwardness which they had shown. 

Bounty. — Margin, " Gr., blessing." The word €v\oy[a (eulogy) 
is not again used in the New Testament for a gift or benefaction, 
but frequently occurs in that sense in the Old Testament (LXX. 
version), as Gen. xxxiii. 11, " Receive my gifts," a gift being 
the outward aud A'isible sign of a blessing conferred, as well 
as of the benevolence prompting the gift. The use of this 
word introduces the fresh turn which the Apostle now gives to 
his exhortation. 

Not of extortion.— That it be ready as a free gift, aud not as 
a thing extorted from you by us., and given gi'udgingly. 

9 Scattered abroad. — All Engl, versions, " dispersed " or 
" sparsed." Vulg., dispersit. The Gr. is properly " to scatter 
seed," thus keeping up the meta]>hor of the sower in verse 6; but 
modern usage has overlaid aud obscured this metaphorical 
meaning of " disperse," and in the matter of almsgiving has 
substituted " dispense." In the Bible (Auth. Version) '' dis- 
perse" and "dispersion " are not elsewhere used except in refe- 
rence to men, particularly to the Jews " of the dispersion." 

10 SuppHeth. — Auth., " ministereth," a word applicable to the 
work of a subordinate, and, therefore, not to God, who is here 
the subject. Nor does it express the Gr., which properly denotes, 
as used by classical authors, an act of public uiunificeucey prima- 
rily that of pajdng the expense incurred in bringing out a drama 
on the stage. It is used by St. Paul (Gal. iii. 5 ; Col. ii. 19) aud 
by St. Peter (II., i. 5, 11), j)ossibly derived by him from St. Paid. 

And bread for food.— By change in Gr. text. 

Seed for sowing. — Auth., "your seed so^ti." The Gr. is not 
the word which is rendered " seed " just above, and means pro- 
perly " the act of sowing," in whicli sense it is used in Exod. xxxiv. 


21 (LXX. version) ; in its secomlary meaning it is " the seed 
sown," and is so used in the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Lnke ; 
but it does not occur again in the Epistles. St. Paul here 
departs from his usual practice, and prefers variety to reiteration 
of the same word. 

11 Te being enriched.— In the Auth. verses 9 and 10 are in- 
cluded in a parenthesis, and "being enriched" is connected with 
"ye, always haA-ing," &c., in verse 8 ; but the more prolmble con- 
struction is that of the participle in the nominative (called by 
grammarians the nominativus pendens), used as the commence- 
ment of an independent and additional clause, for " and ye sliall 
be enriched." 

Liberality. — See Note on Rom. xii. 8. 

12 Filleth np the measure of the wants.— Auth., with Tynd., 
" supplieth the wants." Vulg., supplet. Wycl., " filleth those 
things that fail." The Gr. means literally, " filleth up by addi- 

13 Through the proving of you by this ministration.— 

i.e., by means of the proof to which you ai-e put by this 
ministration testing you. Auth., " by the experiment of this 
ministration," following Genev. 

For the obedience of your confession.— So Rhem. Auth., 

"for your professed .subjection." Beza, de vestrci testatd suh- 
jectione, taking the two nouns of the Gr. as equivalent to an ad- 
jective and noun. This obscure phrase may be paraphrased thus: 
" your obedience in conformity with your confession of faith in 
the Gospel." 

Contribution. — Auth., following Tynd., "distribution." The 
Gr. is literally " communication," Koivoivla. 

14 While they themselves also, with supplication on 
your behalf, long after you.— The clause is thus made in- 
dei)endent in its structure like verse 11 (see Note) ; and tliis 
seems the simplest way of unravelling the intricate constniction 
of the Gr. The Auth. makes it depend on the words in the pre- 
ceding verse, " glorify God, ... by their prayer for you {i.e., by 
the prayer made for you by those) which long after you." 



1 In your presence. — Literally, " before your face," as iu Acta 
iii. 13, in contrast to " being absent/' Auth., " in presence," 
with Margin, " Or, in outward appearance" as if with refei-euce 
to his personal stature. 

Iiowly. — Aiith., " base," Tynd. and Cranm., " of no reputa- 
tion." (Compare chap. vii. 6, and Note there.) 

4 Of the flesh. — Auth., " carnal," does not keep up the emphatic 
reiteration of the Gr. in verses 2 and 3, and uses an adjective of 
Latin derivation, and always bearing a bad sense, which is not 
necessarily implied by Kara cdpKa. 

Mighty before God. — Exceeding mighty. A Hebraic form 
of hyperbole. (Compare Acts A-ii. 20.) Moses was " fair unto 
God." Auth., " mighty tlu'ough God." 

6 Being in readiness. — Auth., " haA-ing in a readiness," as 
Yulg., followed by Rhem., in liromptu habentes, a plirase which 
very literally represents the Gr., but if it was ever in accordance 
with English idiom, tlms to use " to have " for "to be" is now 
archaic and uncouth. Auth. also has " revenge " where modern 
idiom requires " avenge." (Compare chap vii. 11, and Note on 
Rom. xiii. 4.) 

7 Before your face. — Auth., " after the outward appearance." 
The Gr. is the same as in verse 1. The sentence may be cither 
indicative or interrogative ; and where there is nothing absolutely 
decisive in the context the indicative is the more probable. In 
Vulg.,Wycl., and Rhem. it is taken imperatively : but as a com- 
mand it is not veiy intelligible. 

Let him consider this again with himself.— So Rhem. 
Literally, "from himself," i.e., as a thing which -will occur to 
him on refiectiou, without suggestion fi'om without. 

8 Not for casting you down. — He recurs to the metaphor 
which he uses in verses 4 and 5. AU Engl, versions, follo-vviug 
Vulg., have " for your destruction," or " to destroy you." In 
verses 4 and 5 Vulg. has destructionem (which j)roperly means 
"pulling doAATi," "demolition"), but is not there followed by 

10 Of no account. — Auth., " contemptible," following Yulg., 
Wycl., and Rhem. : Tynd. and Cranm., " rude." Genev., " of 
no value." (Comp. 1 Cor. vi. 4, where the word is used in the 
same sense.) 


12 To number or compare ourselves.— Tlie play on words 
in the Gr. cannot be reproduced in English. A more exact 
rendering is given in the Margin. 

Are without understanding. — So Tynd., " understand 
nought." Autli., " are not wise," a milder phrase than that of 
the original. 

13 We will not glory beyond our measure.— Literally, " we 
will not glory unto the things without measure." Auth., " we 
will not boast of things without our measure." 

But according to the measure of the province.— The 

word rendered " province," Kav6v, canon, means properly a mea- 
suring-rod (the Latin canna, "a cane," is from the same root), 
and thence a " rule," as Auth. here, and in that sense it occui's in 
Gal. vi. 16. In a secondary sense, applicable here, it means the 
line or direction assigned to a person as his proper sphere or 

Which God apportioned to us. — Auth., " distributed." 
The Gr. is literally, "allotted as our share." 

As a measure, to reach even unto you — i.e, as a measure, 
thereby empowering us to extend our work of preaching the 
Gospel as far as to you. 

15 In other men's labours — i.e., " regarding them as the sphere 
wherein my boasting lies." So Yulg., Wycl., Tynd., and Cranm. 
Auth., following Genev., " of other men's labours." The difference 
is considerable. The Apostle says he does not glory in other 
men's labours, i.e., in occupying the field on which they have 
laboured, and reaj)ing where they have sown. To boast " of their 
labours " (as Auth.) would mean to boast of them as if they were 
his own. 

Magnified. — So all Engl, versions before Auth., which has 
"enlarged." The Gr. is literally, " made great." "Enlarged" 
is equivalent to " made greater," and is used for a different 
Gr. in chap. vi. 11: "Our heart is enlarged j" literally, 
" widened." 



1 In a little foolishness.— By change in Gr. text for Auth 
" a little in my folly." 

Nay indeed bear with me. — The imperative is preferable 
to the indicative (see Margin), both on account of the following 
verse, and because it is used in verse 16, where the same 
thought is resumed : "If ye do think me foolish, yet as foolish 
receive me." 

3 In his craftiness. — Auth., " subtilty." The Gr. is the same 
as in 1 Cor. iii. 19, and not that which is rendered by " sxibtilty " 
in Matt. xxvi. 4 and in Gen. iii. 1 (LXX. version). 

And the purity. — Added by change in Gr. text. 

That is toward Christ. — The single-mindedness and purity 
which is devoted to Christ, and looks toward Him only. The 
Gr. is els, not eV. All Engl, versions, following Vulg., have 
" in Christ." 

5 The very chiefest. — Marg., " Or, tlwse pre-eminent apostles " 
(in an ironical sense). In his former Epistle he describes 
himself as "the least of the apostles" (1 Cor. xv. 9), and may 
be here also ^vriting in a tone of humility with regard to others 
whom he thought his suixn-iors. So the phrase, which occurs 
again at chap. xii. 11, was understood by the early expositors, e.g., 
by Chrysostom ; and so it is rendered in the Vulg. and all Engl, 
versions. But being a strong hyperbole, it may have been said 
in irony, with pointed reference to the false teachers of whom he 
is speaking — " those superlative, pre-eminent apostles ; " and so 
it is understood by many recent commentators. In like manner, 
mention is made in the Apocalypse of those " who call them- 
selves apostles, and are not " (Rev. ii. 2). 

6 We have made it manifest. — It, i.e., " the Gospel which we 
preach." By change in Gr. text for "we have been made 

To you-ward — i.e., "with a view t'o your benefit." Auth., 
" among you." The Gr. preposition is ds, not eV.' 

7 Por nought. — " Without cost to you." This" sense is not 
clearly expressed by Auth., following all previous versions, 
" freely," which might mean " with freedom of speech," or 
" abundantly." Vulg., gratis. 


9 Supplied the measure.— The Gr. is the same long com- 
pound word as in chap. ix. 12. 

14 Fashioneth himself.— Auth., " is transformed," making the 
verb passive, though the participle in verse 13 is rightly treated 
as of the middle voice. Tlie change here described comes not 
from without, but is wrouglit by the guile and cunning that are 
within. See Note on Rom. xii. 11, where " fashioned " is the 
rendering of a word cognate to tlie Gr. of this place. 

17 As in foolishness.— " As a fool speaks in his foolishness." 
Auth., with Tynd., " as it were foolishly." Wycl., " as in un- 
wisdom." It is best to keej) the word which is emphatically 
repeated by the Apostle. 

20 If he taketh you captive. — Auth., " if a man take of you," 
beina' probably led to make the insertion of you by Genev., 
"if a man take your goods." That 7jou is to be supphed with 
" taketh " is plain from the preceding clauses with which this is 
connected; and that "taketh" {Aafijidyei) here means " taketh 
captive," or " catcheth," may be inferred from the similar use of 
the same word in chap. xii. 16, " I caught you with gixile." See 
also Lxike v. 5. 

21 I speak by way of disparagement— i.e., disparaging 
myself; " you will bear great indignities from others, while you 
will put up with nothing from me, as if I were weak, and not to 
be had in any respect." The irony of the Apostle, which has 
been strongly shewn in this chapter, here reaches its climax. 

23 I speak as one beside himself. — Auth., "I speak as a 
fool." The word in the Gr. is here varied, as though his 
" foolishness " were passing into aberration of mind. 

More abundantly. — Auth., "more abundant," &c. The 
words in Gr. are adverbs throughout, not adjectives. 

26 In perils of rivers.— Auth., with Tynd., " of waters." Vulg., 
following the Gr., h^s fluminum. 

From my countrymen. — The Gr. is literally, "in perils 
from race " — a singular expression, though there is no doubt as 
to its meaning. 

27 In labour and travail.— So Tynd. and Cranm. here, and 
Auth. also in 2 Tliess. ii. 8, where the Gr. is the same ; but here 
Auth., following Genev., has "in weariness and painfulness,'" 
without any apparent reason, as the words denote the toil, and 
not the weariness that follows, nor the ii-ksomeness which may 
accompany it. 


28 Anxiety. — A more oppressive pre-occitpation of the mind than 
" care " (Auth.). The Gr. is aMn to that which is rendered " be 
not anxious " (Matt. "vi. 25). 

32 Guarded.— Wycl., " kept." Tynd., " laid watch in the city." 
Yiilg., custodiebat. Auth., " kept with a garrison," whicli would 
imply that the whole garrison were out on the watch for him, 
whereas the Gr. only signifies that good watch was kept at the 
gates of the city. 

33 Through a window was I let down in a basket by 

the wall.— Rather more j)erspicuous than " through a window 
in a basket was I let down by the wall " (Auth.). 


1 A considerable change is here made in the sense by a slight 
change in the reading (5er for 5?'))— "I must needs glory, 
though it is not expedient." 

5 Weaknesses. — Here and elsewhere in this chapter for Auth. 
"infirmities." The plural of " weakness " appears not to have 
been in use so early as 1611. 

7 The introduction of " wherefoi-e," consequent on change in Gr. 
text, causes a dislocation of the sentence, which is indicated in 
printing by a break. 

Exceeding greatness. — Not " abundance," as Auth., follow- 
ing Tynd. Vulg., magnitudo. Compare chap. iv. 7. 

A thorn in the flesh.— Margin, " Or, stake.'' The Gr. 
ffK6xoy\j is in the Old Testament (LXX. version) " a thorn," as in 
Num. xxxiii. 55, where it has, as in this passage, a figurative 
sense : " The inhabitants of the land shall be thorns in your 
sides." See also Ezek. xxviii. 34 ; Hosea ii. 6. In Greek authors 
generally it is " a stake." The sense here may be taken to be 
ruled by the usage of the LXX. 

10 Injuries. — Auth., " reproaches." Compai-e Acts xxvii. 10, 21, 
The Gr. properly means injuiy accompanied with insult. 

11 The very chiefest.— See above on chap. xi. 5. 


15 If I love you . . . — This scnteuce lias taken a hypotlie- 
tical and iuteiTogative form, in consequence of a change in the 
Gr. text. 

17 Bid I take advantage of you ?— Auth., " did I make a 
gain of you ? " See chap. ii. 11, and Note on chap. vii. 2. 
Tyiid., " did I piH you ? " 

19 AH this time.— For "again" (Auth.), by change in Gr. text, 
■n-dxai. for -n-dxtv. With this alteration the sentence is better read 
as an assertion than as a question. (See Margin.) 

20 Strife— Auth., " debates." The Gr. is ^pis. 
Factions.— Auth., " strifes." See Note on Rom. ii. 8. 

21 Have sinned heretofore.— As Auth. in chap. xiii. 2. 


2 I do say beforehand.— Auth., " foretell you," an archaism. 

" I ^vl■ite." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. With this 
omission the sentence admits of the two constructions, not very 
dissimilar in meaning, which are given in the text and Margin. 
The Aiith., as pointed in 1611, had "as if I were present the 
second time," without the comma after " present ; " in that 
respect following Genev., which has " as when I was present the 
second time." 

4) For he was crucified . . . — "Though" (Auth.) is omitted 
by change in Gr. text. We have thus the dii'ect and miqualified 
declaration of the Apostle, that Christ suffered in human weak- 
ness, and as an example to us in our weakness ; and that we 
" are weak in Him," we share in His human weakness, that we 
may also " live with Him." 

9 Your perfecting. — Auth., " your perfection," The Gr. 
signifies the process of attaining perfection, not the end which 
is to be attained ; as also do the words in verse 11, be 
perfected, be comforted, not as in Auth., "be perfect, be 
of good comfort." 

14 " Amen."— (Auth.) Omitted iu almost all the chief MSS. 




1 Not from men as the first caiise {a-n-o), nor through man 

as the secondary or iustriuneutal cause {Sid), but through 
Jesus Christ and God the Father (5ia). — The iustru- 
meutal sense of the prejiosition 5id is thus applied to God tlie 
Father as well as to His Son Jesus Chi-ist. Compare 1 Cor. i. 9, 
" God is faithful, through whom ye were called ; " and it may be 
truly said that God is the secondary as well as the primary cause 
of all tilings, for no secondary cause exists but by Him, as the 
Apostle says (Rom. xi. 36), " Of Him, and through Him, and 
imto Him are all things." All Engl, versions here have " not of 
man, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ." 

5 Our God and Father.— So Rhem. : Tynd.," God our Father." 
Auth., " God and our Father." The same phrase occurs in Phil. 
iv. 20. It has been a question in ancient as in modern times 
whether " our " applies to both Names, or only to the latter (as 
Tynd.), but the separation of the two Names (as in Auth.) is ob- 
jectionable, both in grammar and meaning. 

6 Removing.— Auth., " removed." The verb is in the present 

In the grace . . . unto. — Auth., " into the grace . . . 
unto," which confuses the sense, and does not express the Gr, eV. 

A different Gospel; which is not another GospeJ. — 
Auth., " another Gospel which is not another." The Gr. has two 
words, the former denoting difference in kind {frepov), the latter 
simply " another." Inversely we should say St. Mark's Gospel 
is " another " history, but not " a different " one from St. 


7 Only there are some.— Autli., " but there are some." Tyiul., 
" but that there are some." Gr., ei /j-v Tivis dcnv . . . He 
is assigning the only reason which he can see for that at which 
he " marvels " iu verse 6. 

8 Any Gospel other than that — i.e., "at variance with." 
Gr., irap' '6. Auth., "any other Gospel than that." Genev., 
" otherwise than." 

Anathema. — Auth., "accursed." See Note on Rom. ix. 3. 

11 I make known to you.— So Wycl. Aixth., with Tyncl., "I 
certify you." Rhem., " I do you to understand." Compare 
2 Cor. -saii. 1. The word is frequently used by St. Paul to in- 
troduce a statement of special solemnity. 

13 Made havoc of it. — Auth., "wasted it." The word is so 
translated in Acts ix. 21. Compare verse 23 of this chapter. 

14 I advanced. — Auth., " I profited," with Wycl., Genev., and 
Rhem., following the Vulg., projiciebam, which in Latin is a 
good rendering. Tyud. and Oranm., "I prevailed." The Gr. is 
properly "to get on," "to make progress," and is used iu Luke 
ii. 52 ; Rom. xiii. 22. 

Many of mine own age. — So Wycl., rightly following Yulg., 
cocetaneos meos. Tynd., " my companions." Auth., following 
Rhem., " my equals," with Margin, " Gr., equals in age." 

15 Separated me, even from- my mother's womb.— "Set me 
apai-t for his service, even from my birth." Compare for this 
phrase Acts iii. 2. All English versions, " separated me from 
my mother's womb." 

18 To visit. — The Gr. is used in this sense in later Gr. authors. 
All Engl, vei'sious, " to see," follo\viug Vulg., viclere. 

19 Save James. — Meaning that James was the only Apostle 
whom he saw, as Crisjius and Gains were the only persons whom 
he baptized at Corinth (1 Coi'. i. 14). Gr., ovS4va el fx-f}. The 
alternative iu the Margin, " but ouly," assumes that James the 
Lord's brother was not an Apostle j but et jH^ does not fairly 
admit of this translation. 



1 After the space of.— The alternative, " iu the course of," 
has been admitted in the Mai-gin on account of the chronological 
difficulties of the passage, and as being consistent with the use 
of the preposition. 

2 Laid before them.— Auth., " communicated unto them.' 
The same word occurs in Acts xxv. 14. " Communicate" is appro- 
priated in the New Testament to another Gr. word. 

3 Not even Titus — i.e., though he, if any one, from his being 
closely associated with me (verse 1), might have been thought 
likely to receive circumcision. Auth., " neither," which has no 
correlative in the sentence ; and so in chap. vi. 13. 

4 And that because. — Margin, "Or, hutitwashecause.'^ Tlie 
sentence is incomplete and obscure. Taking the text, the reason 
is given why Titus was not circumcised, because there were false 
brethren who wished it, that so they might have ground for 

• charging the Apostle with inconsistency. The Margin gives this 
meaning, " but I was advised by my friends to circumcise him, be- 
cause of the false brethren, Judaising Christians, who were 
making a clamour against me, as being unfaithful to the law of 

6 Who were reputed.— Auth., " who seemed." The Grr. admits 
of either rendering; but the latter implies outward seeming, 
which is not here approj)riate. 

Imparted. — Auth., "iu conference added," probably an incor- 
rect rendering of Yulg., contiderunt. 

8 He that wrought for Peter. — Auth., "he that wrought 
effectually in Peter." If this had been the meaning, the prepo- 
sition (v, " in," would have followed the verb, as iu Eph. ii. 2. 
" Wrought effectually" and " was mighty" are different render- 
ings in Auth. for this word, which in each case is sufficiently ex- 
pressed by " wrought." See Note on 1 Cor. xii. 6. 

11 He stood condemned. — The Gr., KanyvaxTfjLivos ?iv, requires 
a stronger word than "he was to be blamed," as Auth., following 
Tynd. and Yiilg., repreliensibilis, by which the phrase is softened, 
perhaps from a pious unwillingness to recognise a grievous fault 
in St. Peter. The old Latin version, however, did not shrink 
from reprehensus. Tlie Gr. may be interpreted to mean, not 
that any formal judgement liad been passed upon him, but that 
his conduct was " condemned " by the outspoken censure of the 


Christian community at Antiocb. Dr. Fiold [Otium Norvic), on 
behalf of Aiith. and Yulg., compares evKoyrnxevos for ev\o-yr]T6s, and 
e$Se\vyiJLeuos for fide\vKT6s (Rev. xxi. 8) ; but see, per contra, 
"Winer's Gh'ammar, § 46, 8, and Bishop Ellicott's Commentary on 
this passage. 

Cephas, by change of Gr. text for "Peter" (Auth.), is the 
reading here and in verse 14, as in verse 9 (Auth.). 

16 Save through faith— i.e., except (tav fj.ri) in the sense in 
which it may be said that he is justified through faith, working, 
doing the woi'ks of the law, "by love." All Engl, versions, "but 
by the faith," which gives a more unqualified negative to the 
idea of justification by the works of the law than is contained in 
iay fM7^. See Note on chap. i. 19. 

18 Prove myself a transgressor.—"! set myself forth" as 
such; not as all Engl, versions, " I make myself." 

19 I died.— Auth., " I am dead." Compare 2 Cor. v. 14. 

21 Died for nought.— So Wycl. Auth., " is dead iu vain," follow- 
ing Tiynd. To do a thing " iu vain " is to fail in one's purpose ; 
to d/ it "for nought" is to do it without a purj^ose, "gratui- 
tously" as we say. Gr., Scopedy. Yulg., gratis. Compare chap, 
ill. 4, where " in vain " represents a different word. 


1 Openly set forth.— Auth., "evidently set forth." Tynd., 
" described." Yulg., prescriptus est. The Gr. word is elsewhere 
in the New Testament " to write beforehaud " (as iu Rom. xv. 4, 
Ephes. iii. 3, and Jude 4), but in the LXX. version of the Old 
Testament, and in classical writers, it has the local meauiug, as 
here, " openly," " before your eyes." This interpretation is in 
keeping with the metaphor, " who hath bewitched you, fascinated 
you, when ye were able to fix your eyes on the crucified Saviour." 

8 Perfected. — Auth., with Genev., "made perfect." The word 
so rendered does not imply perfection in goodness, but in a 
neutral sense, " completion." So Yulg., consummamini ; and, 
in English, " perfected " expresses this better than " made per- 
fect." Compare Note on Ephes. iv. 13. This biblical sense of 


"perfect" is to be imderstood when we speak of Clirist as "per- 
fect God and perfect man." 

14! Upon the Gentiles. — Made emphatic in the Gr. by its posi- 
tion iu the sentence. 

15 Maketh it void. — Auth. (alone), " disannulleth." Geuev., 
" doth abrogate." The Gr. is the same as in chap. ii. 21, and 
different from that in verse 17 of this chapter. 

19 What then is the law ? — Not as in Aiith., " wherefore serveth 
the law ? " " for what pui-pose is it ? " but " what is its nature ? " 

Ordained through angels {as instruments) by the hand of 
a mediator ; this mediator between God and man being Moses, 
who is so|designated in Rabbinical writings — not Christ, as Origen 
understood it. In Heb. Adii. 6 Christ is said, in implied com- 
parison of Moses, to be " the mediator of a better covenant." 

21 Made alive. — A more exact rendering than Auth., " could have 
given life," while it also avoids the repetition of " give." 

22 Hath shut up. — All Engl, versions, "concluded," following 
Yulg., conclusit. The English word is now chiefly if not entirely 
used in a logical sense, as it is also in the New Testament (Auth.), 
Avith the exception of this place and Rom. xi. 32. The Gr. is 
repeated in the next verse, and is there " shut up " (Auth., with 
Tynd.). Yulg., conclusi. 

All things. — The universe, ra travra. Auth., " all," which is 
probably understood, though it was not intended, to mean " all 

23 Kept in ward.— Auth., "kept." Tlie Gr. is " kept in custody," 
and the metaphor is contiaued in the words which follow, " shut 
up," as it were in a prison, with a view to the faith, &c. 

24 Tutor. — Auth., "' schoolmaster." Gr., 'pedagogue. See Note on 
1 Cor. iv. 15. 

26 The comma after " faith" is intended to show that " in Christ 
Jesus " should be connected with " ?ons of God " rather than 
" through faith," but either way the sense is good, and the con- 
struction legitimate. 

28 No male and female. — The artificial distinctions are here 
coupled together by "nor," the natural by "and." All Engl, 
versions overlook this. 

Ye are all one man. — " One person." Here again the 
Auth. is apt to be misleading, " one " being likely to be taken as 
a neuter. 



2 Guardians and stewards. — lu tlie Gv. tlie former office in- 
cludes the personal superiutendence of the child, the latter the 
care for his maiutenauce. Auth., with Tyud., "tutors and 
governors." Vulg., sub tutoribus et actoribus. 

The term appointed. — All Engl, versions, "the time ap- 
pointed." The Gr. wpodefffiia properly signifies the limited term 
within Vvliich an action at law might be brought. It is not again 
used in the New Testament. 

3 The rudiments of the world — i.e., those rudiments of reli- 
gious truth which were known to the world prior to any special 
revelation. Auth., " elements." 

6 Our hearts. — By change in Gr. text for " your," in conform- 
ity with all the best MSS. The transitions from the first person 
to the second and from the plural to the singular which occur in 
this passage, are according to the manner of St. Paul and of the 
Hebrew Scriptm-es, being especially noticeable in the Pentateuch 
in the words addressed by Moses to the people, 

7 An heir through God — i.e., through the mercy of God; by 
change in Gr. text for " heir of God through Christ," as Auth. 

8 Ye were in bondage. — Auth., with Tynd., "ye did service 
unto," but in verse 9 " be in bondage." The Gr. in both places 
is literally, " to serve as slaves." 

9 Back again . . . over again.— In these pleonastic i^hrases 
the Apostle harps upon their relapse into Judaism, and enforces 
his reproof of it. They are passed over somewhat lightly in 
Auth., " turn again . . . desire to be in bondage again." 

13 Because of an infirmity of the flesh.— Probably because 
he was detained among them by illness. Auth., with Tynd., 
"through," i.e., " while in a state of infirmity," a sense which the 
construction of Sid with the accusative does not allow. 

14 That which was a temptation to you in my flesh — 

i.e., " the infirmity in my flesh which was a trial to you," by 
change in Gr. text for " my temptation which was in my flesh " 

15 That gratulation of yourselves— i.e., " What becomes of 
your self -gratulation on account of my teaching ? " Auth., " Where 
is then the blessedness ye spake of p " which is not very intelli- 
gible, and is a mis-translation of /j.aKapi<rfx6s. (See Rom. iv. 6, 9, 


and Note there.) The rendering in the Margin would mean, 
"What becomes of the gratulation, the felicitation, which ye 
bestowed on vie ? " 

17 They zealously seek you. — " They (the Judaising teachers) 
pay court to you in no good way [oh KaA&s), not honourably ; but 
they desire to shut you out (from me and those who follow my 
teaching) that ye may zealously seek them." Auth., " they 
zealously aii'ect you." The Gr., (r]\ovy, when used, as it is here, 
with an accusative of the person, includes the feeling of zeal for 
a person, and jealousy of another's influence over *Jiat person. 
( Wordsworth.) 

18 To be zealously sought.— The verb of the last verse is here 
rej)eated in the passive voice. 

In a good matter. — Fairly and honourably ; not, as by them, 
in a way that is dishonourable : eV Ka\f. 

20 I could wish. — Auth., " I desire." Literally, " I was wish- 

22 The handmaid — i.e., Hagar. Auth., with Tyud., "bondmaid." 
The Gr. ttoiSiV/ct;, though including bondwomen, comprises a 
wider class. Compare Matt. xxvi. 69 ; Acts xii. 13. 

24 Contain an allegory. — Literally, " are allegorised," beside 
their plain meaning they have another. Auth., "are an al- 

These women. — These two, Hagar and Sarah, represent two 
covenants. Auth., " These are the two covenants." The article 
is omitted by change in Gr. text. 

Bearing children. — All Engl, versions, " gendering," or 
" which gendereth." Gr., yiwuxra. 

26 "Which is our mother. — "All" (Auth.) is omitted by chunge 
in Gr. text. 



1 With freedom did Christ set us free: stand fast 
therefore. — Auth., " Stand fast therefore in the liberty," &c. The 
change in construction is cine to the omission in the Gr. text of the 
relative pronoun fj. St. Panl after his manner takes up the word 
which he had used just before and emphatically repeats it, using 
the Heljraism which we meet with so often in the Bil)le, as in 
Luke xxii. 15, " with desire I have desired," and John iii. 29, where 
" rejoiceth greatly " is in the Gr. " rejoiceth with joy." In 
this place tlie Gr. admits of another rendering which is noticed in 
the Margin, "For freedom did Christ set us free," i.e., for the 
enjoyment of freedom and continuance in it, and not that we 
should return to slavery. This, however, is not a probable in- 
terpretation. See N"ote on verse 13. 

4 Ye are severed from Christ.— Literally, " abolished from 
Clirist." Auth. (by a paraphrase), " Christ is become of no eifect 
unto yon." Wycl. (forcibly), " ye be voided away from Christ," 
following Yulg., evacuati estis a Christo. 

Ye who would be justified. — All Engl, versions, '^'whoso- 
ever of you are justified." The verb is in the present tense, and 
is to be taken in the sense of the middle voice, "ye who are justi- 
fying yourselves, seeking to be justified." Compare Acts ii. 47. 

5 We ... by faith wait for. — " By faith," according to the 
collocation in the Gr., is to be coimected with the verb (as by 
Wycl., Genev., and Rhem.), not (as by Tynd. and Auth.) with 

11 The stumblingblock of the cross. — Vxilg., scandalum 
cnicis. Tynd., " the offence wliich the cross giveth." Cranm. 
and Genev., " slander." Rhem., "scandal." Auth., "offence." 
Beza, offendiculum. The stumbling-block or offence which the 
cross gave to the Jews consisted in tlie doctrine that faith in a 
crucified Saviour would avail for salvation without ceremonial 
religious ordinances. The same idea occurs in 1 Cor. i. 23, " Christ 
cracified, unto the Jews a stumblingblock." 

13 For freedom.. — Freedom is the purpose of the call. Auth., 
" unto liberty." The preposition eiri with the dative indicates the 
purpose, and the addition of the preposition supports the inter- 
pretation of the text against that in the Margin of verse 1, where 
the preposition is omitted. 

17 That ye may not do. — Tending to prevent your doing (Gr., 
'Iva jXT) iroTTjTs), but not making it impossible, as Auth., " so that ye 
cannot do." 


19, 20 The words " adultery," " murders," are omitted by change in 
Gr. text. 

20 Sorcery. — The Gr. is more properly so rendered, as in Rev. ix. 
21, xviii. 23, than as here in Auth., " witchcraft." The practice 
of sorcery was commtm in Asia Minor (see Acts xix. 19), and 
therefore doubtless was familiar to the Galatians. 

Strife. — The iisual rendering of fpts. Auth., " variance," having 
" strite " below. 

Factions. — The same word as in 2 Cor. xii. 20. See Note on 
Rom. ii. 8. Auth., " strife." 

21 Practise. — Auth., " do." For the contrast between Trpda-a-ftu and 
TTotelv see Rom. i. 32, vii. 19. 

22 Kindness represents the Gr. xp'ncT<^'''vs better than " gentle- 
ness " (Tynd. and Auth.). Vulg., benignitas. " Kindness " refers 
to the disposition, " goodness " to the same in its outward mani- 
festation, beneficence. 

24 Of Christ Jesus. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., 
" Christ's." 

25 If we live by the Spirit.— The Gr. is not " in the Spirit" 

(Auth.). but '• by," "by the power of," or possibly "to," as it is 
said in Rom. xix. 8, " we live unto the Lord," rcjl Kvpieo, without a 

By the Spirit let us also walk— i.e., by the law of the 

Sj)irit. Tlie empliatic order of the Gr. has Ijeen followed. 

26 Vainglorious. — All Engl, versions, " desirous of vain glory," 
folloAviug Vulg., inanis glorice cupidi. 


4 Then shall he have his glorying.— Auth., with Tynd., 
" then shall he have rejoicing." The Apostle pursues the thought 
expressed in chap. v. 26, " let us not be vainglorious." If we are 
to boast, we must find cause for doing so either in the Lord and 
His mercy to us (2 Cor. x. 17), or in ourselves, in our afflictions 
(2 Cor. xi. 30). 

10 Let us work that which is good toward all men.— 
So Wycl., " work we good." Vulg., operemur. This is required 


by the Gr., indicating the work and labour which is involved in 
well-doing. Aiith., following Tynd., "let us do good." We 
must make this the fpyov, the work of our lives, and not suifer 
ourselves to grow weary in it. 

11 With how large letters.— Auth., following Tynd., "how 
large a letter." 

I have written. — The epistolary aorist. (See Note on Rom. 
xvi. 22.) 

The Apostle undoubtedly refers to the unusual size of the letters, 
as well as to his having taken the unusual course of writing by 
his own hand and not by dictation to an amanuensis, in both 
particulars indicating the strong feeling under Avhich he wi'ote. 
St. Chrysostom supposes the Apostle wrote not only in large but 
in ill-shapen letters. Dr. Field, in his Note on this verse, points 
out a curiously parallel passage in Plutarch's Life of Cato the 
Elder. In describing Cato's method of educAting his son, 
Plutarch says that "he wrote histories for him with his own 
hand, and in large characters, I5la x^'p^ k^^^ jxeyaXots ypifxixaffiv.^' 

The connection of this seemingly irrelevant observation with 
what follows is suggested in the following Note of Dean Alford : 
" My indifferent penmanship is a type of my general character. 
I do not set much value upon outward aj)peai'ances. I am not 
one of those who desire to make a fair show in the flesh." 

13 Not even, for Auth. " neither," is required to clear the sense, 
as in chap. ii. 3. 

14 Through which — i.e., the cross. So Tynd. Auth., following 
Vulg., Wycl., and Rliem., refers the relative to the nearest word, 
" Christ." 

15 " In Christ Jesus." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr, text, 
probably interpolated from chap. v. 6, 

A new creature. — Or, as in Margin, " a new creation ; " a 
new creative act, causing a new spiritual birth, 

17 I bear branded in my body the marks. — The word 
(Trlyixara, stigmata, I'endered "marks" in aU Engl, versions, except 
Wycl. ("tokens"), was specially used of the marks with which 
slaves were branded for their identification ; and the Apostle's 
meaning is, that the wounds and scars which he has on his body, 
the consequences of the persecution which he has undergone, are 
so many tokens of his being the bond-servant of Christ. So St. 
Augustine (quoted by Wordsworth, Note on this passage). Not 
long before this he had been shamefully treated at Philippi. 




4 Without Tjlemish. — Like tlie victims chosen for the sacrifices, 
to which the same word is applied iu Lev. i. 10 (LXX. version), 
and like the " lamb without blemish and without spot," spoken 
of in 1 Peter i. 19. So Yulg., imviaculati. "WycL, "without 
wene ; " and so Aiith. at chap. v. 27, but here, " without blame." 

5 Having foreordained us. — So Wycl. : Auth, with Genev., 
" having predestinated us," following Vulg. and Beza. Compare 
Rom. viii. 29, and Note there. 

6 Which he freely bestowed on us.— Auth., following 
Tynd., " wherein he hath made us accepted," as Beza, in qua nos 
gratis acce^jtos sibi effecit, which does not seem a possible ren- 
dering of the Gr. 

8 Which he made to abound. — Auth., "wherein he hath 
abounded." The word is usually intransitive in St. Paul ; but the 
construction here seems to make it transitive, as in 2 Cor. iv. 15, 

ix. 8. 

JO In him— i.e., " in Christ." So "Wycl., with Yulg. Tynd. and 
Auth., " in himself." 

Unto a dispensation. — There is nothing in the sentence to 
suggest the commencement of a new construction at this point, as 
in Auth., " that in the dispensation," &c.: " unto," i.e., with a view 
to, not "in," as Auth., following Yulg., mi disjpensatione. 

To sum up. — Auth., " to gather together in one." The word 
occurs again in Rom. xiii. 9, where see Note. 

11 We were made a heritage. — The Gr. is a verb in the 

passive voice, with the meaning " we were made heirs," as the 

EPHESIANS— 11. 353 

Apostle says (Rom. viii. 16), "We are children of God; and if 
children, then heirs;" and so Tynd. : Auth., " we have obtained an 
inheritance," giving the Gr. verb, a middle sense. 

12 We who.— Auth. "who" is liable at first sight to be connected 
with "his" rather than with "we," at the beginning of the 

13 In whom ye also. — A broken construction, after the manner 
of St. Paul, resumed by " in whom ye." Auth. fills the hiatus 
by inserting " trusted.' 

14 GocVs own possession — i.e., the people whom He has made 
his own. Compare 1 Peter ii. 9, " a people for God's own pos- 
session." The idea of pux-chase or acquisition, which pro^ierly 
belongs to the word, has not the prominence which is fjiven to it 
in Auth., following Tynd., " the purchased possession.' 


2 According to the course of this world.— So all Engl, 
versions. The Gr. is litei-ally, " according to the age (aiwya) of 
this world (/coV^ou)," and so Vulg., secundum seculum mundi 
hujus, the first word, aluv, ceon, denoting the world in its tem- 
poral aspect, as a transitory period, or " age ; " the second, K0(rfj.6s, 
the world in its moral condition, as a beautiful order that is in 
disarray and corruption. The phrase might therefore be intelli- 
gibly and not incorrectly translated " according to the fleeting 
course of this evil world." 

3 Lived. — So Wycl. Yulg., conversati sumus, whence Tynd., 
" had our conversation." Auth., " walked," which is the render- 
ing of another word in verse 10. 

6 With him.— Auth., " together." Compare Rom. vi. 5, where 
the same needful change has been made. 

10 Prepared. — So Yulg., prceparavit. All Engl, versions, "or- 
dained," or, as Auth., " before ordained," which represents 
another Gr. word. 

11 Aforetime, by change in the collocation of the Gr. text, is 
connected with "ye were separated" in verse 12; not, as in 
Auth., " ye being in time past Gentiles." 


12 Separate from Christ.— The Gr. x^^P'^ ofteu, as here, re- 
quires a stronger rendering than "vrithout," which all Eugl. 
versions have with Vulg., sine. Comp. John xv. 5, " Apart from 
me ye can do nothing." 

Alienated from. — So Wycl. and Rhem., following Vnlg., 
alienati. Auth., " aliens." Tynd., " reputed aliantes." The 
Gr. is a passive participle, and is so treated in chap. iv. 18 


13 Once.— So Genev. : Auth., with "Wycl. and Rhem., " sometimes," 
now obsolete in the sense of " formerly." Gr., irore. 

19 Sojourners. — The Gr. is so translated in Acts vii. 6 (Auth.); 
liere Aiith., following Tynd., has " foreigners." Compare Luke 
xxiv. 18. 

21 Each several building.— This rendering is consequent on 
the omission of the article, which is wanting in all the chief MSS. 
" Each several building " may be taken to mean each individual 
Christian, of whom it is said in 1 Cor. vi. 19 that his body is a 
sanctuary of the Holy Ghost, and in the next verse the union 
of all in one is spoken of as " a habitation of God." With this 
interpretation of the passage, the maintenance of the old render- 
ing, "all the building," becomes as unnecessary in Englisli as 
it is uugrammatical in Greek. Each individual is a cell " fitly 
framed together," and all the cells are built together to make 
one holy habitation. 


4 Ye can perceive my understanding. — A more exact ren- 
dering than Auth. (followiug Cranm.), " ye may understand my 
knowledge," and it gives a different sense ; for it is one thing to 
perceive that a person understands the suljject of which he treats, 
and another to " understand the knowledge " which he possesses. 

6 Fellow-heirs. . . — The emphatic assonance in the Gr., i^ro- 
duced by the use of three words beginning with the preposition 
a-w, is represented by the reiteration of the same word " fellow," 
but is lost by the variation in Auth., " fellow-heirs," " of the 
same body," " partakers." 


9 The dispeusation. — So Wycl. The word is the same as in 
verse 2 and chap. i. 10. The reading followed by Tynd. aud 
Aiith. is Koivwvia, "fellowship." 

Which from all ages hath been hid.— Auth.," from the 
beginuiug of the world." Gr., " from the ages " — " from," i.e., in 
point of time, as it had been " fore-ordained before the ages " 
(1 Cor. ii. 7). 

" By Jesus Christ." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

10 Might be made known. — Not "might be known," as all 
Engl, versions, except Rhem., "might be notified," following 
Ynlg., innotescat. 

15 Every family. — So Wycl. and Vulg., oumispaiernitos. Auth., 
following Genev., " the whole family.' Compare chap. ii. 21, and 
Note there. 

16 With power. — Auth., "with might." The Gr. Swa/xis is 
usually expressive in the New Testament of supernatiiral power ; 
it occurs about a hundred times, and is very rarely rendered by 
"might" in Auth. In the Gospels and Acts it is often ex- 
pressed by " miracles," or " mighty works." 

18 May be strong to apprehend. — Auth., " may be able to 
comprehend." Both words in the Gr. require the change of 
rendering; as to " apprehend," compare John i. 5, Phil. iii. 12. 

19 Unto all the fulness. — " Unto," so as to attain to. So 
Rhem. : Vidg., ^d implcamini in omnevi plenitudinem Dei. 
Auth., following Tynd., " with all the fulness." 

21 In the church and in Christ Jesus.— So Wycl., Rhem., 
and Vulg. "And" is added in the Gr. text. Aiitli., "in the 
church by Christ Jesus," thus losing sight of a main principle 
pervading tliis Epistle, that to be in the Clnzi'ch is to be also in 
Christ ; for the Church, being a holy bodj', is in Him. See 
especially chap. ii. 21, 22. 

Unto all generations.— See Margin. The pleonastic phrase 
of the original hardly admits of an exact analysis or a close 



1 The prisoner in the Lord. — So Rhem. : Autli., " the 
prisouer of the Lord,'' as iu chap. iii. 1, where the Gr. is 

3 Giving diligence.— The Gr. is commonly so rendered in 
Auth., but hei'e " endeavouring." 

11 He gave some to be apostles. — The insertion of to be 
removes an ambiguity from the Engl, which does not exist in 
the Gr., " some " representing the accusative case, not the 

12 The work of ministering. — Auth., "the work of the minis- 
try," which has now a special meaning ; whereas the Gr. SiaKovia 
in the Apostolic age included any ser\ace done in the Chm'ch for 
Christ's sake, especially the ministering to the necessities of the 
saints. Compare 2 Cor. ix. 1. 

13 Till we all attain unto.— Auth., " come in," with Margin 
"come into." Compare Phil. iii. 11, where the same Gr. is 
" attain unto " (Auth.). 

PuUgrown. — All Engl, versions, following Vulg., "perfect," 
which implies moral and spiritual excellence, rather than the full 
consummation of human nature. Compare Note on Gal. iii. 3. 

1-1 After the wiles of error. — Auth., by a rather wide para- 
phrase, " whereby they lie in wait to deceive." The word here 
rendered " wiles," like the cognate verb, may receive a good or 
bad interpretation according to the context. Here e\'idently it 
takes the latter, as also in chap. vi. 11, where it is rendered by 
" wiles " in Auth. The same word in an abbreviated form, 
" method," is familiar to us in English as a term of neutral tint, 
which may take its colour from its surroundings. 

16 Fitly framed and knit together.— The former word seems 
to apply to the general harmony of the whole, the latter to the 
close union and interdependence of the several parts. 

According to the working in clue measure of each 
several part. — The insertion of due contributes much to the 
perspicuity of the sentence, and is fully implied in the Gr. 
eV /ueVpy. Auth., "according to the effectual working in the 
measui'e of every part." Compare for the sense verse 7. 

Maketh the increase of the body — i.e., "the body" (at 
the beginning of the verse) maketh its own increase. 


17 As the Gentiles also.— For "as other G-en tiles" (Auth.), 
by cliauge iu Gr. text. 

22 As concerning your former manner of life. — The sense 
is much obscured in Anth., "concerning the former con- 

Which waxeth corrupt.— Auth., with Wycl. and Tynd., 
" which is corrupt." The Gr. is the present participle, denoting 
that the corruption is in progress, not complete. 

The lusts of deceit. — Auth., " deceitful lusts." The mean- 
ing is " the lusts which are engendered of delusion and decep- 
tion." In the same way the sense is enfeebled in verse 24, and 
the contrast between the products of deceit and truth is lost by 
the rendering of Auth., " true holiness " for " holiness of truth," 
i.e., holiness viewed as the offspring, the effect of truth. 
" Truth " is here an emphatic woi'd, not to be resolved into an 
epithet of " holiness," as appears from its being contrasted witli 
"deceit" in verse 22, and from the fresh antithesis in the 
following verse, where it is contrasted with "falsehood." 

25 Falsehood.— Tlie principle, rh >|/evSoy, not as Auth., " lying," 
the practice. 

28 May have whereof to give.— The Gr. is literally as Auth., 
" may have to give." Tlio Engl, idiom does not follow the Gr. 
in this use of " have." Compare Matt, xviii. 25, " he had not to 
pay " (Auth.), i.e., " he had not wherewith to pay." 

29 Good for edifying as the need may be.— Literally, "good 
for the building up of the need." So as to the sense Tynd. and 
Cranm., "good to edify withal, when need is." Auth., "good 
to the use of edifying," the phrase being thus treated as an 
inversion of the proper construction. The following paraphrase 
is suggested by Dr. Field, " good for the improvement of the 
occasion," which sufficiently expresses the meaning, if " impi'ove- 
ment " be understood in its modern religious sense. 

Give. — Auth., with Cranm, and Genev., "minister," probably 
because " give " has been used in the preceding verse. Gr., 



1 Imitators.— All Engl, versions, " followers." Compare N'ot 
on 1 Cor. iv. 16. Through the use of the word in the Vulg. 
and in the work of Thomas a Kempis, it has come to be in better 
repute than it had with the old Romans. Compare Horace, 
Ep. I. xix. 19. 

2 Odour. — For " savour " (Auth., with Tynd.), which now applies 
to the taste rather than the smell, and is therefore not a proper 
rendering of oa/x-f]. 

4 Befitting. — Auth. " convenient " is now archaic in this sense. 

5 Which is. — " Which " is preferable to " who " in a relative 
clause like this, containing a description, not an identification, of 
the antecedent. 

6 Empty words. — All Engl, versions, " vain." The Gr, is KevoTi, 

not naraiois. 

9 The fruit of the light. — An unusual phrase, for which were 
substituted in some of the MSS. the more familiar words " fruit 
of the Spirit" (as Auth.); but they who displaced it probably did 
not observe that by doing so they destroyed the contrast which 
there is between " the fruit of the light " and " the unfruitful 
works of darkness," verse 11. 

13 Every thing that is made manifest is light. — Auth., 
" whatsoever doth make manifest is light," giving an active sense 
to the passive participle <pavepovix(vov. The sense appears to be, 
all things when re^iroved are by the veiy i-eproof made manifest, 
liglited up ; and that which is made manifest, lighted up, becomes 
itself a light, e.g., in the material world, the moon for guidance, 
a beacon for caution ; in the moral world, a holy, humble man, 
when his light is made to shine before men, becomes an example; 
a sinner, when he is exposed to public opprobrium, becomes a 
warning to others. 

14 Shall shine upon thee. — Literally, " shall dawn upon thee," 
as in Matt, xxviii. 1. Auth., following Tynd., " shall give thee 

15 Look therefore carefully how ye walk. — In consequence 
of a transposition in the Gr. text, "carefully" becomes con- 
nected with "look therefore." Auth., with Tynd., "see then 
that ye walk circumspectly." 


18 Biiot. — So RLem. : Auth., with Tyud., " excess," tlie consequence 
of which is meant here, as in Titus i. 6, where jEor the same word 
the Aiith. rightly lias " riot." 

19 With your heart.— As with an instrument ; the Gr. iv, " in," 
being omitted by change in Gr. text, 

21 Subjecting yourselves. — Auth. here, " submitting your- 
selves," but at verse 24, " is subject," where the Gr. is the same. 

31 The twain. — Auth., " they two." Gr., ol Uo. Compare 1 Cor. 
vi. 16, and Note there ; also, for the Gr. construction, Luke iii. 5. 

32 This mystery is great. — In the Gr. the word " great " 
stands alone as the predicate, and consequently is meant to have 
an emphasis which is not clearly expressed in Auth., " This is a 
great mystery." 

33 Severally. — Auth. (alone), " in particular," a phrase once again 
used in Auth. (1 Cor. xii. 27) for s'/c ix4povs. 

That she fear her husband.— So all versions, except Auth., 
which has " reverence " as the rendering of (j)o$e7a-dat in this one 
place ; and it were to be wished that, without breach of faithful, 
uess to the original, this could have been kept. It need not be 
said, however, that in Scripture " fear " very frequently has the 
sense of " reverence." See for examples Acts x. and xiii. 


4 Nurture them in the chastening.— Auth., "bring them 
up in the nurture." " Nurture" is more suited to the verb than 
to the noim [iraiSela) which it represents in Auth., and which ia 
more truly rendered by a disciplinary word. " Bring them up " 
comes from Vulg., educate illos. 

9 Both their Master and yours. — So Wycl. and Rhem., fol- 
lowing Yulg. Auth., with Tynd., " your Master also," follow- 
ing another reading of the Gr. text, but noticing this in the 

12 The world-rulers. — Auth., "rulers." Tynd., "worldly 

rulers." Gr., KOfffioKparopas. 


Of this darkness. — By change iu Gr. text for Autli., "of 
the darkuess of this world." 

The spiritual hosts of wickedness.— Literally, the " spi- 
ritual things," or "spiritualties of ■wickedness." Auth., " spiritual 

In the heavenly places.— Auth., " in high places " (with 
"heavenly" iu the Margin), probably from unwillingness to i-e- 
cognise the existence of wickedness in heaven, and from inatten- 
tion to the different senses which are given to the word " heaven " 
in Scripture. See Note on Matt. iii. 17, and compare cliap. ii. 2 
of this Epistle, where mention is made of "the prince of the 
power of the air." 

16 The evil one. — Gr., rod ■Kovt)pov (in the singular). The conflict 
is e^-idently a personal one. Auth., with Tynd., "of the wicked," 
which accordijig to om* idiom is a plural, " of wicked men." 
Vulg., omnia tela nequissinii, whence Rhem., " aU the fieiy 
darts of the most wicked one." 

20 In chains. — Literally, " in a chain." This in the text would 
be scarcely intelligible to the English reader. Tynd. and Autli., 
"in bonds." Rhem., "a legate in a chain." The customary 
mode among the Romans of confining a prisoner was to attach 
one of his wrists to a soldier l)y a chain. Compare Acts xxi. 33, 
xxviii. 20. The narrow lane near St. Paul's Cathedral — " Paul's 
Chain " — is a memorial of this custom, and of the Ai^ostle who 
more than once had experience of it. At the close of this Epistle, 
as at the beginning, he refers to his imprisonment as being con- 
nected with his Apostolic calling. 

24 In tincorruptness. — Tlie Gr. a.<p0ap(Tia is frequently used by 
St. Paul in speaking of the immortality, the imperishabloness of 
man's future state, as in 1 Cor. xv. 42, " it is raised in incornip- 
4ion." Here accordingly he speaks of a love imperishable. So 
Wycl., " iu uncorruption." TjTid., " in pm-eness." Geuev., 
eiToneously, "to their immortality." Aiith., " in sincerity," fol- 
lowing Cranm., " unfayneclly." The word " uncorvuptnoss " is 
the rendering of another Gr. word akin to this iu Titus ii. 7 




3 Upon all my remembrance. — Auth., " upon eveiy remem- 
brance," not expressing tlie article. 

4 Supplication is repeated, as in the Gr., rj Serja-is. Anth., " in 
every prayer of mine for yon all making request." 

5 Your fellowsMp in furtherance of the Gospel.— Tlie 

word rendered " in furtherance of " is literally " towards " {eis). 
Compare for the construction Rom. xv. 26, "a contribution for 
the poor ; " and 2 Cor. ix. 13. 

7 To be thus minded on behalf of you all. — Auth., " to 
think thus of you all." The preposition is v-rrep, not nepi. 

Partakers with me of grace.— So Auth. in the Margin ; in 
the Text, " partakers of my grace," which is the literal rendering 
of the Gr., but does not convey the meaning. 

13 Throughout the whole praetorian guard. — Auth., " in all 
the palace." The word prcetorhon occurs also in Matt, xxvii. 
27; Mark xv. 16, where it is "the palace" of Pilate the governor. 
It was also applied to the soldiers of the Imperial body-guard 
occupying the prwtorium, the praetorian camp outside the walls 
of Rome ; and in that sense it is here to be understood. See 
Bishop Lightfoot's Commentary on Philippians, p. 99. 

17 Of faction.— Auth., " of contention." The Gr. is the same as 
in Gal. v. 20. This verse and verse 16 are transposed by change 
in Gr. text. 

To raise up.— Auth., " to add." The Gr. is literally, " to stir 
lap affliction for my bonds." 

18 What then? only that— i.e., " Wliat shall we say to this? 
only thus much, that," &c. ; " that " being added by change 


in Gr. text, Auth., "What then? notwithstanding, every 
way," &c. 

22 If to live in the flesh. . . .—The broken construction 
well represents the chasm in the Apostle's feelings. The con- 
uection may be supplied either according to the Text or the 
Margin. The Auth. removes the difficulty by a change of 
construction ; any way the meaning is not very clear. 

23 Very far better.— The Gr. is a redoubled comparative, 
" much rather better." Auth., "much better." 

24 For your sake.— This makes it clear, as it is in the Gr., that 
the " abiding in the flesh " has reference to himself. Auth., " for 
you," might mean that for thevi it was necessary to abide in 
the flesh. 

25 I shall abide, yea, and abide with yon all.— The first 
verb in the Gr. expresses his expectation tliat he shall " abide in 
the flesh ; " the second, which is a compound of the first, that he 
shall abide near at hand to them, " yea " being inserted to mark 
clearly the distinction between the two. Auth., "abide and 
continue with," as if the two were synonymous. 

Your progress and joy in the faith.— This, for the sake 
of perspicuity, takes the place of the translation given in all 
Engl, versions, " your furtherance and joy of faith." 

26 That your glorying may abound in Christ Jesus in 

me. — Auth., " may be more abundant in Christ Jesus for me." 
They will glory in him, he being himself in Christ, in whom is 
contained every object of Christian joy, 

27 Manner of life. — The Gr. is literally, " behave as good 
citizens " (of the heavenly kingdom). Compare chap. iii. 20 : 
" Our citizenship is in heaven." 

Striving for. — Or (as Margin), "with the faith" — i.e., in con- 
junction with it. Auth., " stri\nng together for," understanding 
(TvvadXovvres to mean " striving all together in unison," which is 
not consistent with the usage of the Gr. 

28 Of your salvation.— By change in Gr. text for Autli.. " to 
you of salvation " 



5 Have this mind. — By change in Gr. text for Ai^th., "let tliis 
mind be in you." Viilg., hoc sentite. 

6 — 8 In this deep and sublime passage the exact meaning of the 
words which ofEer the chief difficulty in translation is given in 
the Margin. To paraphrase it is to lower the majesty without 
explaining the mystery in it. Yet this, to some readers, may be 
better than to pass it by without any attempt at explanation. 
The following is an approximation to the plain gi-ammatical 
meaning, so far as our language supplies equivalent terms to 
those of the original : — " Who from eternity existing in the 
Di\'ine nature, thoiight the being equal with God not a thing to 
be eagerly clutched and held fast, but emptied Himself of His 
glory, by taking the nature of a bond-servant, coming to birth in 
the outward semblance of man ; and being found (John i. 45) on 
earth in figure as a man. He humbled Himself, becoming obedient, 
so obedient as to die, yea, to die the death of the cross." 

15 Without blemish.— By change in Gr. text for Auth., " with, 
out rebuke." 

Generation. — All Engl, versions, excejit Rhem., follow the 
erroneous rendering of Vulg., nationis, " nation." 

Ye are seen. — Not as all Engl, versions, " ye shine," and 
Vulg., lucetis. 

As lights. — Gr., properly, " luminaries," lights of heaven. The 
word <pco(TTripfs occnrs again in Rev. xxi. 11. 

17 If I am offered. — The Gr. is literally, " if I am poured out as 

a libation, or drink offering," i.e., if my blood is shed for Christ's 
sake. The same metaphor is used in 2 Tim. iv. 6. 

20 Who will care truly.— Auth., "naturally.'' The Gr. is 
" gemiiuely ; " as the Apostle, using the cognate adjective, calls 
Timothy his " genuine, true-born son in the faith" (1 Tim. i. 2), 
It may mean, as Chrysostom here interprets it, " who will caro 
for you in such a way as to shew that he is my true son, by 
doing as his father would do " (Bishop Lightfoot's NotQ). 

22 As a child serveth a father. — Literally, " as a child to a 
father," not " as a son with the father " (Auth.). The construc- 
tion is varied in the two clauses which contain the comparison. 

23 How it will go with me. — This idiomatic phrase is due to 
Tynd. The Gr. is literally, " the things concerning me." 


25 Messenger.— Gr., " apostle." The word was not yet limited by 
Christiau usage to "the twelve" and those who like Paul and 
Barnabas stood on an equal footing with them, but had still its 
ordinary sense of " a delegate," as in 2 Cor. viii. 23. 

29 In honour. — Not " in reputation " (Auth.). 

30 Came - nigh.— The aorist. Auth., "was nigh." 

Hazarding his life. — The Gr. is literally " making a hazard 
of his life," a metaphor from gamblers throwing for a stake ; 
whence the Christian brotherhoods in the great cities who in 
after times risked their lives by nursing the sick were called 
" hazarders," parabolani. 

That was lacking in your service.— Auth., "your lack 
of service toward me," whicli implies a deficiency, a want of zeal 
on the part of the Philippians ; whereas the meaning is only that 
theii" supply fell short of the need. 


1 Hejoice. — Margin, " Or, fareivell." At the beginning or end of 
a letter X'^^P*"' is to be undei'stood in its secondary sense as a 
word of salutation. But as it stands here and in chap. iv. 4 its 
proper sense, " Rejoice," is the more appropriate. 

3 Who worship by the Spirit of God.— By change in Gr. 
text for Auth., " who worship God by the spirit." 

4 I myself. — Auth. (from Cranm.), "I might also have eonfi- 
denec." The emphatic word is '" I," not " might have confidence." 

5 A Hebrew of Hebrews — i.e., descended from Hebrews, of 
pure Hebrew blood. The Gr. has not the article. 

6 Found blameless. — The Gr. yevSnevos, not expressed in Auth., 
may best be rendered thus, as it is in 2 Cor. vii. 14 (Auth.). 

8 That I may gain Christ.— The verb is akin to the noun in 
verse 7 rendered "gain;" and "win" (Auth.) now imjjlies 
victoi'y in a contest. 

10 Becoming conformed.— A more definite, as well as more 
literal translation than Auth., with Genev., "being made con- 


formable," wliieli lucaus " eudued with the capacity of cou- 
fonniug." Rhem., " configured," following Vulg., confujuratus 
morti ejus. Tynd., " being conformable." 
12 Obtained.— Auth., following Tynd., "attained," wliich reiire- 
scuts another word in verse 11. 

I press on.— Auth., " I follow after." The Gr. is the same as 
in verse 14. 

14 The goal. — This word is now more appropriate to a race-course 
than " mark," Auth. with Tynd. "Goal" (French, gaule, "a 
pole ") represents the meta, or pole fixed in the ground as the 
boundary of the race. 

High, as in the Gr., is an adverb, and signifies that the call is 
"from above," or " to go above," "upward." 

16 " Let us mind the same thing." — (Auth.) Omitted by change 
in Gr. text, probably interpolated as an explanation of the pre- 
ceding clause. 

20 Oxir citizenship. — The Gr. Troxirevfia is applied either to the 
duty and privilege of the citizen, or to the state or commonwealth 
to which he belongs. Auth., " conversation." 

We wait for. — Auth., " we look for." The same Gr. is used 
in Gal. V. 5, where Auth. has " wait for." 

A Saviour.— There is no article here in the Gr. 

21 Who shall fashion anew. — Auth., "who shall change." 
The Gr. verb is akin to the noun o-xvM-"- (schema) , translated 
" fashion " in chap. ii. 8. 

The body of our humiliation. — Auth., following Tynd. 
and altogether departing from the true sense, has " our vile body," 
" vile " having in the time of our early translators, as it has now, 
the meaning of "foul" or "sordid." " Gtir humiliation," 
TaTTiivciiffis, consists in the degradation of soul and body caused by 
breach of God's natiiral and moral laws ; but neither soul nor 
body is on that account vile ; on the contrary, the body is still 
capable of being a " temple of the Holy Ghost." It will be a 
comfort to many, to whom this passage is familiar from its use in 
the Burial Service of the Cluirch, to be assured that there is no 
ground in the Holy Scripture for attaching the heathenish idea 
of vileness to our natural bodies. 

The rendering of the Yulg. is corpus limnilitatis nostrce. But 
"humility," or "lowliness," on the other hand, does not give 
sufficiently the notion of abasement which is in the Gr. 


" Humility " is consistent with the natural order of things, in 
which man was made a little lower than the angels ; it is con- 
sistent with holiness, purity, high aspirations. " Humiliation," 
and the Gr. which it represents, denote the being brought down 
from a higher state, and so are applied to Christ in chap. ii. 8 ; 
Acts viii. 33. 

Conformed. — The Gr. is the same as in verse 10. 

To subject.— As in 1 Cor. xv. 28, &c. Auth., " subdue." The 
Gr. is literally "to make subordinate" {biroToi^ai). " To subdue" 
is to "conquer an opponent." 


2 Euodia, not " Euodias " (Auth.), is the name of a woman, 
as appears from tlie corrected rendering in verse 3, These 
women, for tliey laboured, instead of " those women which 
laboured" (Auth.). 

5 Zj^rbearance. — No one English word embraces the various 
meanings of rb iir^eiKts. In some places, as 2 Cor. x. 1, "gentle- 
ness " seems best to represent it ; in Acts xxiv. 4, " clemency " 
vTynd., "courtesy"). How it has exercised former translators 
of this passage is apparent from the various renderings : Vulg., 
vwdestia, whence Auth., " moderation ; " Wycl., " patience ; " 
Tynd., " softness; " Cranm., " patient mind; " Rhem., "modesty." 
Regard being had to the etymology of the word, it would appear 
that its primary meaning was the disposition to yield, to forbear. 

6 Be anxious. — The word is the same as in Matt. vi. 25, and the 
precept is in principle the same. Auth., following Tynd., '" Be 
careful for nothing," which hardly holds good if " careful" is to 
be understood in its present sense, according to which it is, if kept 
within due bounds, a Airtue. 

7 Shall guard.— The Gr. is (ppovpiian, " shall watch over as a 
sentinel." Auth., " shall keep," which would be r-oprja-et. 

8 Honourable. — Auth., following Tynd., "honest." Vulg., 
yadica. Gr., cnixva, properly, "things that are to be i-evered." 


9 These things do. — The rhythm is improved by this resto- 
ration of the order of the Gr., ravra irpdara-eTe ; and the sentence is 
then also brought into sequence \nt\i the preceding verse ; the one 
being a recapitulation of things to be meditated, the other of 
things to be j)ut in practice. . . 

10 I rejoice. — The Gr. is " I rejoiced," the epistolary aorist, as in 
Rom. xvi. 22, &c. 

Ye have revived your thought for me. — The verb in 
Gr. is transitive, " have made to shoot afresh." Auth. turns the 
construction by paraphrase, " your care for me hath flourished 

12 In every thing and in all things.— The Gr. idiom is like 
the Engl., " all and every." Auth., " everywhere and in all things." 
There is nothing local in the phrase. Compare 2 Cor. xi. 6. 

I have learned the secret. — The Gr. is literally, " I have 
been initiated," ^us^ujj^ai. Auth., losing sight of the gi'aceful 
metaphor, has, "I am instructed," following Rliem. and Yulg., 
instituhcs sum. The word " mystery" is from the same Gr. root, 
and' denotes in classical Gr. a religious ceremonial or doctrine, 
which was kept secret, and to a participation in which only certain 
classes of persons or selected individuals were admissible. There 
was nothing analogous to this in the Mosaic dispensation ; the 
word is used only in the Apocryphal books of the Old Testa- 
ment. In the New Testament it occurs once in each of the first 
three Gospels, and three times in the Apocaly[)se. St. Paul 
shews his familiarity with Gr. culture and customs, and his de- 
sire to be " all things to all men " — to the Greeks to be as a Greek — 
by speaking of the doctrines of the Gospel as "mysteries," and by 
using the word twenty times in his Epistles to tlie Romans, Corin- 
tliians, Ephesians, Colossians,Thessalonians, and Timothy, besides 
this solitary use of the verb. In the Ei^istle to the Hebrews it 
does not occur. 

17 The fruit that increaseth. — Auth., "fruit that may 
abound." The Gr. verb is not the same as in the next verse. The 
meaning in fuiancial phrase is " the fruit or profit that accrueth 
more and more to your account at the day of judgment." 

19, 20 The slight changed in these verses require no explanation, 
and will at once commend themselves to the reader who has the 
Gi'. Testament before him. 




" Tlie parallel passages iu the Epistles to tlie Colossiaus aucl 
Ephcsians are very many, and on comparisou ■will oftcu be fouud 
to illustrate or siipplemeut each other. 

2 "And the Lord Jesus Clirist." — (Anth.) These words being 
omitted in accordance witli the testimony of the best MSS., this 
Epistle is an instance, and the only instance, of the name of 
Christ not being associated by St. Paul with that of God the 
Father in his opening benediction. 

6 And increasing.— Not in Auth., but added in Gr. text. Tlie 
Gospel is like a vigorous tree, which at once bears fruit and 
extends its growth. 

10 Walk worthily.— So Wycl. Auth., "worthy," which is no 
longer used as an adverb. 

13 The power of darkness.— The Gr. i^ovcrla, commonly ren- 
dered " authoi'ity " in the New Testament, properly moans 
" liberty of action," and thence, like " licence " in English, it lias 
derived two divergent and even opposite senses, the one denoting 
authority, delegated power, the other arbitrary unrestrained 
power ; the latter is the predominant meaning. Compare Luke 
XX. 2, xxii. 53. (Lightfoot's Note on tliis verse.) 

The Son of his love.— God is love ; Christ being His Son is 
endued with His Father's love, and has communicated it to us. 
This deep and beautiful thought is lost in the translation of 
Auth., "his dear Son." A somewhat similar thought, arising 
out of the spiritual relationship between St. Paul and Timothy, 
has been brought out by a change of translation iu Phil. ii. 22. 

16 In him. — As comprehending, sustaining, holding together ; 
through him, as tlie instrumental cause (Heb. i. 2) ; unto 


him, as tlie final cause, for His sake, and also «wi looking ioward 
Him, Compare Rom. ix. 26; Heb. ii. 10. 

19 All the fulness.— All the infinite perfectioiis of God. Gr., 
pleroma. Compare Ephes. i. 23. 

22 Without blemish.— Compare Eplies. v. 27, and Note on 
Ephes. i. 4. 


1 I would have you know.— Auth., following Tynd.," I would 
that ye knew," overlooking the present sense of the Gr. perfect 
elSfvat, which is, however, correctly given in 1 Cor. xi. 3, where the 
same phrase occurs. St. Paul more commonly says, " I would not 
have you ignorant." 

3 In whom are all the treasures . . . hidden. — Auth., 
"in whom are hid all," &c. " Hidden" is in the Gr. a verbal 
adjective, and stands apart from the verb " are " at the end of 
the sentence as a secondary predicate, with this emphatic mean- 
ing, " in whom are the treasures, &c., hidden away." As to the 
interpretation of the Gr. air6Kpv<poi, '• hidden," and the reason for 
the stress thus laid upon it, see Lightfoot's Note. 

4 Delude. — Auth., " begiiile." The Gr. word, which is once again 
used in the New Testament (James i. 22), denotes the effect pro- 
duced by fallacious reasoning. 

Persuasiveness of speech. — The Gr. for this is used in 
classical writers, but not in a bad sense. Auth., "enticing 

8 Any one that maketh spoil of you. — The Gr. is literally, 
"that carrieth you off as spoil." Auth., with Tynd., "that 
spoileth you," which means, according to Biblical usage, " taketh 
spoils from you," as in Exod. xii. 36; hence, in colloquial 
English, " mars you, makes you useless ; " of which latter sense 
this passage is cited as an example in Johnson's Dictionary. 
The Gr. is of comparatively late use, not being found in any 
writer earlier than St. Paul. 

10 Made full. — Auth., "comi^lote." The Gr. is a j)articiple, 
cognate to " fulness " in verse 8. 



11 Not made with hands.— Auth., "made without hands." 
The Gr. is the same as in 2 Cor. v. 1. 

" The sins of." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

12 Through faith in the working of God.— Auth., " through 
the faith of the operation of God," bearing the interpretation 
given by Tjoid., " faith that is -wrought by the operation of God." 
The true sense appears to be obtained by taking " the operation 
of God " as the object of the faith. " The faitli of " is a common 
construction, often meaning the same as " the faith in." So 
Chrysostoni explains it here : " Te believed that God is able to 
raise you, and ye were raised." Compare Phil. iii. 10, and Rom. 
X. 9. 

14 The hond.— Auth., with Tynd., " the handwriting." The Gr., 
chirographon, properly means "a handwriting," "a MS.," but is 
•specially applied to a contract to which a man has bound himself 
by his sign-manual ; and in that technical sense it is frequently 
found in Latin writers, as Cicero and Juvenal. 

15 Having put off from himself the principalities and the 
powers — i.e., "haAang divested himself of the spii-itual enemies 
which clung about him." Compare verse 11, and chap. iii. 9, 
" ye have put off the old man," where the Gr. is the same. AU 
Engl, versions, "having spoiled," i.e., "having stripped them 
naked," following Yiilg., exspolians, but giving an active sense to 
a middle verb. So Chrysostoni and the Greek Fathers. Another 
rendering is given in the Mai'gin, " ha-^-ing stripped himself of 
his own body by death," which resembles the phrase in 2 Cor. 
V. 4, " we would be unclothed." So the passage was understood 
by the Latin Fathers. The objection to it is that thus the 
phrase " having stripped himself " is taken aj)art from the words 
which immediately follow, and with which it seems grammatically 
connected ; and it has a meaning which, if it be found elsewhere, 
is not suggested by the present context. See Lightfoot's Note 
on this difficult passage. 

16 A feast day. — So Wycl., correctly following Yulg., in parte 
clieifesti. Auth., following Tynd., "an holyday." 

17 The body {i.e., the substance) belongs to Christ.— Auth., 

as Wycl., "is of Christ ; " which might be taken to mean " from 

18 Let no man rob you of your prize.— Auth., " beguile you 
of your reward." The word which is here used metaphorically 
was api^lied properly to the act of a judge, in the games, deciding 
mifaii-ly against a competitor who was entitled to the prize. 


Compare, for the reference to the games, Gal. v. 7, " ye did run 
well, &e., aud for the metaphor of the judge in a race, chap, 
iii. 14, and 1 Cor. ix. 24. 

Dwelling in. — Or, as in Margin, "taking his stand upon;" 
literally, " stepping into," i.e., " asserting a knowledge of things 
supernatural which he has seen." Or, if the negative be re- 
tained in the Gr. text (see Margin), " which he has not seen." 
Auth., " intruding into." The Gr. verb is properly, " to step 
into or upon," and thence " to stand or dwell upon." 

21 Handle not, nor taste, nor touch.— All Engl, versions, 
following Vulg., have " touch not, taste not, handle not," trans- 
posing the first aud last words. The proper meaning of the first 
is " to lay hold of," as in John xx. 17 ; 1 Cor. vii. 1. 

23 Severity to the body. — Literally, in " not sparing the 
body." Auth., " neglecting the body." 

Not of any value against the indulgence of the flesh 

— i.e., "not of value for the prevention or remedy of indul- 
gence ; " literally, " not in any honour." Other intei*pretations 
of the passage have been supi^orted, both in ancient and modem 
times: e.g., that of Auth., "not of any honour to the satisfying 
of the flesh," i.e., in a good sense, " not of any honour with a 
view to tlie gratification of the moderate desires of the flesh ; " 
but the sense now adopted seems most in conformity with the 
literal meaning of the words, and with the general tenor of the 
passage. See Lightfoot's Note. 


2 Set your mind. — Auth., " your affection." Gr., (ppoveTre. 

6 Passion. — Auth., "inordinate affection." Gr., -n-ddos. 

Evil desire. — Auth., with Tynd., " evil concupiscence," taking 
from the Latin Yulg. a word which, having been used three or 
four times in the translation of the Epistles of St. Paul, was 
adoi)ted by Shakspeare and other standard old writers, but 
probably never came into general use. The Gr. word which it 
here represents is commonly rendered " desire," or " lust." 

8 Railing. — As at Eph. iv. 31, where also the Gr. is p\aa-<f>r]fjL'tci 


Shameful speaking.— A more literal rendering than " filthy 
communication" (Auth.), 

12 A heart of compassion. — Tlie latter of the two -words in the 
Gr. means pity rather than " mercy " (Anth.), as that word is 
ijow understood ; though originally being derived from miseri- 
cordia, it must have had the same meaning. 

15 The peace of Christ. — By change in Gr. text. So Vulg., 
WycL, and Rhem. Auth., " the peace of God." Compare John 
xir. 27, " My j)eace I give unto you,'' and Ephes. ii. 14, '" He is 
our peace." 

Rule. — Gr., " arbiti*ate," " be umpire," as in a race. The same 
metaphor is used in Phil. iii. 14. " In the strife of contending 
thoughts and desires let the peaceful counsels of Christ's spirit 
and example sway you." 


3 A door for the word — i.e., " a door for the word to come 
forth" (dvpav Tov \6yov). Auth., following Tynd., "a door of 
utterance." Compare Acts xiv. 27, where the same construction 
is used with a converse meaning : " He had opened a door of 
faith unto the Gentiles," i.e., a door by which they might come 
in to the faith (dvpav nia-Teus). 

6 lEach one — i.e., each in the way suited to his needs and 
capacities. Auth., " every man." 

10 Mark, the cousin of Barnabas.— So Wycl. and Rhem., 
coiTectly folloAving Yidg., consobrinus. Auth., witli Tynd., 
" sister's son." The Gr. dv6;|/iJs properly means " cousin," 
but by very late writers is used instead of another word fur 
"nei^hew," whence comes probably the rendering of our ver- 
sion (Lightfoot). 

12 Striving in his prayers. — Auth., "labouring fervently." 
Gr., a.ywpt(6/j.eyos, as if the struggles of the games were still 
present to the Apostle's mind. The same phrase is used in 
Rom. XV. 30. 

Fully assured. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., "complete," 
The Gr. word has the same sense in Rom. iv. 21. 

13 Labour.— For Auth., " zeal," by change in Gr. text. 





6 Imitators.— Aixth., "followers," as in 1 Cor. iv. 16, where see 

9 Report concerning us.— So Rliem,, with Yulg., annuntiant. 
All other Eugl. versions, " shew of us." Gr,, airayyeWovo-i, 

10 A living and true God. — In contradistinction to the lifeless 
idols and false gods of the heathen. The article inserted in 
Auth. is not in the Gr. 


1 It hath, not been found vain.— Hath not turned out to be 
empty. Auth., " it hath not been in vain," which points to its 
results rather than its inception. Vulg., no7i inanis fuit. Wycl, 
" it was not vain," 

3 Not of error.— So Wycl., following Vulg.; and so the Gr. 
ir\dvri is Usually to be translated, not as Auth., following Genev. 
and Beza, " of deceit." 

4 Approved of God.— So Rhem. Auth., with Tynd., " allowed," 
which in the sense of "approved" ("God alloweththe righteous") 
is archaic. The same Gr. at the end of the verse is rendered 
" proveth." Auth., " trieth." 


7 As when a nurse cherisheth her own children— i.e., 

being in that case the mother, and not a hireling. The words in 
Gr. are emphatic, ra eavTrjs reKva. Auth., " her children." 

8 Even so. — The ovtus is comparative, not illative, as " so " is 
sometimes in English, a ligliter form of "therefore." 

We were well pleased.— Anth., "were willing." Tynd., 
" our good will was." The Gr. is the word often used in speak- 
ing of God's "good pleasure." 

9 That we might not burden.— Auth., " be chargeable." The 
verb is cognate to the noun in verse 6. 

11 Testi^ng. — Auth., " charged each one of you." The Gr. is a 
verb neuter. The construction of the sentence (being participial 
throughout) is irregular, requiring a A^erb to be supplied, which 
has been done by inserting " dealt with " at the beginning. lu 
the Auth., the participles are rendered as verbs. 

13 Received . . . accepted.— The difference between the two 
words is not noticed in the Yulg., or in any Engl, version. 

15 Drave out us. — So the Margin of Auth., following Beza, exe- 
gernnt. The Apostle thus reminds the Thessaloniaus of his 
expulsion from their city, the history of which is given by St. 
Luke in Acts xvii. Auth., in text, and all previous versions have 
"persecuted us," with Yulg., joersecuti sunt. 

17 Being bereaved of you.— The Gr. is literally, " made orplians 
from you." Vulg., desolati a vohis. Compare John xiv. 18. 
The Apostle, ha^dng reminded them of his pai-ental tenderue.-s 
and care (verses 7 and 11), now speaks of his parental sorrow. 
The Auth. misses the point of this allusion by the rendering "being 
taken from you." Rhem. approaches without touching it, " de- 
prived of you." 

18 Because. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., " wherefore." 



4 We are to suffer.— Auth., " we should suffer." Gr., /j-fWo/xfu. 
This verb often implies destination, which is uot sufficiently ex- 
pressed by " shall," or "should," as those auxiliary words are 
now understood. So in Mark x. 32, " the things that were to 

6 When Timothy came even now.— Auth., "But now when 
Timothy came." Timothy had just returned with the good 
tidings which gave occasion for this Epistle. 

12 Love. — So Auth. in verse 12 ; here " charity." 


1 Finally.— As in 2 Thess. iii. 1. Auth., " furthermore." The 
Gr. is literally, " as to what remains." 

Even as ye do walk.— Added in Gr. text, and not in Auth. 

4- To possess himself of.— The Gr. is not " to possess," as 
Auth., but " to gain possession of," in the sense in which we 
speak of being " self-possessed." Let him gain control over " his 
own vessel," i.e., his body ; the body being thus described by the 
ancient j)hilosopliers in its relation to the mind : e.g., Cicero says 
{Tusc. Bisp. i. 22) : " The body is as it were the vessel of the 
mind " (" Corpus quasi vas est aut aliqiood animi receptaculwn") ; 
and so Lucretius, his contemj)orary poet, iii. 441, " Quippe 
etiam corpus quod vas quasi constitit ejus " (i.e., animce). 

5 The passion of lust.— Auth., " the lust of concupiscence." 
See Note on Col. iii. 5. 

6 Transgress. — Or, as in Margin, " overreach." Auth., " to 
defraud." The Gr. is commonly rendered " to be covetous." 

In all these things.— Auth., "of all such," which is am- 
biguous and obscure in its reference. 

7 In sanctification — i.e., " in the way of," or " by a course of 
sanctification." Auth., " unto holiness," which points to the end 
that is to be at faiucd. The Gr. speaks of the way, the process, 
and the preposition is " in," not " to." 


8 Rejecteth. — The Engl, versions here, as elsewhere, have " de- 
spiseth," following Ymg., spernit. 

9 Love of the brethren. — Auth., "brotherly love." So in 
Rom. xii. 10. Yulg., de charitate fraternitatis. 

11 Study to be quiet. — Literally, "be ambitions." Using the 
figure of speech called oxymoron, he says in effect, " Let it be 
your ambition to be without ambition." 

13 Them that fall asleep.— By change in Gr. text for "are 
fallen asleep." In verses 14 and 15 the Gr. participle is in a 
past tense, but here in the present. 

The rest. — Auth., " others." So at chap. v. 6. The Gr. is 
ol \oLiroi (" the rest of mankind "). In Luke xviii. 9, the same 
Gr. is rendered " the rest of men." 


3 When they are saying. — The Gr. is in the present tense, 
and represents them in such a state as to be saying so-and-so. 
Auth., " when they shall say," points to their utterance of the 
saying, as if it were to be the signal for the event which follows. 

14 The faint-hearted. — So Wycl., "the men of little heart." 
Auth., following Tynd., " the feebleminded." The Gr. imphes 
want of courage rather than weakness of mind ; though " mind " 
in the New Testament is a comprehensive word. 

15 Follow after that which is good.— This is rather more 
correct than "follow" (Auth.), where it is not an example which 
is to be followed, but an ideal which is to be pursued. Gr., 
SiicKere. So 1 Tim. vi. 11 : " Follow after righteousness." 

23 Be preserved entire. — Without loss or detriment. Auth., 
"your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved." Gr., 


Without blame at the coming — i.e., so as to be blameless 
in His presence. Auth., "blameless unto the coming." The 
Gr. preposition, as in chap. iv. 7, is iy, not ds. 
27 I adjure you.— As in the Margin of Auth. The Gr._is a 
more solemn word than " charge," and is used in Mark v. 7 and 
Acts xix. 13. 





6 If so "be that.— Auth., " seeing that." Gr., ("iwep. The Apostle 
puts liyj)othetically what he knows will be accepted as a certain 
truth and a good reason for what he has already advanced. So 
Rom. A^ii. 9. 

7 In flaming fire. — This is connected more probably with the 
preceding than, as all Engl, versions and Yulg., with the following 
clause. The revelation of the Lord from heaven, not the render- 
ing of vengeance, is spoken of as taking place in fii-e. Compare 
Dan. vii. 9, 10 ; Rev. xix. 12. 

8 Rendering vengeance. — The j)hrase is, literally, "giving 
vengeance," SiSovros for airoSiSouros. 

10 To be marvelled at. — Auth. (alone), " to be adnured," follow- 
ing Yulg., admirabilis fieri. The Or., Qavfid^eLv, is expressive 
rather of wonder than of admiration, and is so rendered by 
Wycl. and Tynd. 

11 To which, end. — The Gr. is eJs '6, the contrary of " wherefore " 
(Auth.), which woidd be 5(($. "To which end," -sdz., " that oxiv 
God may count you worthy," &c., resuming the train of thouglit 
in which he was proceeding in verse 5. 

Worthy of your calling. — " Tour " is to be supplied rather 
than " this," as in Auth. Compare 2 Peter i. 10 : " Make your 
calling and election sui'e." 

Every desire of goodness. — As to this meaning of evSoKia, 
see on 1 Thess. ii. 8 ; Phil. i. 15. Auth., " all the good pleasure 
of his goodness," thus giving to fvSoKia its moi-e usual sense, but 
to support this translation inserting his {i.e., God's). The word 
translated " goodness " occurs in three places besides this in the 
New Testament, and in each refers to man, not to God. 



1 Touching the coining. — The Gr. virep means, properly, " in 
behalf of." But it is " iu regard of," " concerning," in Rom. 
ix. 27 ; 1 Tliess. iii. 2. AU Engl, versions ti*eat the woi'ds as an 
adjuration, like Rom. xii. 1, where the Gr. is Std, not inrep. The 
Vulg. also has per adventum Domini. But there is no example 
of inrep in that sense ; and the other, " concerning," falls in more 
naturally witli the context ; for it would be strange if St. Paul 
were to adjure them by that concerning which he was about to 
teach them. So Chiysostom says, " He here discourses about 
the coming of Christ." (Alford's Note ; and so Wordsworth 
and Bengel.) 

2 Be not q^uickly shaken from your mind— i.e., from your 
settled mind and expectation. Auth., " in mind." 

Is now present. — The Gr. ivea-Ti^Key always, in the New 
Testament, has this sense (AJford). Comj)are Rom. viii, 38; 
1 Cor. iii. 22. Aiith., " is at hand." 

3 The falling away.— AU Engl, versions overlook the article. 
" The apostacy " is probably that which is foreshadowed by our 
Lord in Luke xviii. 8. 

The man of sin. — The article is here over-translated in Tynd. 
and Auth., " that man of sin." 

4 Setting himself forth as God. — Auth., "shcAving himself 
that he is God." The Gr. is not " shewing " in the seuse_ of 
" demonstrating that he is," but exhibiting himself as being 

6 That which restraineth.— That wliich by God's purpose 
keeps him back, to the end that he may be revealed in his own 
season, in the time appointed for him, and not before. Auth., 
" ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his 
time." " That he may " represents in the Gr. els t6 with the 
infinitive mood, and " in his own season " ev rep ahrov Kaipcf : and 
with this literal rendering the passage, which is dark in Auth., 
becomes clear and perspicuous. 

7 For the mystery of lawlessness doth already work. 

— Auth., following Tynd., " the mysteiy of iniquity," adopting 
the word of the Yulg., iniquitatis. This, however, is not a 
rendering into Engl, of the Gr. Itvopilas, which means "law- 
breaking," as in 1 John iii. 4. The stress thrown on " the 


mystery," by its beiug put fii-st in the sentence, and thus brought 
prominently into contrast with " revealed " in the last verse, 
cannot be preserved in English without paraphrase, as thus — 
" At present the mystery works as a thing secret, an arcanum, 
not yet divulged ; but it shall be revealed in its appointed time." 

Only there is one that restraineth.— The Gr. admits of 
either this or the Marginal rendering. The Auth. gives the 
same meaning, though not in a manner consistent with the 
construction of the G-r. The word for "restraineth" (Auth., 
" letteth ") is the same as in verse 6. 

8 The lawless one. — Tynd. and Auth., " that wicked," again 
obscuring the connection by varying the word. 

Bring to nought. — Auth., " destroy," the rendering in Auth. 
of eight other words. Karapye(a is usually rendered " do away ; " 
literally it is " to make barren or void." 

The manifestation. — Auth., "the brightness." The Gr. 
epiphaneia occurs only here and five times in the pastoral 
Epistles of St. Paul, where it is always rendered "appearance" 
in Auth. " The manifestation of his presence precedes his 
actual presence" {Bengel). So Milton : " Far off his presence 
shone " (Alforcl). 

10 Deceit. — So Wycl. Auth., following Tynd., " deceivableness," 
an obsolete word, which in Old English denoted the active pro- 
pensity to deceive, not (as its termination would indicate) the 
passive liability to be deceived. The Gr. a-n-aTri is in other places 
rendered " deceit " or " deceitf ulness " iu Auth. 

Are perishing. — The Gr. is the present participle — not those 
who " perish" (as Auth.), but those who are in the way to perish. 

11 Sendeth. — By change in Gr. text for " shall send" (Auth.). St. 
Paul sees \dvidly this coming portent, and speaks of it as if 
already present. 

A working of error. — "Working" represents the Gr. 
ivfpyeiav ("energy "), akin to the verb rendered by " worketh" in 
verse 7 ; and " error " stands for lTr\dvri, as in 1 Thess. ii. 3, and 
elsewhere. This active working, this " energy of error," is iu 
Auth. " a strong delusion," 

12 Judged. — Auth., with Tynd., " damned." Comp. Matt, xxiii. 
33 ; Rom. xiv. 23. 

13 In sanctiiication. — Auth., " through," as in 1 Thess. iv. 7. 



1 May run. — The literal renderiug of the viAad phrase o£ the 
Apostle. So Wycl. ; aucl Vulg., cturai. Tyud., " may have free 
passage " ; whence Auth., " may have free course." Compare 
Ps. cxlvii. 15, " His word runneth very swiftly." 

3 Prom the evil one. — Auth., "from evil." This thought pro- 
bably arose out of the mention of " evil men " in the preceding 
verse. There is a special reason for attributing the masculine 
sense to the word here, as the Apostle has sj^oken of Satan iu 
chap. ii. 9 ; and in the former Epistle; chap. ii. 18, and cha]). 
iii. 5. 

5 The patience of Christ.— So Wycl., Tynd., and Cranm., 
following Vulg. Auth., "the patient waiting for Christ," with 
Genev., following Beza, Christi patientem expectationem ; a beau- 
tiful idea, but not contained in the Gr., which must mean the 
patient endurance, of which Christ is om* example. So Chrysos- 
tom, " that ye may be patient, as He was patient." 

The Auth., however, has on its side the interpretation of some 
ancient commentators, as Ambrose, also of Erasmus and A La- 
pide ; and both Chrysostom and Theophylact give it as an alter- 
native (Alford). Compare Rev. xiv. 12, "Here is the j)atieuce 
of the saints " — i.e., " the imtience which is shown by them." 

8 Bread at any man's hand. — Literally, "from any man." 
Auth., " any man's bread." " To eat bread" is a customary He- 
brew idiom. Compare verse 12. 

But in labour and travail [we ate], working. — Auth., 
with a change of construction, and a transposition of the Gr. 
order, " but wi'ought with laboiu- and travail." 

That we might not burden any of you— i.e., " by the 

expense of maintaining us," as iu 1 Thess. i. 9. Auth., " that Ave 
might not be chargeable." 

9 The right. — Auth., " the power." As to the Gr. e^oua-la, see 
Note on Col. i. 13. 

16 In all ways. — In every form; peace inward, external with 
each other, with the world, with God. Gr., iv vavri rpSirci). Anth., 
" always." 




1 Our hope. — The insei-tiou " xoliich is" (Aiith.) is not required. 
Compare Col. i. 27 : " Christ . . . the hope of glory." 

2 My true child. — Auth., " my own son." Gr., yvrtcrltf, as in 
Phil. iv. 3. See Note on Phil. ii. 20. 

4 The which. — The relative is causal, not defining, a'hivis. 
Aiith., "which." 

A dispensation. — Or, as in Margin, " a stewardship ; " by 
change in Gr. text for " edifying " (Auth.) : the dispensation 
made by God to man of the spiritual food and sustenance, which 
His ministers, hence called His " stewards," are commissioned to 
supply. See Ephes. i. 10, iii. 2, 

So do I now. — The sentence in the Gr. is not concluded. The 
words inserted appear to fill the void better than " so do," as 
Auth., with Tynd. and Erasmus. 

5 The end of the charge. — Referring to verse 3. The con- 
nection is lost in Auth., " commandment," which is suggestive 
of some Scriptural precept. Timothy was to charge certain 
persons that they should not teach false doctrine ; but he was to 
remember that the end and purpose of his so charging them was 
the increase of love. This connection between verses 5 and 6 is 
obscured in Auth. by commencing the latter verse with " Now," 
as if a new subject were entered upon. 

6 Vain talking.— Auth., following Tynd., "vain jangling." The 
Gr. does not contain any idea of "jangling," i.e., of dissonant 
noise or unmeaning chatter. Yulg., vaniloquixim. 

9 The unruly.— Not exactly "the disobedient," as Auth., but 
those who are unwilling to submit themselves to rule, insub- 

382 I. TIMOTHY— I. 

10 False swearers. — Tynd., "perjured;" amondcd but made 
cumbrous iu Auth. by the addition of " persons." 

The sound doctrine. — The exact meaning of the Gr. is 
" healthful." This phrase, and other terms relating in their 
primary sense to physical health and disease, are specially 
characteristic of the pastoral Epistles, written at the time when 
St. Paul had with him St. Luke, the " beloved physician," as his 
companion in travel and imprisonment. 

11 The gospel of the glory. — So Wycl, Tynd., and Cranm. 
Auth., following Genev. and Beza, " the glorious gospel." " The 
glory of God" is His majesty and mercy, which the Gospel 
reveals to us. Compare 2 Cor. iv, 4 : " The light of the gospel 
of the glory of Christ." 

12 Appointing me to his service. — AU Engl, versions, " putting 
[or, ' and put '] me into the ministry." The Gr. verb is in the 
middle voice, containing a reflective sense, and implying that it 
was for His own Divine pm-pose that He did this. Compare 
Acts xiii. 47. 

15 Faithful is the saying. — This emphatic phrase, used occa- 
sionally by St. Paul in introducing a familiar Christian maxim, 
is another characteristic of his pastoral Epistles, and is not 
found elsewhere in the New Testament. Compare chaps, iii. 1, 
iv. 9 ; 2 Tim. ii. 11 ; Titus iii. 8. In the Old Testament (LXX. 
version) a very similar phrase occurs (2 Kings x. 6) : " True is 
the report." It is thought to be an indication that these Epistles 
were wi-itten at a comparatively late date, when the main tniths 
of the Gospel began to be embodied in short pithy sentences, 
wliich were easily committed to memory, and obtained general 
acceptation among the believers. "Faithful," i.e., worthy of 
being believed: it looks like the germ of a creed. Auth., "it is 
a faithful saying," gives the sense of the formula, but not the 
emphasis, which lies on the first word, "faithful." 

16 That in me as chief.— Auth., "that in me first." Tynd., 
" that Jesus Christ should first shew on me." Tlie Gr. is 
"fii'st" {■rrpdiTCf), both in this verse and in the preceding, and 
should be translated by the same word, that word being " chief." 
So says St. Augustine (on Ps. xx.) : "Taking precedence of all 
others not in time, but in the magnitude of his sin." The 
change made in Auth., from " chief " in verse 15 to "first" in 
this verse, would imply that the Apostle passes from the one 
thought to the other. " Foremost " might have been a suitable 
rendering in both places, but would have been detrimental to the 
clearness of the sense, as well as to the rhythm of the sentence. 


All his long-suffering gives the force of the article tV 
&va(Tav, which is lost in Auth., "all longsiiffering," Comj)are 
Acts XX. 18, and John xvi. 13. 

For an ensample of them.— This change from Auth., "for 
a pattern to them," is intended to express the force of the genitive 
" of them," shewing that it was not held out as a pattern to 
them for their use and imitation, but as their possession, " their 
pattern or example," according to English idiom; but it m;iy 
be doubted whether the change Avas sufficiently important or 
significant to be worth making. Compare 2 Peter ii. 6, where 
the change has not been made. 

17 Incorruptible.— The Gr. is so rendered in Auth. in all the 
other places (seven in number) in which it occurs ; hei'e " im- 
mortal," with all Engl, versions. Wycl., " undeadly." 

" Wise." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

19 Having thrust from them. — The Gr. denotes more violence 
than " put away " (Aixth.), and is also in liarmony with the 
nautical metaphor which follows : " Piishiug off from the land 
on which they might have found safety, they made shipwi'eck 
concerning the faith." 

20 That they might be taught — i.e., by the Christian disci- 
pline of siiffering. Auth., "that they may learn." The "de- 
livering to Satan " is thoiight to be said in reference to a 
formiUa for excommunication, combining expulsion from the 
outward means of grace with the infliction of bodily suffering. 
{ElUcott, and Wordsivorth, Notes on 1 Cor. v. 5, where the same 
phrase occurs.) 


1 I exhort therefore first of all.— Auth., following Tynd., 
" I exhort therefore that first of all," as if in the supplications 
of tlie Church the first place were to be given to intercession ; 
whereas the meaning of the Gr. is, "I begin my exhortations 
with this command." 

2 In high place. — The Gr. is literally, " in eminence," and only 
by inference suggestive of " authority," as in Auth. Wycl., " all 

384 I. TIMOTHY— II. 

that be set in liigliness." Yulg., in sublimitate. The word 
occurs in the LXX. — e.g., 2 Mace. ii. 11— but not again in the 
New Testament. 

Tranquil and quiet. — AU Engl, versions, following Vulg., 
•' quiet and peaceable." The difference between the two Gr. 
words is said to be tliat the former denotes the absence of 
molestation from without, the latter, inward quietness, " the 
ornament of a meek and quiet spirit " (1 Peter iii. 4). 

Gravity. — Auth., " honesty." Yulg., castitate. The word, in 
connection with " godliness," means the effect which godliness 
has on the outward demeanour. It is rendered " graA-ity " in 
chap. iii. 4 (Auth.). 

4 Who willeth. — Auth., following Tynd., " who will have all 
men to be saved," which sounds like a determinate purpose. 
Gr., ee\ei. Yulg., vult salvos fieri. Rhem., by a singular 
adaptation of Tynd. to Yulg., "who will all men to be saved." 
Wycl., " that wole that all men be made saaf ." 

6 Himself man. — Auth., with Tynd., " the man." Gr., nfcrlrrts 
0€oi" Kol avdpd-rruv iudpoonos . . . where "man," though without 
the article, is made emphatic by its iteration. The manhood 
of Chi'ist is thus strongly affirmed, as if the false teachers were 
contemplated wlio denied it. Moreover, it was in His human 
nature that He gave Himself " a ransom for aU " (verse 6) and 
fulfilled His mediatorial office. He is described not as "the 
man," or " a man," but as " man," the representative of humanity 

6 The testimony to he borne in its own times. — The Gr. 

requires a supplement of this kind, or a paraphrase such as 
Aiith., " to be testified in due time ; " the sense being that the 
testimony as to His mediation was to be given to men in the 
appointed time by His death. By preserving the word " testi- 
mony " the reference of the relative " whereunto," at the begin- 
ning of the next verse, is more clearly seen. 

7 In faith and truth.— Tynd. and Auth., " in faith and verity ; " 
a typical instance of the studied variation of the Engl, version 
even when the same Gr. word is rejieated in the same sentence. 

8 The men. — In contradistinction to " women " in verse 9 — (the 
article is here omitted by change in Gr. text) — with regard to 
whom the rule is laid down which prevailed in tlie Jewisli 
synagogues, that they were not to lift up their voices in prayer. 


Disputing. —Tlie Gr. is so reiidored in Autli. at Pliil. ii. 14; 
but here "doubting;" and so Cluysostom. Vnlg., discep- 

9 Shamefastness.— Correctly so printed in Auth. of 1611. Tlio 
modern mode of spelling the w.ord "sliamcfast" arose fi-om the 
erroneous notion that it denotes shame as shewn in the face 
(" shamefaced "), whereas the second syllable is an adjective, as 
in steadfast : " made fast, and settled in (an honourable) shame." 
See Trench on " New Testament Synonyms." 

Raiment. — Tynd. and Auth., " array." The Gr. signifies 
" clothing," not " ornament." " Array," in its original sense of 
" clothing," is antiquated ; while " raiment," another form of 
the word, is still understood in that sense only. 

11 Quietness. — All Engl, versions, " silence," following Yulg. 
The Gr. is cognate to " quiet," in verse 2. 

12 Permit.— So Rhem. Auth., " suffer." The Gr. is more com- 
monly rendered " permit," though " suffer " has been kept in 
Matt. viii. 

To have dominion.— Auth., " to usurp authority." Tlie Gr. 
is not found in classical authors ; it is defiued to mean " exercise 

14 Hath fallen into.— More littn-ally, "hath come to be in" 
(7670^61' eV). Auth., " was in," following Tynd. Cranm., " was 
subdued to." 

15 She shall be saved through the childbearing.— The 

article, omitted in Auth., has great significance. The obvious 
iuterj)retation is, " woman shall be saved through the discharge 
of her maternal duties ; " but, as ancient expositors held, and 
modern commentators now allow, there is a deeper meaning 
underlying, if not displacing, that which apx)ears on the surface : 
" The whole female sex, and even the whole of mankind, is saved 
through the birth of Christ born of a woman according to the 
flesh, if they — i.e., the women — abide in faith and love, and in. 
sanctification with modesty." 



1 Paithfal.— See Note on cliaix i. 15. 

2 Without reproach.— Autli., " blameless." The Gr. is liter, 
ally, " not to be laid hold of ; " " one Avho offers no handle for 
reproach." Rheni., " irreprehensible." It occurs three times in 
tliis Epistle, but not elsewhere in the New Testament. 

Temperate. — The Gr. properly means, " abstinent as regards 
wine." Auth., following Genev., "^^gilant." 

Sober-minded. — The usual meaning of the Gr. adxppuiv. Auth., 
" sober." 

Orderly. — Shewing in the outward conduct a weU-rogulated 
mind. Auth., " of good behaviour " — a somewhat colourless 
phrase. Tynd., "honestly appai'elled." Genev., "modest." 
Vulg., ornahim. A singular diversity of interpretations, none 
of which can be said to be unsuitable to the Gr. k6(T)iiov. 

3 No .brawler. — Literally, " not violent over wine," as in the 
Margin of the Auth., which has in the text, "not given to wine." 

Gentle. — Axith., " patient." See Note on Phil. iv. 5. 

Not contentious. — Tynd., "abhon-ing fighting." Auth., "no 


No lover of money. — This is the literal meaning of the Gr. 
Auth.. " not covetous." Tynd., " abhorring covetousness." 

6 Puffed up. — A metaphor from smoke. Auth., " lifted up with 


10 Serve as deacons. — ^Auth., " use the office of deacons ; " a 
l)rolix expression for the single Gr. word, which, on the other 
hand, is here too cm-tly rendered by Tynd., " minister," being 
cognate to the word " deacons," for whom the admonition is 
intended (verse 8) ; and so in verse 13. 

11 Women.— Tynd. and Auth., " their wives." The Gr. is simply 
yvvaiKas, and there is nothing to shew that the wives of deacons 
are intended. 

13 A good standing.— A good position ; Avhether in the sight of 
God or man is not said. All Engl, versions, " a good degree," 
following Vulg., f/rcidum bonum. The meaning may be "ad- 
vancement to the liigher offices in tlie Churcli." or a good degree 
in heaven, where there are different degrees of blessedness. The 
jivoid properly means a step or standing-place, and does not 

I. TIMOTHY— IV. ■ 387 

occur again m the New Testament, As to the interpretation, 
see Alford's and Ellicott's Notes. 

16 He who.— Auth., " God." The Gr. text has long been doubt- 
ful ; but it is now ascertained that there is a great preponderance 
of the most ancient MSS. and versions in favour of the rehitive, 
and of the MSS. for the masculine '6s, " He who," while the versions 
vary between the masculine and the neuter S, which is the 
reading followed by the Yulg. The two words &s6s and '6s, as 
wi-itten in the MSS., 02 and 02, differ but little, and the 
one might easily, in copying, be mistaken or written for the 
other. The masculine " He who " necessitates the insertion, 
mentally if not in the text, of " Christ " — " Christ, who was 
manifested," &c. Supposing Q^Ss (" God ") to be genuine, the 
passage would still refer to Christ, and would be a declaration 
of His Godliead, which, however, needs not such dubious su^jport 
as might be derived from a disputed reading. Alford, EUicott, 
Wordsworth, are in favour of the relative. For the use of 
the word " mystery " in relation to Christ, compare Col. i. 26, 
27 ; and especially Col. ii. 2, according to the revised Gr. text, 
*• that they may know the mystery of God, even Christ." 


1 Fall away. — The Gr. is so rendered in Luke viii. 13; and the 
cognate noim, apostasia, " a falling away," in 2 Thess. ii. 3. 
All Engl, versions here have "depart," following Yulg., dis 

2 Through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies.— The 

Gr. is literally rendei'ed thus. Auth., following Tynd., " speak- 
ing lies in hypocrisy," as if in grammatical connection with 
"some" (verse 1), instead of denoting the mode or cause of 
their " falling away." 

Branded in their own conscience.— As slaves Avere on 
their forehead. Auth., " having their conscience seared;" i.e., 
rendered callous and dead as by cautery. 

4 Nothing is to be rejected.— So Rhem. Auth., "refused." 
This saying, Avith regard to the gifts of the gods, was a proverb 
among the ancient Greeks, probably derived from Uomer, Iliad, 
iii. 65. (Field.) 

388 I. TIMOTHY— V. 

6 Thou nast followed. — The Gr. is the same word as in 
Luke i. 3 ; 2 Tim. iii. 10, and is better rendered by Tyud., 
"continually followed," than by Auth., "thou hast obtained." 
following Rhem., misled by Vulg., assecutus es. Until now is 
added to give the full force of the verb in the perfect tense, 
" hast followed all along, and stiU art following." 

8 Is profitable for a little.— Bodily austerities are profitable 
in some small degree. Gr., Trphs 6\iyov. Auth., with Tynd., 
"profiteth little," which is an allowable rendering. The con- 
struction is the same in this and the next clause. Yulg., 
ad modicum . . . ad omnia. 

10 Strive. — By change in Gr. text for " suffer reproach." 

We have our hope set on.— Literally, "We have hoped 
upon." So in chap. v. 5. Auth., " we trust in." 

13 Give heed. — Or, as would now be said, " give attention," i-athor 
than "give attendance" (Auth.). WycL, "Take tent to reading." 

15 Be diligent in these things. — Auth., "meditate," following 
Yulg., meditare. The Gr. is ixiXera. 

Thy progress. — Auth., " profiting ; " as in Phil. i. 12, 25. 


Exhort. — So Tynd. This is the usual translation of irapaKa\fu, 
where the context shews that au admonition is meant, not a 
request. Auth., " intreat," with Rhem. Wycl. and Yulg., 
obsecra. These milder words apparently were chosen becanse of 
the older men to whom the exhortation is in the first instance 

Grandchildren. — Tynd. and Auth., " nephews," now obsolete 
in this sense, Avhich it retained in the time of Locke, wlio says, 
" All men who believe in th-e Bible must derive from Noah ; but 
the rest of the world think little of his sons or nephews." Yulg., 

To shew piety toward their own family— i.e., towards 
their own parents or progenitors literally, "towards their own 
house." So Chrysostom, and other ancient expositors ; not as 

I. TIMOTHY— VT. 389 

Yulg., "to nile their own household." domum suam regere, 
followed by Tynd. Ai;th., " to show i>iety at home." 

8 An unbeliever.— Auth., " an infidel." See 2 Oor. vi. 15. 

9 Be enrolled.— Auth., "bo taken into the number." Tynd., 
" be chosen." The Gr. woi-d, from which comes the Engl. 
catalogue, means properly, " be put on a list" — the most probable 
interpretation of the phrase in this place being tliat it has 
reference to an order of " widows " in the Church, to whom 
certain duties were entrusted, such as. the superintendence of 
the yoxmger women, 

13 Going about.— More exact than " wandering about " (Auth.). 
Vulg., circuire. 

14 Rule the household.— A stronger phrase than Autli., " guide 
the house." Wycl., " be house\vives." 

16 " Man or," — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

19 At the mouth of. — Compare Matt, xviii. 16, where these words 
stand in the text (Auth.). 

20 Reprove. — Auth., "rebuke," which represents a more severe 
word in verse 1. 

21 Without prejudice.— Or, as in Margin, "without preference." 
The unfavourable sense is the more probable. 

23 Be no longer a drinker of water.— Auth., "drink no 
longer water," The Gr. recommends the discontinuance of a 
ha])it. The Auth. seems entirely to prohibit the drinking of water. 

24 Some men's sins are evident.— Are openly manifest. The 
Gr. has not any reference to time, as Auth. with Tynd., " are 
open beforehand," as though they were evident before they were 


2 But let them serve them the rather — i.e., " serve them 
all the more zealously, because," &c. Not as Auth., " but rather 
do them service," which puts tlie emphasis on the verb, as if the 
meaning were " rather than despise them, do them service." 

390 I. TIMOTHY— YI. 

They that partake of the benefit.— This is the subject of 
the verb, not, as in Auth., a secondary predicate. " They that 
partake of the benefit {i.e., the masters, who benefit by the good 
offices of their servants) are believers." 

4 Doting. — Literally, "diseased"— I'oo-djj', in a morbid state. 

Questionings. — The Gr. is the same as in chap. i. 4, denoting 
not "questions" (as Auth.), but the controversies to which the 
questions give rise. 

Disputes of words. — The Gr. is the original of the term, 
recently imported into English, " logomachy." Auth., " strifes 
of words." " Strife " foUows immediately as the rendering of 


6 Wranglings. — Prolonged conflicts. A doubly comj)oundea 
word. Auth., "perverse disputings." 

Bereft of the truth — i.e., ha^aug possessed it and been 
deprived of it. Auth., " destitute of the truth." Y\dg.,privati 

Supposing that godliness is a way of gain.— The point 
of this sententious saying is lost in Auth. by the inversion, 
■ " supposing that gain is godliness." The right order is indicated 
in the Gr. by the article prefixed to " godliness," marking that 
word as the subject. Their supposition was that the profession 
of godliness, as inculcated by St. Paul, was nothing more nor 
less than a way to get rich. 

7 For neither can we.— So by change in Gr. text for Auth., 
" and it is certain we can;" but the logical connection (indicated 
by oTi, *' for ") l)etween this clause and tlie preceding is not very 
apparent. Dr. Field suggests that there is an ellipsis of 5t\\ou 
— the word which has been cast out of the text, and which is 
certainly spurious — and he cites two examples of this ellipsis from 
Chrysostom, vol. x., p. 38 (Otium Now ic, -p. 127); comparing 
also 1 John iii. 20, which might be explained in iJae same way, 
according to a suggestion of the learned grammar iin L. Bos. 

8 Having food and covering.— Auth., "food and raiment." 
Neitlier word occurs again in the New Testament. The latter, 
which is rendered " covering," probably includes both clothing 
and shelter. Yulg., habentes alimenta et qidhus tegimur. 

We shall be therewith content. — More literal than Auth., 
" let us be." 

I. TIMOTHY— VI. 391 

10 A root.— Not, as all Engl, versions, "the root." Tlie Gr. does 
not assert that the love of money is the root, the one and only- 

Which some reaching after. — Auth., not so literally, 
" coveting," with Wycl. The relative is grammatically in 
concoi'dwith "the love of money," <\>iKapyvpia, but is to be under- 
stood as referring not to the whole word, l)ut to a part of it, 
" money." 

12 Didst confess the good confession. — The Gr. words are 
commonly so rendered, as in verse 13, "confession," but are here 
in Auth. and Tynd., "hast professed the good profession." As 
used in the New Testament, they denote an "acknowledgment," 
whether of faith, of sin, or of thankfulness; here, of faith. 
" Profess " is used for another Gr. word in verse 21. 

14 Without reproach. — The Gr. is the same as in chaps, iii. 2, 
V. 7. Auth., " unrebukeable," following Tynd.; like "unreprov- 
able " (Col. i. 22) : this word does not occur again in Auth. 

16 Unapproachable. — The single Gr. word airpSa-irov is resolved 
in all Engl, versions. Auth., " which no man can approach unto." 

17 As in chap. iv. 10. 

19 The life which is life indeed. — By change in Gr. text for 
■ " eternal life " (Auth.), ovrui for aluviov -. the j)hrase is not 

foimd elsewhei'6 in the New Testament. 

20 Guard. — As a deposit, <pvKai,ov ; not simply " keep " (Auth.), as 
a possession. Compare 2 Tim. i. 12. 

Babblings. — The addition of "vain" (Auth.) is unnecessary, 
• as all babbling is vain. Gr., Keyo^wvias, literally "empty 
■ utterances." 

The knowledge which is falsely so called.— Auth., 

" science falsely so called." The knowledge (gnosis) here referred 
to was probably of the kind afterwards taught as a system of 
doeti'ine in the schools of the Gnostics, who took their name as a 
sect' from their profession of it, and who asserted among other 
things an opposition between tlie law and the Gospel. 




4 Longing. — A more tender expression than " greatly desiring " 
(Autli.)- The Gr. iiTnroeaiv is the same as in Phil. i. 8. 

6 The laying on of my hands.— So Auth. iu 1 Tim. iv. 14; 

liero " putting on." 

7 Pearfulness. — Literally "cowardice,'' 5ei\ias. Anth., "fear." 

Discipline. — Anth., " sound mind.'' The Gr. means propei-ly 
the training -which steadies and sobers the mind, not the state of 

8 Suffer hardship with the gospel.-- So Tynd. and Cranm., 
" sulfer adversity with the gospel;" and Viilg., collabora 
Evangelio. Rliem., " travail with the gospel." Genev. and 
Auth., "be thou partaker of tlie afflictions of tlio gospel," follow- 
ing Beza. The Gospel is regarded as a living sentient being, 
Avliieh suffers ; as tlie Creation is said to " groan," Rom. viii. 22. 

9 Before times eternal. — Fi*om all eternity. Auth. (by para- 

plu'ase), " before the world began." 

10 Incorruption. — So "VVyel. with Vulg. Auth., following Tynd., 
"immortality." Compare 1 Tim. i. 17; Rom. ii. 7 ; 1 Cor. 
XV. 42. 

12 I know him whom I have believed.— Not merely " I know 
who it is," as Auth.. but '' I know Him. am acquainted with 

Guard. — Auth., " keep." See Note on 1 Tim. vi. 20. 

13 Pattern.— So Auth. in 1 Tim. i. 16 ; here " form." The Gr. 
means properly that of which a copy is to be made. 

15 Turned away. — The Gr., thougli passive iu form, denotes a 
voluntary defection. 



3 Suffer hardship with me. — Tlie Gr., by change in the text, 
is the same as in chaj). i. 8, having the preposition (tvi>, " with," 
and requiring the insertion of some word to denote ijartieipation 
in suffering ; an alternative mode of doing this is given in the 

4 No soldier on service.— Auth., "no man that warreth." The 
Gr. is properly, " no one sending in an army." Compare 
1 Cor. ix. 7 ; Luke iii. 14. 

Who enrolled him.— Auth., "who hath chosen him." Tho 
Gr. is not found elsewhere in the New Testament. 

5 Contend in the games. — Auth., "strive for mastei-ies.'' 
Tho Gr. signifies, especially, the engaging in the " athletic " 
conflict of the Greek games. And from it we have the word 


9 A malefactor — i.e., a criminajl. Auth., " an evil-doer." The 
Gr. is the same as in Luke xxiii. 32, where Auth. has " two 
other, malefactors." 

11 Died. — Auth., "be dead." See Note on Rom. vi. 2. 

12 Endure. — Auth., "suffer." The Gr. denotes patient endurance, 
as in Matt. x. 22, and many other places. 

15 Give diligence. — The Gr. is frequently so translated, and 
implies active, earnest endeavom'. Auth., following TjTid., 
" study." 

To present thyself. — So Rhem. Other Engl, versions, 
"shew," but in general the Gr. irapiffr-qixi is rendered "to 
present." The meaning is, "do thy best to present thyself before 
God as one that He wiU approve." 

Handling aright. — Literally, " cutting straight," e.g., a road, 
or a furrow, as in Prov. iii. 6 (LXX.). Auth., with Tynd., "rightly 
dividing." "Wycl., "treating rightly," after Yulg., recte trac- 

16 Proceed further. — The Gr. denotes movement in advance, 
rather than growth, as Auth., "increase." Compare chap. iii. 9, 
and Luke ii. 52, " Jesus advanced," where the same word is 

17 Will eat. — Litei'ally, " will spread." These medical terms may 
liave been suggested to St. Paul by his intercourse with St 


Luke, who was at this time his only companion. See Note on 
1 Tim. i. 10. 

A gangrene. — Gv., gangrcena, "an eating sore." All Engl, 
versions, following Vulg., "a cancer," or "canker." The 
gangrene is said to be more rapid in its deadly course than the 

19 The firm foundation of God standeth.— This collocation 
is followed in aU Engl, versions, except Anth., which lias 
"the foundation of God standctli sure." Thus Wycl., "the 
sad (solid) foundement of God standeth." The. emphatic use of 
the word " to stand " is familiar to the reader of St. Paul's 
Epistles. Compare Eph. vi. 13, 14. 

22 Follow after.— Auth., "follow." Compare 1 Tim. vi. 11, 
where the same command is given. 

23 Ignorant.— Auth., with Tynd., " iinlearned." Tlie Gr. denotes 
not so much want of |lcarning as want of the intelligence which 
comes of education and mental discipline. 

Refuse — i.e., when they are proposed to yoia'; literally, "beg off 
from them." Auth., "avoid." The same word is used in 
1 Tim. iv. 7, v. 11, and is there rendered " refuse " in Auth. 

24 Forbearing. — Literally, " patient of evil," as Tynd. The word 
does not again occur in the New Testament. 

25 The knowledge. — Auth. (alone), " acknowledging," following 
Beza, agnitionem veritatis. 

26 They may recover themselves. . . .—This obscure passage 
admits of various interpretations. The difficulty arises from 
the use in the Gr. of two different pronouns, the separate re- 
ference of which is not cleai'ly defined by the context. Tlie 
alternative which is given in the Margin — " that . they may 
recover themselves from the snare of the devil, after having been 
taken captive by the same (the devil), unto the will of him 
(God) " — is in point of sense and construction as probable as that 
which stands in the text. Auth., " who are taken captive by 
him at his will," is objectionable, (1) because " who are taken" 
would require the article, which is not in the Gr. : (2) because 
in the words "by him at his will" the distinction between 
tlie two Gr. pronouns is not preserved; and (3) because the 
last words are incorrectly rendered " at his will," instead of 
"' unto." 



1 Grievous times. — Hard times. All Engl, versions, " peril- 
ous," following Yulg., periculosa. The Gr. denotes difficulty 
ratlier than danger. 

2 Lovers of money.— The cognate adjective to the noun in 
1 Tim. vi. 10. Auth., " covetous." 

Haughty. — The word is so rendered in Rom. i. 30, where there 
is a similar catalogue of evil-doers. Auth. here, " proud." 

Railers. — Auth., " blasphemers," the literal Gr., which, how- 
ever, is not limited, like the same word in Engl., to evil-speaking 
against God, unless the context shews it to be so, which is not 
the case liere. 

3 Im.pla;Cable. — Not admitting of a truce, rather than " truce- 
breakers," as Auth., following Tynd. Yulg., sine pace. 

Slanderers.— Gr., diaboli. So Auth. in 1 Tim, iii. 11, but 
here " false accusers." 

Without self-control. — Auth., with Wycl. and Yulg., in. 
continent. This word, like that in verse 2 (" railers"), is general 
in its sense, unless limited by the context, as in 1 Cor. vii. 5. 

No lovers of good. — Auth., " desj)isers of them that are 
good." This, though not so strong as Tynd., " fierce despisers 
of them which are good," is an exaggeration of the first half of 
the word, which is "not loving," and a limitation of the latter 
half, which is " of good " in general, not of good men in par- 
ticular. Compare Titus i. 8, where the word occurs of which 
this is the negative, denoting sympathy with all that is good. 

4 Headstrong.— Auth., with Tynd., "heady" — a good Shak- 
spearian word, but now disused. Rhem., " stubborn." The 
same word in Acts xix. 36 is rendered " rash." 

Hather than. — AU Engl, versions, following Yulg., "more 
than." Demophilus, an ancient Pythagorean philosopher, using 
the two words here used by tlie Apostle, said it was impossible 
for the same man to be a lover of pleasure and a lover of God. 
( Wordsworth.) 

6 Take captive. — The Gr. is not properly to " lead captive," as 
Auth. (compare Rom. vii. 23) ; and it is not related to the word 
which follows, " led away." 


9 Evident is more commonly used for the Gr. Srj\os and its 
compounds ; " manifest " (Auth.) for <j>avep6s. 

Came to be. — This idiomatic phrase occasionally is well suited 
to the Gr. yivo/xai. All Engl, versions, " was." 

10 Thou didst follow.— Auth., " thou hast fiUly known ; " here 
as in 1 Tim. iv. 6, erroneously following Yulg., assecutus es. 
Timothy had " followed " him as a disciple in his teacliing, as a 
partaker in his perils, as an imitator of his faith, love, and 
general conduct in his trials at Antioch, &c. 

13 Impostors. — The Gr., properly meaning those who prac- 
tised incantations, was used for impostors generally. Auth., 
"seducers," following Rhem. and Yulg., sedtidores. Tynd., 
" deceivers." 

15 Prom a babe. — Gr.,airb Ppf(t>ovs, "from infancy." The phrase 
does not occur again. 

The sacred writings.— Not, as Auth., "the holy scrii^tures," 

j the Gr. being ra hpa ypd/xixara, not ras dalas ypa(pds. The phrase 
is found in Josephus, but not again in the New Testament. 
Yulg., sacras liter as, as if it meant sacred literature in general. 

16 Every scripture. — Eveiy separate part. All Engl, versions, 
" all scripture " as a whole. 

Every scripture inspired of God is also profitable. — 

This construction, taking " inspired of God" {QeSwevcTTOi) with 
the subject, and not as tlio predicate, is followed by the ancient 
expositors — e.g., by Origen, Chrysostom, and the best and most 
ancient versions, as tlie Syi'iac and Yulg. {ovinis scriptura 
divinitus inspirata utilis est); by Wycl., Tynd., and Cranm. ; 
also (among recent commentators) by Alford, Ellicott, and by 
Bp. Wordsworth (substantially), whose rendering is, "All scrip- 
ture, being inspired of God, is also profitable," &c'. Auth., 
with Geuev., following Beza, takes " inspired of God " as the 
predicate : " All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and 
is," &c. ; and so Bengel. This translation is grammatically 
allowahle ; but besides being against the weight of ancient and 
modern authority, it is not so probable as the former, there 
being nothing in the context which would lead to a declaration 
that the Scriptures are inspired. 



1 And [I cliarge tliee] by his appearing.— For " at his appear- 
ing" (Autli.), by change iu Gr. text. 

3 But having itching ears.— The trauspositiou of tliis clause 
removes the possibility which there iij iu Auth., but not iu the 
Gr., of couuecting it with " teachers." 

5 Be thou sober, — The Gr. V7}<peiv is usually so rendered iu 
Auth., as iu Tliess. v. 6, but here " ■watch." 

Fulfil. — So Vulg., imple, and all Engl, versions except Auth., 
which has "make full proof of thy ministry," following Beza, 
ministerii tui plenam Jidem fucito, on the assumption that the 
transitive verb Trkripocpopio) must iu meaning correspond with tlie 
passive, which is rendered '' be fully assured " iu Rom. iv. 5. 
Compare Acts xii. 25. 

6 I am already being offered.— As at Phil. ii. 17, where see 
Note. Auth., " I am now ready to be oifercd." The lu-eseut 
tense of the Gr. verb implies that the sacrifice has now com- 
meuced, the out-pouriug, the libation of his blood. 

7 The good fight — which in his former Epistle he bids 
Timothy maintain (chap. vi. 12). Thus he reverts from the idea 
of a sacrifice, which is unusual vnth him, to the favourite 
metaphor of the games, which was so familiar to every Greek, 
and which he here contiuues in his allusions to the ''course," and 
the "crown," and (perhaps) the "judge." Compare 1 Cor. ix. 24; 
Phil. iii. 13, and chap. ii. 5 of this Epistle. 

11 For ministering.— Auth., "for the ministry." Compare 
Eph. iv. 12, and Note there. 

Ii The Lord will render to him.— For Auth., '• the Lord 
reward him," by change in Gr. text from the optative mood to 
the future indicative. A similar change is made iu chap. ii. 7. 

16 At my first defence. — So Wycl., following Vulg., 
defeiisionem. Auth., with Tyud., " answer." The Gr. dTroAoyia. 
(whence our apology) is properly rendered " defence." Compare 
Acts xxii. 1. 

Took my part.— Gr., Trapiyevero. More UteraUy, "came to my 
side." Vulg., adfiilt. The word is used iu a forensic sense by 


Demostlieues. Auth., "stood with me," following anotlier 
readiiig of tlie Gr. text. 

17 That through me the message might be fully pro- 
claimed. — Literally, " that by meaus of me the proclamation 
[of the GospelJ might be fulfilled. " Auth., " that by me the 
preaching- might be fully known." 

20 Miletus. — All Engl, versions, erroneously, " Miletum " — except 
Wycl., "milete." 




1 The knowledge. — Auth., "the acknowleclging ; " as iu 2 Tira. 
ii. 25, iii. 7. 

2 Before times eternal.— See Note on 2 Tim. i. 9. 

4 My true child. — Timothy is addressed by the same tender 
phrase, 1 Tim. i. 2. 

5 As I gave thee charge.— ^Gr., Stera^afniy. The Auth., 
" ordained elders in every city, as I had appointed thee," is 
liable to be read as if a comparison were drawn between the 
ordaining of elders and the appointment of Titus. 

6 Children that believe.— Auth., " faithful children," which, 
though meant to have the same sense, might be understood to 
mean, not holding the faith in Christ, but faithful to their own 

7 As to the changes in this verse, see Notes on 1 Tim. iii. 3 ; 
2 Tim. ii. 3 ; 1 Tim. ii. 8 ; 1 Tim. i. 10. 

12 Idle gluttons.— Auth., " slow bellies." It was not thought 
necessary to retain the literal rendering of the expressive Greek 
phrase, denoting one who from gluttony has become corpulent 
and indolent, a mere " belly," a man no longer. 


1 Befit. — Auth., '' become," a word which, having two very 
different meanings, is liable in such a context as this to be 

3 Reverent in demeanour. — Auth., "in behaviour as be- 

400 TITUS— 11. 

Cometh lioliuess." Neither of the two -words of the Greek occurs 
again in the New Testament. For the thought which they 
express, compare 1 Tim. ii. 10 ; Eph. v. 3. The adjective 
translated " reverent " points to outward deportment rather than 
" hoHness," and the noun likewise to demeanour, outward 
manner, rather than " behaviour," which includes general 
conduct in intercourse with other persons. 

4 That they may train the young women.— Literally, 

" may sober the yoimg women to love their husbands," the 
Gi*. A'erb being "to make sober-minded," doicppovi^eiy. Autli., 
" may teach the young women to be sober, to love their Imsljands." 

5 Workers at home. — By change in Gr. text for '• keepers at 
home," Autli. 

13 And appearing of the glory. — See Note on 1 Tim. i. 11. 

Our great God and Saviour, Jesus Christ.— Auth., 

"the great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ;" wliicli is 
substantially the rendering of Wyd. and Tynd., and according 
to which a double appearance is foretold, viz.. of the great 
God, accompanied by our Sa^dour Christ. The Gr. is tov 
/utyaAou &€ov Koi (Toorripos ti^jlwv ' ItjctoC XpicroC, in which the article 
appears from its position to bind together in one the two 
heavenly Names which are connected by " and," so that the 
appearance here spoken of is tlie apiJearance not of two Divine 
Persons, but of one, of Christ, both God and man. This, as 
Bishop Wordsworth sliews by a long chain of testimony, has been 
the interpretation of the passage from the earliest time to the 
present ; but as there are scholars of high authority Avho deny 
the cogency of the argument drawn from the position of the 
article, the rendering of Auth. has been inserted as an 
alternative in the Margin. See especially Dr. Kennedy's Ely 
Lectures on the Revised Version, p. 83. Compare 2 Peter i. 1, 
which is very similar though not precisely parallel to this 

14 A people for his own possession.— This appears to be the 
meaning of Auth., following Tynd., "a peculiar people;" 
*• peculiar " in old English hanug the same sense as pecuUaris 
in Latin, that which is a person's own, his '"property,'' his 
pemUum. The Gr. is not elsewhere foimd in the New Testa- 
ment, but is frequent in the Old Testament, as in Deut. vii. 6, 
where Vulg. has popidus pecidiaris ; and a similar phrase, with 
the same meaning, occurs in 1 Pet. ii. 9. 

TITUS— III. 401 


1 To rulers, to authorities.— Autli., "to Principalities and 
Powers." The Gr. is the same as in Luke xii. 11, where Awth. 
has " uuto magistrates and powers." 

2 Not to be contentious.— As in 1 Tim. iii. 3. Auth. iu both 
places has " no brawlers." 

4 Love toward man. — This in Gr. is one word, fhilantliropia. 
The word " kindness " therefore cannot grammatically be con- 
nected with '■ toward man," as in Auth. 

5 Works done in righteousness.— Not as Auth., "works of 
rigliteousness," but done in a state of righteousness (fV). 

Which we did ourselves.—" We " is emphatic in the Gr. 

8 Confidently. — Auth., " constantly," i.e., in the old sense of 
the word, " with constancy." 

Maintain. — The Gr. word so rendered is of doubtful inter- 
pretation ; but the alternative rendering iu the Margin has little 

9 Shun.— The Gr. is literally, "avoid by going round," and 
occurs again in 2 Tim. ii. 16. 

10 Refuse. — Compare 1 Tim. iv. 7. 

11 Perverted. — Auth., " subverted." Litei-ally, "is turned inside 
out," the metaphor being from a garment which may be so 
treated. The same word occurs in Deut. xxxii. 20 (LXX.), where 
the Auth. has " a froward generation." 

13 Set forward— i.e., " equip, provide with wliat they want," 
as in 1 Cor. xvi. 6. Not as Auth., " bring on tlieir journey " — 
i.e., " conduct, go some way with them," as in Acts xv. 3. 

A A 



2 Our sister. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., " om- beloved." 

5 And of the faith, which thou hast toward . . . — i.e., 
" the faith which thou hast toward the Lord as the object, and 
manifested toward the saints by way of example and en- 
couragement to them." That this is the connection is shewn 
(1) by the relative in the Greek, " which," referring only to 
" the faith," and not to " thy love " also ; and (2) by the 
change of preposition {npSs . . . fls), which is represented in 
Vulg., fideni quam habes in Domino Jesu, et in omnes sanctos. 
The rendering of Auth., following Tynd., " thy love and faith 
which thou hast toward," &c., is retained in the Margin; 
but besides being objectionable on the grounds mentioned 
above, it involves a logical inversion of the sentence, as if 
it were, " thy faith and love which thou hast, (thy faith) toward 
the Lord, and (thy love) toward the saints," as it is in 
Col. i. 4, wi'itten about the same time. 

6 The fellowship of thy faith.— So Tynd. This appears to 
be said in explanation of the latter part of verse 5. " Thy 
faith transpireth, is manifested to the saints, that its sympa- 
thetic influence may become effectual in them by means of 
the knowledge which they acquire of all the good which is 
in you." Auth., " the communication." 

In you — i.e., in thee and thy house, by change in Gr. text for 
" in us " — i.e., " in us Christians " — (as Auth.). 

Knowledge. — Compare Phil. i. 9. 

Effectual . . . unto Christ — i.e., in bringing them to Christ. 
Auth., " in Christ." 


8 Though I have much boldness. — Not as Auth., with 
Cranm., " though I miglit be much bold." The Gr. verb is in 

the present tense. 

Befitting.— Compare Titus ii. 1. 

10 Onesimus. — The meaning of this name, " helpful," is shewn 
in the Mai-gin, because St. Paul evidently plays upon it in 
the next verse, and again in verse 20. 

12 "Thou therefore receive him." — (Auth.) Omitted from the Gr. 
text, having probably been interpolated to supply what seemed 
wanting in the sense. 

15 Was parted from, thee. — The verb is passive, and does not 
imply a voluntary separation, as Auth., " departed." The 
actual cause of the separation is thus gently passed over by 
the Apostle. 

Have him. — Auth., "receive." The Gr. is not the same as 
in verse 19. 

18, 21 I write.— Auth., " I have wi-itten "... "I wrote." The 
Gr. in both places is the historical aorist, as in Rom. xvi. 22 
and elsewhere. 




1 God . . , having spoken. — Autli., '• God, who . . . 
spake," thus making promiuent the identity of Him who " spake 
by the prophets " with Him who "hath now si^oken by his Son;" 
which would have been expressed, if intended, by Ofhs 6 KaKi^cras, 
wliereas the actual phrase in the Gr. points to the sequence of 
the Divine revelations. God, having spoken in one way in former 
times, has now spoken in another way. 

Of old time.— Auth., following Tynd., " in time past." Gr., 
iroAat. Ynlg., oUm. 

In tlie prophets ... in his Son.— Auth., "by . . . 

by." The preposition is eV, " in ; " not Sid, " through," as in 
Matt. i. 22, and as in verse 2, where it is said that God " made the 
worlds through His Son." God spake " in them," in the proi^hets, 
by inspiring them — iu His Son, being Himself in Christ. I have 
not foimd it anywhere said in Scripture tliat "He spake through 
the Son." 

By divers portions.— Auth., "at sundry times," following 
Genev. The Gr. iroXu/ucpcDj has no reference to time ; nor is it 
accurately expressed by "diversely" (Tynd. and Rhem.), the 
exact meaning of the word being "in many parts or portions; " as 
Shakspeare says, " by parcels." Yulg., Multifariam mtiltisque 
moclis olim Deus loqiiens iJatrihus in projphetis. 

2 Hath at the end of these days. — By change in Gr. text 
for "hath in these last days" (Auth., following Tynd.). The 
Gr. is an unusual exjiression, resembling 1 Pet. i, 20, " at the 
end of the times," and Num. xxiv. 14 (LXX.). 

These days. — At the end of these days of partial revelations, 
this age of expectation and looking forward to the Messiah's 

HEBREWS- 1. 405 

coming', called by tlie Rabbis alwv ovros, " tliis prcseut age," as 
distiuguislied from the Messianic period, whicli they designated 

3 The effulgence.— So Beza. Yulg., splendor. All Engl, 
versions, " the brightness of his gdory," which denotes a quality 
iulierent in the glory, but not that which is meant by the Gr. 
airavyairixa, "the shining or beaming forth" of the glory, the 
display of it to the world. Compare Wisdo'ni vii. 26, where 
Wisdom is described by the same word, as an effulgence of tho 
everlasting light. Christ is the effulgence of the Father's glory, 
as He is the " Word," the utterance of the Father's -wisdom and 
will. He is " Light of Light," as we say in the Nicene Creed, 
co-eternal with the Father, if we may take an illustration from 
the works of His hands, as the ray is coetaneous with the sun 
from which it proceeds. So Theodoret, TcrtuUian, &c. See 
Wordsworth's Note, and compare Rev. xxi. 23 ; John v. 35, and 
Notes there. 

The very image of his substance.— So Tynd. and 
Cranm., following Vulg., fi,gura suhstantice ejus. Genev., "the 
engraved form of his person," whence apparently Auth., " the 
express image of his person." " Express " does not convey 
the idea of " exact " so well as " very," which has been sub- 
stituted for it. The Gr. x°-P°''^''"^p {character) is properly an 
impression or stamp, as of a seal or die. 

His substance. — Auth., follo-\™g Genev., "his person." The 
Gr. inrScxTaa-is [hypostasis) had not this meaning in the Apostolic 
age, and did not acquire it till the fourtli century, when it was 
adopted in theological literature by the Greek Fatliers to denote 
what was signified m Latin by persona ; and ovarla (ousia, 
"essence ") took its place as an equivalent of the Latin substantia. 
This later signification of the two words was sanctioned by tho 
Synod of Alexandria, at which St. Athanasius was present 
(a.d. 862), as a mode of reconciling the difference on the subject 
between the Eastern and Western Churches {Alford ; and Bleeh, 
quoted by him). 

" By himself." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. 

"When he had made purification of sins.— Auth., " when 
he had purged our sins." The meaning is, " when he had done 
away the guUt of our sins ; " not, " when he had sanctified us 
from them," i.e., had enabled us by self-improvement to cast 
them off. The phrase, though rare, is akin to that in Matt. viii. 
3, " his leprosy was cleansed." 

406 HEBREWS— I. 

4 Having become. — Auth., " being made," as iu John i. 14, and 
many other places. 

He hath, inherited. — So "Wycl. The single Gr. word is 
paraphrased in Tyud. and Auth., "he hath by inheritance 
obtained," as if the idea of " inheritance " were the prominent 
one, whereas the word is often i;sed both in the Old and New 
Testament figuratively, to the exclusion of the original idea of 

6 And when he again bringeth in.— Auth., "and again, 
when he bringeth in," &c. " Again " would not stand where it is 
in the Greek if it introduced another quotation, as it does in the 
preceding verse ; and the ancient expositors, Gr. and Latin, as 
Chrysostom, Ambrose, the Yidgate, &c., together with many 
modems, as Tholuck and Alford, have understood it to mean, 
" when God bringeth his first-begotten Son a second time into 
the world (at his resurrection, or at his second advent) he saith," 
&c. The rendering in the Margin, which is that of Auth., is in 
point of interpretation much to be prefen-ed, but is not justifiable 
grammatically : it is supported by Erasmus, Beza, and Words- 

7 He maketh his angels winds . . . — i.e., He bids them go 
forth in the semblance of wind or flame to fulfil His purpose. 
Auth., " spirits," which is unmeaning, as His angels ax-e already 
in their nature spirits. The Gr. irvevixa may have either mean- 
ing, "wind" or "spirit," in tlie New Testament; the context in 
each place determining which is to be taken. In John iii. 8 
both meanings are given to it in the same verse. 

8 The sceptre of uprightness.— Literally, " of straightness." 
Yulg., virga cequitatis. Tynd., "a right sceptre;" and so Auth. 
in Ps. xlv. 6. The Gr. is not the word which in the next verse, 
and here in Auth., is rendered " righteousness." 

12 As a mantle. — Auth., " as a vesture." The Gr. is an unusual 
word, signifying a loose enveloping garment ; and roll up 
expresses the verb better than Auth. " fold up," which rather 
suggests the careful putting away than the casting off of a 
thing that is done with. The Hebrew word in the Psalm 
signifies " change ; " and such is the reading of one of the 
principal MSS. in this place for " roll." 

14 To do service — i.e., to God. Auth., " to minister." The Gr. 
is not cognate to the adjective rendered "ministering" in the 
former part of the verse. 



1 The things that were heard — i.e., when God spake iu His 
Sou. Autli., " tlie things which we have heard : " the change 
from the passive voice to the active is without anything to 
warrant it in the Gr. 

Lest haply we drift away from them.— Gr., fjiv iroTe 
T-apappvujjLey. Auth., by an inversion of the metaphor, "lest 
at any time we should let them slip." The fear is not 
lest the things spoken should slij) away from us, for they are 
sure and stedfast, and will not pass away ; but lest we should 
drift (literally, "flow") away from them. There may be an 
allusion iu this to Prov. iii. 21, where the same word is 
used (in the LXX. version) in the same sense, "lest thou 
drift away ; " Auth., " let them not depart from thine eyes." 

8 Subjected. — The word is emphatically reiterated throughout 
this passage. Auth. varies it by substituting " put under." 

9 Because of the suffering of death. — This is to be con- 
nected with what follows, "crowned," &c., as Tynd. and Cranm., 
following Vulg., not with the preceding clause, "made a little 
lower," &c., as Auth., with Genev. and Beza. It was not in 
respect of His sufferings that Christ was said to be " a little 
lower than the angels," but in respect of His manhood. It 
was because of His sufferings, and His faith and patience under 
them, that Christ in His manhood was " crowned with, glory 
and honour." Compare Phil. ii. 8 — 11. 

10 The author of their salvation.— So Wycl. and Rhem., 
following Vulg., mictorem salutis eorum. Tynd. and Craum., 
"lord;" Genev., "Prince;" Auth., "Captain." The Gr. is 
properly "leader;" it occurs again in chap. xii. 2, where it 
is " author " in Auth. 

12 Congregation, as in Ps. xxii. 22, from which this quotation 
is made ; and so Tynd. and Craum. Auth., with Genev., 
" church," following Yulg. and Beza, Ecclesice. 

14 Are sharers . . . partook.— The two words rendered in 
Auth. " partakers," " took part," are different in the Gr. 

15 All them who. — Literally, " those, as many as." Auth., 
" them who." 

16 Take hold. — In the sense of " helping." Compare chap. viii. 
9, "I took them by the hand to lead them" (Auth.). The 


Gr. &,vri\afi$dvo/xai, in the middle voice, has this sense both in 
the LXX. aud in classical authors (Alford); and this in- 
terpretation is here given to it by recent commentators. Auth., 
" he took not on him the nature of angels, but he took on 
him," &c., following Chrysostom, and other ancient expositors ; 
also Erasmus, and others of later times, "took on him" — i.e., 
at His incarnation — a rendering which gives a very good 
meaning to the sentence, whether considered by itself, or in 
relation to the context. But it puts on the Gr. verb a sense 
which it will not bear, being in the middle voice and the 
present tense. There is probably a reference in this passage 
to Isai. xli. 8, 9, " Thou, Israel, art my serA'ant, Jacob whom I 
have chosen, the seed of Abraham, my friend. Thou whom I 
have taken from the ends of the earth;" where the Hebrew 
may better be rendered, "whom I have taken hold of" — 
i.e., "have helped;" and the Gr. of the LXX., avTe\a$6/xr}i>, has 
the same sense of helping, which it has also in Luke i. 54. " He 
taketh hold of the seed of Abraham" — i.e., in a spiritual as 
well as in a literal sense ; as St. Paul says, " he is not a 
Jew that is one outwardly," Rom. ii. 29 ; and see Gal. iii. 7, 29. 

17 To make propitiation for— i.e., "to expiate." Auth., "to 
make reconciliation for," which represents elsewhere a different 
word (KaTaAXdo-o-eo-flot). The Gr. i\d(rKfa6ai is here used in tlie 
middle voice, having "the sins" for its object, as in Ps. Ixiv. 
3 ; in other places, as Luke xviii. 13, being in the passive, it 
is said of the person who is to be propitiated, "Be merciful 
to me a sinner," " be propitiated." 

18 In that — i.e., " inasmuch as " (eV<?). So in Rom. viii. 3. The 
Marginal translation, " liaAdng been tempted in that (i.e., in 
that body, in that human nature) wherein he suffered," has 
claims to consideration, as being more easily elicited from the 
Gr., and in itself not an improbable statement. 


2 In all his house— i.e., as the Margin explains, in " God's 
house," referring to Num. xii. 7, " My servant Moses, who is 
faithful in all mine house." 

10 This generation.— So Wycl., following Vulg. Auth., " that 
generation," follows the reading of the received Gr. text, 


which is also that of the LXX. in the Psalm (the 94th) from 
which the qiiotatiou is made. The word iu the original wan 
probably altered by the writer of the Ei^istle, to make the 
warning derived from the past apply to the then living gene- 
ration of the Jews. (Alford.) 

I was displeased.— The Gr. irpoo-cox^^ffa is stronger than " I 
was grieved" (Tynd. and Auth.). Yiilg. has infensus fieri ; 
the Heb. is stronger stiU, " I loathed." 

11 As I sware. — Auth., "so I sware," giving to the particle 
cos a sense which does not iu such a position belong to it, 
and which is not required by the context. The meaning is, 
" As I sware in my 'i^Tath " (to their fathers ; see Num. xiv. 
21), "so shall it be to this generation, they shall not enter 
into my rest." 

12 In falling away — i.e., in committing apostasy. The same 
word is used in 1 Tim. iv. 1. Auth., "departing." The Auth., 
though much given to variation iu the rendering of the same 
Greek, has " depart " for twenty-one different words. 

16 For who . . . did provoke.— The Gr. pronoun at the begin- 
ning of this verse, as in tlie next, is interrogative — not indefinite, • 
as in aU Engl, versions " some," following Yulg. quidam, 
and the ancient expositors ; Bengel (1731) being the first to 
point out the true rendering, which involves the re-construc- 
tion of the whole sentence, and makes verses 16 and 17 parallel 
in their form and in their inferential warning. Compare for 
the construction Luke xvii. 7 ; 1 Thess. ii. 19. 

18 Were disobedient.— Auth., " believed not." The Gr. is 
distinct in meaning from that which is rendered " unbelief " in 
verse 19. Compare John iii. 36, " he that believeth on the Son 
hath eternal life ; but he that obeyeth not the Son shall not see 


2 The word of hearing.— The message heard by Moses and 
the Prophets, and preached to the people. Compare Jer. xlix. 14, 
" 1 have heard a rumour from the Lord " (o/coV ijKovaa). 

Because they were not united (literally, " mingled ") by 
faith with them that heard.— This rendering, which stands 


in the Margin of Autli., is consequent on the change iu Gr. text, 
which is supported by the best MSS. The meaning appears to be, 
" The word of the message did not profit those to whom it was 
preached, because they were not united by faith (not made one 
in heart) with those who ' heard ' the message (viz., Moses and 
the Prophets), and preached it." The imidiomatic English 
phrase " word of hearing " becomes helpful to us as we trace 
the connection of thought through the sentence. 

7 He again defiueth a certain day— i.e., "fixeth as a 
boundary." Gr., dpl(ii. Auth., "he luniteth," with Rhem,, 
following Yulg. terminat. 

Saying in David, after so long a time— i.e., saying in 
the psalm, or in the mouth, of David, after the long interval 
shice the preaching of Moses. This may be deduced, though not 
very easily, from the order of the words in Auth., " saying in 
David, To day, after so long a time." 

9 A sabbath rest. — Auth., " a rest." The Gr. (sabbatismos) is 
not the word which is rendered " rest " in the next verse ; and 
by its introduction here it indicates that as Joshua is a type of 
the Lord Jesus, so the sabbatical rest is typical of the rest with 
God which is i^repared for His people when theii* work in this 
world is at an end. 

12 Living. — Auth., " quick." Here in its old sense liable to be 
not understood ; but reappearing advantageously in, its modern 
sense at the end of the verse, " quick to discover," for Auth., 
" a discoverer." 

Active. — Gr., energes, " energetic " rather than " powerful " 
(Auth.). " Inactive " would represent the meaning, if " in," 
instead of being negative in composition, had the sense of ^y, 
'• inwardly." 

14 Through the heavens.— Not as Auth., "into the heavens;" 
" through," and beyond. Compare Eph. iv. 11, " He that 
descended is the same that ascended far above all the heavens." 

16 Receive mercy. — The mercy which is freely offered and 
awaits us there. So Tynd. ; Auth., " obtain," following Craum., 
and Vulg., consequimur, which implies the going to sul' f^r it. 



1 Being taken, from among men— i.e., " iuasmucli as he is 
taken." Auth., " that is takeu," wliieli would require a differeut 
order of the Gr. 

2 Can bear gently with. — Literally, " can be moderate in his 
feelings," according to the maxim of the Peripatetic philosophers, 
to whose school the word belongs. Auth., "have compassion 

7 Having been heard for his godly fear.— Auth., "in that 
he feared" (apjiarently misled by Genev., "in that which he 
feared "), with Margin, " Or, for his piety," which substantially 
agrees with the previous versions. The same Gr. occurs 
at chap. xii. 28, where it is " godly fear " in Auth. Beza 
(strangely), liberatus ex metu. 

10 Named of God. — Vulg., appellatus — i.e., being so addressed. 
All Engl, versions, " called of God," which might mean " having 
received of God a call to be a high priest." 

11 Hard of interpretation. — Not as Auth,, "hard to be 
uttered." Yulg., rightly, though ruggedly, ininterpretabilis ad 

12 Solid food.— Auth., with Tyud., " strong meat." Wycl., " sad 
meat." Vulg., solido cibo. The Gr. a-Tspeos is properly " hard, 
solid." Compare 1 Cor. iii. 2, " I fed you with milk, not with 
meat, for ye were not able to bear it." 

13 Fartaketh of milk — i.e., has milk for his portion at a common 
meal ; fx.eTex"' has the same sense in 1 Cor. x. 21. Auth. (alone), 
" useth." Tynd., " is fed with." 


Let us cease to speak of. — A paraphrase of the cumbrous 
rendering which is given in the Margin. Comj)are chap. v. 12. 

As touching those . . . — The sentence in the original is 
prolonged by a succession of clauses, tUl the grammatical 
structure, and the connection of the end with the beginning, 
are almost lost sight of. Yet the construction is simple, and 


the meaning clear, if the verb which stands at the end be placed, 
where in an English sentence we expect to find it, at the 
beginning : " It is impossible to renew those Avho," &c. Even 
thus, however, the sentence goes heavily ; and by the intro- 
duction o£ the words " as touching " the sequence of thought 
is made clear, without having recourse to a broken construction 
as in Auth. 

7 The land.— Not " the earth " (Auth.) as a whole, but that 
particular spot of ground which hath drunk, &c. 

8 Thistles.— As in Matt. Aai. 16. All Engl, versions for the 
same Gr. her^ have " briars." Yulg., rightly, tribulos. 

9 Things that accompany. — Literally, " things bordering 
on," " next door to." 

10 Your work ... which ye shewed.— By change in Gr. text 
we lose the familiar aUiteration, so sweet to our ears for what it 
signifies, "labour of love" (Auth.). 

12 Sluggish. — " Slothful " (Auth.) represents another word, 

16 In every dispute of theirs. — This rendering, which follows 
more nearly the order of the Gr., is also more exact than Auth., 
" An oath for confirmation is to them," &c. 

Final for confirmation— i.e., for settlement of all doubt. 

17 Interposed. — Made Himself mediator, with an oath. God 
being the Giver . of the promise and man the recipient, God 
swearing by Himself interposed and became the mediator between 
the two. This is said, according to the phrase of St. Paul, " after 
the manner of men." God, as it were, called Himself to witness, 
and interposed between Abraham and Himself with an oath. 


2 Divided.— Auth., " gave." ^r., e/iepia-fv. 

3 Without genealogy. — Auth., " without descent." The Jews 
were very particular in ascei'tainiug the pedigree of the Le^itical 
high priests. Compare Acts viii. 33. " His generation who 
shall declare ? " (said of Christ in Isai. liii. 8). 


4 The chief spoils. — Literally, "the top of the heap." So 
WycL, " tithes of the best things," following Vnlg., decimas 
de 'prcpxipiiis : spolia opima according to the Latin phrase. 
Tyncl. and Auth., " tithes of the spoils." 

7 Without any dispute. — The word is so rendered in Auth. 
at chap. vi. 16 ; here, " witliout aU contradiction." 

11 Reckoned.— Auth., " called," suggesting the same misinterpre- 
tation as in chap. v. 10. Gr., xiyeaOai. 

15 And what we say is yet more abundantly evident. — 

The insertion is intended to shew that the reference is to what 
has been said in verse 11, concerning the imperfection of the 
Levitical priesthood, and not, as might be supposed, to verse 14, 
" it is evident," &c. 

If— (i.e., as the case is). Auth., "for that," following Genev., 
" because that." Gr., el. 

18 A disannulling of a foregoing commandment. — Auth., 
"a disannulling of the commandment going before," leaving 
doubtful the connection and meaning of " going before." Tynd., 
more clearly, " the commandment which went before is dis- 

19 And a bringing in . . . — The connection of this clause with 
the preceding verse is shewn by treating the intermediate clause, 
" for the law," &c., as a parenthesis ; and thus the obscurity is 
removed, which liangs over the Auth., notwithstanding the 
altered construction and the insertion of did. 

23 Have been made priests (in succession, tla-t yeyovores, as 
also in verse 21) many in number. — Auth., "they were 
many priests." 

By death (by reason of their being subject to death) they 
are hindered from continuing (in the priesthood). — 
Auth., "they were not suffered to continue by reason of death." 
The changes made in this verse conduce to perspicuity, while 
they also bring the English nearer to the original. 

24 Unchangeable. — The Gr., which is found only in late writers, 
means properly, " which cannot be passed from," cannot be 
vacated. The two Marginal notes give two other possible but 
not probable interpretations. 

26 Guileless. — The Gr. properly means, " innocent in disposition." 
Auth., with Tynd., "harmless," which is. not quite the same 
thing, and is the rendering of another word, aKspaios, at Phil. 
ii. 15. 


Separated from sinners.— So Rhem. Auth., "separate." 
The Gr. is the passive participle, "removed far away from 
them," so far removed that He is even " made higher than the 
heavens." The adjective " separate," according to its common 
acceptation, would in this place denote " one that is in the world, 
but not of the world," and would be a fitting description of the 
great High Priest, while He was still amongst men. 

27 Once for all. — Once only. Auth., "once." Gr., icpdvai. 


5 A copy. — An outline or general resemblance. Auth., "the 

6 Enacted.— Auth., " established." The Gr. is the word specially 
used of enacting a law {voiJ.odfrf7v). 

11 His fellow-citizen. — By change in the Gr. text for "his 
neighbour" (Auth.). 

13 Is becoming old and waxeth aged.— Auth., "decayeth 
and waxeth old." The two Gr. words are nearly the same in 
meaning, the chief distinction between them being that the 
former is exclusively a Biblical word, while the latter, which is 
rare in the New Testament and the LXX., is of frequent classical 
usage, signifying properly the coming on of old age in man. 
Neither of them has properly the sense of " decay." 


1 Its sanctuary, a sanctuary of this world. — Auth., " a 
worldly sanctuary." The sanctuary appertaining to the first 
covenant is described as being K0(TiJ.iK6v, mimdane, appropriate 
to, typical of, this present world. 

2 Prepared.— Not only " made " (Auth.), but completely fitted 
up. See verse 6. 

HEBREWS— IX. 41-') 

3 The holy of holies.— This is the literal translation of the 
Hebraism ayta ayluv, which is also rendered literally in Vulg., 
sancta sanctorum ; in Tynd. and Aiith., " the holiest of all." 
The Latin phrase, having become familiar and in common use, 
is left in Rhem. untranslated. The same Hebraism occurs in 
Exod. xxvi. 33, 34 (LXX.), where Auth. has " the most holy 
place." The phrase " holy of holies " is not in the Bible ; and 
our familiarity with it is derived from its use in the Latin form 
in the Yulg. 

5 Cherubim. — This word being a plural in the original Hebrew, 
does not need the English sign of the plural which is commonly 
given to it in the Bible, " cherubims." 

Overshadowing.— So Rhem. This is the proper meaning of 
the Gr., and in accordance with the actual position of the 
cherubim, upon the mercy-seat. Vidg., obumbrantia. 

6 The priests go in. — The use of the present tense in this and 
the four following verses is not a sign that the temple service 
was stiU continued in every particular according to the system 
of the tabernacle, but is due to the point of view of the writer, 
who describes the arrangement as if it were still subsisting. 
Auth., " went," following Tynd. and Yulg., introibant, rather 
than Beza, ingrediuntur 

8 The way into the holy place. — Auth., with Genev., " into 
the holiest of all," which is true as an interpretation, the sense 
being that the entrance into the most holy place, heaven, was 
as yet not open, even as the entrance into the sanctuary on earth 
(called in verse 7 the " second tabernacle," and so distinguished 
from the " first tabernacle ") was not open, except to the high 
priest once a year. 

9 A parable.— So Wycl. and Rhem., as it is in the Gr. Auth., 
with Genev., " a figure." 

According to which.— Referring to the " parable ; " by 
change in the Gr. text for " in which " (Auth.), referring to the 
" time." 

The worshipper. — Auth., " him that did the service," which 
points to the ministering priest ; and so Tynd., " them that 
minister." Compare chap. x. 2. 

10 Seing only (with meats and drinks and divers wash- 
ings) carnal ordinances — i.e., being, together with meats, 
&c., "mere carnal ordinances." Auth., "which stood only 


in meats," &c. " And " before " carnal " is omitted by change 
in Gr. text. 

11 But Christ . . . — This sentence, though lengthy, is simple in 
structure ; and only a few slight amendments are required to 
make the rendering of Auth. perspicuous, the chief being the 
direct connection of " Christ " with " entered," instead of the 
resumption of the nominative to the verb by " he." 

Not of this creation. — According to the ordinary sense of 
the Gr. ktIo-is, " not belonging to the present order of things." 
Auth., "not of this building" — i.e., "not a work of an earthly 
builder," which has been already said in the words, " not 
made with hands." Compare 2 Cor. v. 1. 

12 " For us " (Auth., following Genev.) is doubtless implied, but is 
not expressed in the original. 

13 Them that have been defiled.— So Rhom., " the polluted," 
following Yulg., inquinatos ; aU other English versions take 
the Gr., which is a participle in the passive voice and past 
tense, as an adjective. Auth., "the unclean." 

Unto the cleanness.— Unto that as the end or object, not 
unto the " purifying," i.e., the means or process of attaining 
the end, as Auth. . The cognate verb " to cleanse " is used 
in the next verse. 

15, 16 Covenant . . . testament.— The Gr., diatheJce, is here 
in the same context rendered by two diiferent words. This 
anomaly is to be justified only by its affording an escape from 
the still greater difficulties attendant on any other interpre- 
tation. A similar case occurs in John iii. 8. 

15 A death having taken place — i.e., the death of Christ; 
more literal and more intelligible than " by means of death " 
(as Auth.), where " death " in the abstract would seem to be 

16 Where a testament is. — In the preceding verse the Gr. 
word is i;sed in its usual Biblical sense for " a covenant," 
which is described in chap. viii. in the language of the pro- 
phet Jeremiah, and of which Christ is the Mediator. Here 
the same word appears to have its ordinary classical sense, 
"a testament" or "will," which is said to be of no force during 
the life of the testator — i.e., of Christ. In the 18th and fol- 
lowing verses the writer reverts to the idea of a covenant. 
For a full investigation of this much-coutroverted passage. 


see Alford's Note. The main question is wbethei' tlie word, 
which certainly has the meaning of "covenant" in verse 15, 
is to be translated " testament " in verse 16 ; and this, happily, 
is not a question of doctrine or of i)ractical importance. 

Be.— The Gr. is literally, " be broiight," i.e., " must be brought 
in," "reported" {" like fertur in Latin" — Dr. Field)* before 
the testament will be held valid. 

17 Doth it ever avail?— A nth., "It is of no strength at all." 
The sentence may be taken either way. 

20 Commanded to you-ward.— " In regard to you," " for your 
benefit," -n-phs vfj-us, not "unto you" (Auth.), "to be obeyed by 

22 I may almost say.—" Almost " in the Gr. attaches to the 
whole assertion, not to " all things," as in Auth. 

23 The copies — i.e., the earthly copies of the heavenly patterns. 
Auth., " the patterns of the things in heaven." As to " copies," 
see Note on chap. viii. 5. 

24 Like in pattern.— Corresponding in figure. The Gr. is 
literally " antitypes." Auth., " figures of the true." 

Before the face of God. — A Hebraism occurring in the 
Gospels, as Matt, xviii. 10, and in the LXX., Ps. xxxiii. 16. 

25 With blood not his own.— Auth., "with blood of others;" 
which might be supposed to mean, " with the blood of other 
men." The true meaning is that the priest enters not with 
his own blood, but with the blood of a victim slain as a sacrifice ; 
whereas Christ has been manifested to put away sin by the 
saci'ifice of HimseK, by His own blood-shedding. 

28 Apart from sin. — No longer " bearing the sins of many." 
Gr., X^P^^ a/xapTt'as. 

To them that wait for him. — The word is used by 
St. Peter I. iii. 17 ; by St. Paid several tl: ..: Rom. vi... ^j, 

" The earnest expectation of the creation waiteth for the re- 
vealing of the sons of God ; " it is cxpres.sive of the patient 
expectation of faith. Auth., following Tynd., " look for." 


418 HEBREWS— X. 


1 Them that draw nigh — i.e., "unto God," as at cliap. 
vii. 25 ; described in the next verse as " the worshippers." Auth., 
" the comers thereunto." 

16 Then saith he. — This insertion shews that the sentence which 
follows is connected with " after he hath said " in verse 15. 

19 The holy place — i.e., " heaven," as at chap. ix. 8. Auth., 

" the holiest." 

20 Dedicated. — Auth., "consecrated," The Gr. is the same as 
at chap. ix. 18. 

21 Having a great priest.— So Wycl. ; and Vulg., sacer- 
dotem magmim. Anth., following Tynd., " a high priest," 
which represents another word, apxup^vs, in this Epistle, e.g., 
chap. iv. 14, where Christ is called " a great high priest." Here 
the title " high " is not used, as it is His priesthood, not His 
high-priesthood, on which tlie stress is laid. 

23 That it waver not — i.e., that the " confession of our hope " 
waver not. Auth., "without wavering," is naturally connected 
with " let us hold fast." Compare chap. iii. 6, " the rejoicing 
of our hope." Auth. here, " of our faith," probably by an over- 
sight ; all other versions, " hope." The exliortations in verses 
22 — 24 answer to the Pauline division into the three, "faith, 
hope, and charity." {Alford.) 

26 No more a sacrifice — i.e., no longer. Auth., " no more 
sacrifice." Gr., ovKen. 

27 A fierceness of fire. — Tlie Gr. is literally, "a zeal or jealousy 
of fire." Auth., " a fiery indignation." 

28 Without compassion. — Auth., "without mercy." The Gr. 

is olKTipfJ.uv. not eA-eiv. 

32 Enlightened. — Auth., "illuminated." Compare chap. vi. 4 
(Auth.). The Gr. for " conflict," not foimd again in the New 
Testament, relates primarily to the athletic contests in the 
games, and is nearly akin to that which is frequently used 
by St. Paul, e.g., at PhiL i. 27 ; 2 Tim. ii. 5, &c. 

Sufferings represents irofli^yuaTa, which is used of the " passion " 
of our Lord in chap. ii. 9, 10. 

33 Partakers with. — The proper meaning of the Gr. Wycl., 
" fellows." All othor versions, " companions." 


34 On them that were in bonds,— So Wyel. aud Rhom., fol- 
lowing Vulg. Aiitli., " of me iu my bonds," following a dif- 
ferent reading of tlie Gr. text, probably introduced by a scribe 
as a connecting link between this Epistle and those in which 
St. Paul speaks of his bonds and imprisonment. Compare, 
however, chap. xiii. 3, " Remember them that are in bonds " 

38 My righteous one.— So Wycl. and Rhem., following Vulg., 
Justus vieus. Auth., with Tynd., " the just," as the passage is 
quoted by St. Paul in Rom. i. 17 ; Gal. iii. 11, from Habak. ii. 4. 
The authority of the MSS. and ancient versions is in favour of 
" my " in this place, as it is in the LXX., " my righteous one," 
i.e., "my righteous servant," 

Shrink back. — Tlie Gr. is the same as in Acts xx. 20, 27. 
Auth., " draw back." 

39 The saving of the soul. — Literally, "the gaining," as in 
Lidie xvii. 33. 


1 The assurance of things hoped for.— The Gr. (hii2:iostasis) 
is rendered " substance " iu chap. i. 3, instead of " person " 
(Auth.). In its primary sense it means " that which stands 
beneath," Latinised by substantia, and may here be either (1) that 
which is in the mind the firm foundation and assurance of 
things unseen, as in chap. iii. 14, and as it is here interpreted 
by modern commentators in general; or (2) that which gives 
to the unseen things embodiment and reality, a substrattim, so 
that they are not mere jihantoms of the imagination. So in 
this place Chrysostom, Augustine, &c. Hence the two renderings 
in the Text and Margin. Auth., " substance," following "Wycl. 
and Yulg. ; but without giving the definite sense in English, 
wliicli is conveyed in Latin by substantia. See Alford's Note. 

The proving.— Or "test." Literally, the "demonstration" 
or " proof." Auth., " the evidence," following Beza, evidentia, 
and Genev. " How can this be said ? Faitli sliews us things 
visible to the mind, invisible to the sense ; " so Tlieophylact, 
quoted by Alford. 


2 Had witness borne to tliem— i.*^, iu the matter of faith 
they were testified of. So at verse 39. The Gr. verb is used 
in this absohxte sense, " well testified or reported of," chiefly 
by St. Luke in the Acts, as iu chaps, vi. 3, x. 22. Auth., 
" obtained a good report," following Vulg., testimonium con- 
secuti sunt senes. 

3 What is seen. — The siugular for the plural, by change iu 
Gr. text. 

7 Godly fear.— Tliis, and not simply " fear " (Auth.), is always 
the signification of euAa/Seia in the New Testament. 

9 As in a land not his own. — Auth., "as in a strange 
countrJ^" The Gr. word has reference to the ownership, not 
to the sti'angeness of the country. A similar change is made 
in chap. ix. 25. 

Intents. — Auth., with Tynd., "tabernacles," which, though 
it has properly the same meaning, yet, being specially applied 
to the movable sanctuary in the wilderness, is apt to perplex 
if not to mislead the English reader. Yulg., casulis ; Wycl., 
" little houses ; " Rhem., " cottages." 

13 Greeted them. — Auth., "embi-aced them." The Gr. is the 
word commonly used by the Apostles iu the salutations at the 
close of their Epistles. 

14 A country of their own.— Auth., "a country." The Gr. 
jHitris, Latin patria, means properly " fatherland," the country 
of one's birth. " A coimtry," by itself, might mean laud as 
distingixished from sea, and is so used in Acts xxvii. 27. 

17 Offered up — i.e., ^•i^tually offered him, by shewing his perfect 
willingness to do so at God's command ; and his act is spoken 
of as still continuing iu its effect and examjjle, the verb being 
in the perfect tense (see Margin) : immediately afterwards 
we are taken back to the moment itself of the inten-upted 
sacrifice by the use of the imperfect, " was offering up." 

19 Prom whence he did also in a parable receive him 
back. — So that the rising from the dead, as well as the 
sacrifice of the life, was virtually accomplished, though oidy 
by way of " parable," or as Auth., " iu a figure." 

22 When his end was nigh.— Literally, " when he was end- 
ing." Auth., " when he died." The verb is not the same as 
in verse 21 ; but is frequently used in the New Testament in the 
same sense. 


23 A goodly child. — Tyud. aud Auth., "a proper child;" a 
pretty use of the word " proper," but now obsolete, or only 
current in pi'ovincial talk. From its primary sense " ijelotgiug 
to " it passed by easy gradations to " suitable," " convenient," 
" seemly," " comely," in which last sense it occurs several times 
in Shakspeare, as " Cassio is a proper man." Yulg., elegantem 
infantem; Beza, venustnm. The Gr. is the word of the LXX. 
in Exod. ii. 2. See also Acts idi. 20. 

26 He looked unto.— Literally, " he looked away," i.e., from his 
present state and the temptations which were before him. 
Auth., " he had respect unto." 

35 By a resurrection.— This is the literal sense of the Gr. 
Auth., "raised to life again." The same word is correctly 
rendered at the end of the verse, " a better resurrection " 
(Auth.), i.e., better than the temjDorary restoration to life which 
is here called " a resurrection." 

38 Caves and the holes of the earth.— AU Engl, versions, 
" dens and caves of the earth." The word " den" is now suggestive 
of the lair of a wild beast, which is not the meaning of the 
Gr. The same word is used in 3 Kings xviii. 4 (LXX. version) 
of the cave in which Obadiah hid fifty of the Lord's prophets. 
The second word, signifying " a chink" or "opening" (Gr., ope), 
occurs in Jas. iii. 11, and is the term used in Exod. xxxiii. 22 
(LXX.) for the "clift of the rock" in which Moses was to 
be while the glory of the Lord passed by. For the use and 
meaning of the word " den " in the Old Testament (Auth.) 
see Judg. yi. 2; Job xxxviii. 8, &c. 


2 The author.— See Note on chap. ii. 10, "the author of our 

Perfecter.— Auth., "finisher." The word is akin to that 
which is rendered " made perfect," chap. xi. 40. 

3 Against themselves.— By change in Gr. text for Auth., 
" against himself ; " "sinners against their own souls." as we 
read in Num. xvi 38. 


5 Reasoneth with you.— More literal than Auth., "speaketh 

unto yon." 

Hegard not lightly. — "Despise" (Autb., with Wyel. and 
Tyncl.) is too strong a word for the Gr. Yulg., noli negligere. 

7 It is for chastening that ye endure.— Tliis rendering, 
and the Marginal alternative " endure unto chastening," are duo 
to the change in tlie Gr. text {els for et), -which makes it doubtful 
whether " endure " is k) be taken in the indicative or imperative 
mood. Auth., " if ye endure," &c. 

10 As seemed good to them. — Not as Auth., " after their own 
pleasure." It is not the capricious or arbitrary character of 
the human chastisement which is here put in comparison with 
that of the heavenly Father, but its liability to error, even when 
the judgement is according to the dictates of human reason and 

11 All chastening . . .—The Auth. turns the affirmation of 
the original into a negative sentence, which is neither so simple 
nor so direct. 

14 The sanctification.— Auth., "holiness." The word always 
means the process, not the end. That we may see the Lord, we 
must indeed be holy ; but first we must go through the process 
of being made holy. Compare 1 Tim. ii. 15, where the same 
change is made. The article is prefixed to this word, but not to 
" peace." It is worthy of notice that the Gr. presents a 
hexameter line in the 13th verse, and two iambics in the 14th. 

17 Desired to. — There is an ambiguity in the common auxiliary 
form, " would have " (Auth.). 

He sought it diligently with tears. — The pimctuation 
and parenthesis shew that " it " is to be referred back to " the 
blessing," and not to be connected, as tlie punctuation in Auth. 
requires, with " repentance." Either connection is grammatically 
possible, and in point of sense it is hard to choose between the 
two. Chiysostom, followed by many modem expositors, and by 
Auth., takes the latter, and explains it thus : Esau attained not 
to a true repentance, though he sought it with tears ; for his 
self-reproach was not genuine contrition, as he shewed af tei-wards 
by wishing to kill his brother Jacob. To this, however, it may 
be objected that the narrative in Genesis (chap, xx-vai.) gives 
no intimation of his wishing to repent, whereas it does shew 
how "diligently," how persistently he sought "the blessing" 
(iK^riTTjo-as aurr^y is the emphatic phrase in this verse) ; how " he 
cried with an exceeding bitter cry, saying, Bless me, even me also, 


O my father ; " aud when this was of no avail, how he renewed 
his entreaty in the same words, and " lifted up his voice, and 
wept." This interpretation is adopted by Theophylact, A 
Lapide, and Beza, and is followed in the versions of Tynd. 
and Genev. The intervening clause then refers to Isaac, 
thus: "he (Esau) was rejected, for he found no place of re- 
pentance in his father Isaac, no way of moving him to revoke 
the blessing which he had bestowed on Jacob." 

19 That no word more should be spoken.— Auth., " that the 
word should not bespoken:" "word" in the Gr. has not the 
article. " The word ' (Auth.) suggests something definite, the 
word of God, or the word already spoken. 

20 If even a beast.— Auth., following Genev., " if so much as a 
beast," after Beza, si vel bestia — an inelegant rendering, but 
more accurate than the previous versions, which overlooked the 
Gr. Kai. Not even a wild beast, much less a man, was permitted 
to approach. 

" Or thrust through with a dart." — (Auth.) Omitted by change 
in Gr. text. 

21 The appearance.— The Gr. is cognate to the word which is 
rendered " apparition" in Matt. xiv. 26, Mark vi. 49, and means 
properly " that which was appearing." Auth., " the sight," as of 
something real. 

23 Enrolled.— The same word is so rendered in Luke ii. 1. All 
Engl, versions, "written." 

Made perfect is to be joined with " just men." The connec- 
tion is apparent in the Gr., and hardly doubtful in the Engl. ; 
but in illustration of the mistakes into which Ave may be led 
by the absence of inflexions in our native language, two examples 
of erroneous interpretation of this passage are pointed out by 
Dr. Field. Archbishop Sumner on Ephes.. p. 17, says : " To 
them fully . . . will be the high privilege of the ' spirits made 
perfect ; ' " and Sir Theodore Martin, in the concluding sentence 
of his Life of the Prince Consort, says of the heavenly state, 
" Where tliere is a rest for the weary, and where the s]nrits of 
the just are made perfect." 

24 That speaketh better.— So Wycl. and Tynd., with Vulg, 
Auth., with Genev., following a different reading of the Gr, 
text, " better things." 

25 Warned.— Auth., "spake." The Gr. is the same that is 
rendered " warned of God " in Matt. ii. 12. 


26 Make to tremble.— Autli., " sliake." The Gr. is not tlie 
same that is rendered " sliook " in the context, but occurs in 
Matt, xxvii. 51, xxviii. 4 in the passive ; and there is " quake." 

28 Offer service.— All Engl, versions, "serve." The word here 
as elsewhere denotes the service of worship. The word which 
follows is an'adverb, " well -plea singly." 

Grace. — The Marginal translation, " thankfulness," would bo 
equally suitable to the Gr., and perhaps even more apposite in 
this hortatory sentence ; but " grace " is a prominent idea in the 
Epistle, and especially in this and the following chapter ; and 
an exhortation to " have grace " extends to the use of those 
means by wliich grace may assuredly be obtained. 

Keverence. — The word is rendered "godly fear" in chap. v. 7, 
and here in Autli. 

Awe. — By change in Gr. text for Auth., " reverence " (Stovs for 
aldoiJs). Besides the change of words, there is also a trans- 
position in the Gr. text, making reverence the first word, 
which stands second (" godly fear ") in Auth. 


1 Love of the brethren— i.e., of the believers. See Note on 
Bom. xii. 10. Auth., '' brotherly love." The word in classical 
autliors means love of brothers and sisters, but not in the New 

2 To shew love unto strangers.— The Gr. philoxenia, "love 
of sti-augevs," is formed in tire same manner as philadelpliia, 
" love of the brethren," in verse 1. All Engl, versions, " to 
lodge," or, as Auth., " to entertain strangers," treating the 
Gr. as a verb akin to tliat which is rightly translated " entertain " 
in this verse. 

3 Are evil entreated. — Auth., " suffer adversity," as in chap. 
xi. 37. 

4 Let marriage be had in honour.— Auth., "marriage is 
honourable." The absence of a verb in the Gr. raises the ques- 
tiou whether the sentence is a command, or, as given in Auth., 


the statement of a geiKral truth rrom which a command to 
observe it may be inferred. Standing in the midst of exhorta- 
tions, and resembling them in the collocation of the words, it 
seems more naturally, as well as more forcibly, to follow their 
construction and their hortatory tone than to break off from 
them with a didactic statement, from which a return to the im- 
perative mood is made in the next verse. Moreover, as a matter 
of Greek construction, " the bed imdefiled " (Auth.) can only be 
justified by expanding the phrase thus — " Marriage is honourable, 
and the bed is undefiled ; ' which, in point of sense, is incon- 
gi'uous. Chrysostora takes the sentence as an affirmation ; 
Theophylact as a precept. See Alf ord's Note. 

6 What shall man do unto me?— The change made in this 
quotation from Psalm cxviii. 6 (LXX.) brings it into accordance 
with the original Hebrew, and also removes a construction which, 
though permissible in English, is ungrammatical in Greek, " I 
will not fear what man can do unto me " (Auth.). 

7 Them that had the rule over you.— Auth., " them which 
have the rule over you." Gr., "your rulers." From what- 
follows it appears that these rulers had passed away, and were to 
be remembered for their good works and examples ; such were 
St. Stephen, St. James the great, and St. James the less, who 
all had died a martyr's death at Jerusalem, 

The issue. —Auth., " the end." Gr., (K$a(nv, " the outcome." 

Life, imitate.— See 1 Tim. iv. 12; 1 Cor. iv. 16; and 2 
Thess. iii. 7. 

8 Jesus Christ is the same. — " The earthly rulers pass away ; 
the heavenly Lord is the same to-day as yesterday, and will 
be the same for ever." To bring out fully this meaning 
is and yea are added in italics : the former shewing that the 
eentence is not an exclamation, or an explanation of the phrase 
"the issue of their life;" the latter making "for ever" an 
independent clause, suggested by the preceding. The collocation 
of the words in the Gr. appears plainly to indicate this. 

9 Carried away by.— For Auth., "carried about with," by 
change in Gr. text — irapacpepea-ee, "be carried aside out of the 
right way," for ■}repi(t>fpea-Oe, " be carried roimd and round " (as 
in Eph. iv. 14), like the leaves in autumn, by every wind of 

17 They watch in behalf of your souls — i.e., to protect 
them. The Gr. is inrtp ; " watch for " (Auth.) might be said 
of one who watched with an unfriendly intent. 


That they may do this. — The reference of " do this " is to 
the " bearing rule " and " watching," not to the " giving 
account." The change in punctuation after " give account " 
(semicolon for comma), as weU as the substitution of this for 
" it " (Auth.), is intended to point to this interpretation, which 
is al^o indicated by the concluding clause of the sentence. 

This were unprofitable. — " This," viz., " to give account with 

grief." Auth., " that is unprofitable." 

18 We are persuaded. — By change in Gr. text for " we trust," 
as Auth. and previous versions. " We trust," imtoldaixev, is 
St. PaxU's ijlirase : see Gal. v. 10 ; Phil. i. 25 ; " we are per- 
suaded " is St. Luke's in Acts xxvi. 26. 

19 I exhort you the more exceedingly.— The Gr. requires a 

stronger Engl, word than " the rather " (Auth.). Whether 
joined with " I exhort you " or with " to do this," it expresses a 
vehement desire on the part of the writer. 




1 Of the dispersion.— Autli.. " scattered abroad." The same 
word Diaspora is used by St. Peter at the begmiiing' of his First 
Epistle, and by St. John in his Gospel (vii. 35). It comprehended 
in the time of the Apostles all Jews living outside of the Holy 

4 Lackiiig in nothing.— As Vnlg., in nullo deficientes. Auth., 
" wanting nothing." The Gr. for " lacking " is the same as in 
the next verse ; but the noun which follows is here dependent on 
the preposition eV, "in," not as inverse 5 on the verb itself: 
consequently the meaning here is " in no respect falling short 
of the perfection and entireuess which have just been men- 
tioned," in verse 5, "if any of you falleth short of wisdom." 

6 Nothing doubting. — Auth., following Tynd., " nothing 
wavering," for the sake perhaps of the word " waves " which 
follows, though there is no similarity in the Gr. 

The surge of the sea.— Auth., " a wave of the sea." The 
Gr. K\v5oiiy, as distingi;ished from the more usual word Kv/xa, 
denotes the state of the sea when violently agitated l}y the wijul. 
Compare Luke viii. 24. 

8 A doublemiuded man . . .—All Engl, versions, with Yxdg., 
insert is ; but the clause without such insertion may be connected 
with "he," the subject of the former clause ; or it may be taken 
to be the subject of that clause, as in the Margin. 

9 In his high estate.— Literally, " in his height." Aiith., " in 
that he is exalted." Of such glorying the Magnificat is the 
most eminent example. 

428 JAMES.— I. 

11 TliQ nwv. ai'iseth.— So Tynd. ; Auth., " tlie sun is uo sooner 
risen." The Gr. aorist here has its " usitative " sense, " is 
wont to." 

The scorching wind.— Anth., "a burning heat." The Gr. is 
the same as in Matt. xx. 12 ; and Jonah iv. 8 (LXX.), where 
the Auth. has " a vehement east wind." 

Fade away in his goings.— Auth., " fade away in his ways." 
The change is not made merely to avoid the coincidence in sound, 
biit because the word for '" ways " is not the same as in verse 8 ; 
and as distinguished from that — which may be " ways of life, 
liabits"' — this may be " projects, adventures," in which a man 
makes a start and presently gives them up. The combination 
of metaphors may remind us of that in Juvenal ix. 126, '' Festinat 
enwi clecurrere velox Flosculiis." 

12 When he hath been approved.— So Wycl. and Rhem., 
following Vulg., probahis. Auth., "when he is tried." The 
Gr. denotes the favourable result of the trial. 

14 Each man— i.e., severally, in a way peculiar to himself. Auth., 
"every man," which would rather indicate the universality of 

The lust, the sin, in verse 15, also appear to be particularised, 
and not regarded in the abstract. 

15 Fullgrown. — Auth., following Tynd., " finished," dropping 
the metaphor of tlie jjreceding clause, which is continued in the 

Beareth . . . bringeth forth. — The variation in the Gr. 
is not observed in Auth. 

16 Be not deceived. — Literally, " be not led astray." Auth., 
'•do not err." 

17 Every good gift and every perfect boon.— Here also 
there is a variation which in the Engl, versions (except Genev.) 
is disregarded; and indeed it is not easily grasped. Yidg., 
07nne datum optimum et omne donum perfecttmi. Genev. has 
" eveiy good givuig and every perfect gift," taking S6(Tti 
(Engl., "dose ") in its primary sense, as the act of giving. Accord- 
ing to PhUo, the second word, Swp-nna, means a superlatively 
good gift ; if that is so, " boon," from the Latin honum, may 
fairly represent it. The words of the Gr. form a hexameter 
verse, if the second syllable of ^6<ns is lengthened by the ictus 
upon it {Wordsicorth, Note). 

JAMES.— I. 429 

Can be.— Autli., "is." The Gr. signifies tliat it is uot in His 

Variation. — Auth., with Tynd., "variableness." The Gr. 
denotes not tlie quality in the abstract, but actual change. 

Shadow that is cast by turning— i.e., by the daily and 
yearly [apparent] revolution of the sun. Auth., " shadow of 
turning." The shifting of the shadow appears to l^e tlie idea 
expressed by rpoiTrjs a.iro(TKiaa-fj.a (by enallage for rpoTr?; airoiTKidcr- 

18 He brought us forth.— Auth., "begat he us." The Gr. is 
the same as in verse 15. 

19 Ye know this. — By change in Gr. text (t'o-re for uVre). So 
Wycl. and Rhem,, following Vulg. scitis. Tynd. and Autli., 
" Avherefore." 

21 Overflowing of wickedness. — Auth., with Tynd., " super- 
fluity," which would mean, in modern usage, too much of that 
which in moderation is good. We are reminded of the phrase in 
Ps. xviii. 4 (Prayer-book version), " the overflowings of ungod- 
liness ; " but in the LXX. version the word is different, xe'V^Ppoj- 

Wickedness. — Auth., " naughtiness." Other versions, " ma- 
lice " or "maliciousness." The Gr. kukIus is an ordinary word, 
and of more compi-ehensive meaning than " naughtiness " in 
its present usage. 

21 Implanted. — That which is sown within you, the inspired 
word of God ; with an allusion, perhaps, to the parable of the 
sower. Auth., "engrafted." The Gr. in its primary meaning 
is " inborn." 

22 Deluding. — All English versions, " deceiving." The Gr. is the 
same as in Col. ii. 4, and properly signifies deception by false 

25 The Imv of liberty. — The position of the Gr. article implies 
the reiteration which in English needs to be expressed. "The 
law of liberty," that liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free. 

And so continueth. — i.e., continueth looking. Auth., " con- 
tinueth therein," i.e., in the law of liberty; which is not the 
meaning of the Gr. 

A hearer that forgetteth. — The Gr. is Hebraistic, " not a 
hearer of forge tfulness, but a doer of a work." The two clauses 

430 JAMES.— II. 

slioulfl be symuictrical iu trauslatiou, as iu the origiual. Auth., 
"uot a forgetful liearer, but a doer of tlie work." 

In his doing. — All English versions, '•■ in his deed," i.e., in 
his accomplished work, following Yulg., in facto suo. The 
word is akin to that which is rendered " doer" in this verse. 


1 Hold not— Auth., "have uot." This use of ^x'^, "to have," 
is chai-acteristic of the Epistle. See chap. i. 4, ii. 14, iii. 14. 
The senteuco admits of being taken interrogatively, as iu the 

3 Ye have regard. — Literally, "ye look upon." Auth., with 

Tyud., " ye have respect." 

4 Are ye not divided? — Auth., with Tynd., "are ye uot par- 
tial," which, according to present usage of the word, would mean, 
" disposed to favour one side rather than the other." The Gr. does 
uot allow of that interpretation, though its raeauiug here is 
imcertaiu. It may mean, as in chap. i. 6, "ye are in doubt," 
" ye are divided in your thoughts," i.e., between the principles of 
Christian equality and worldly prudence ; or, " ye are divided 
amoug yourselves " (as a house divided within itself) by a liue 
of separation betweeu rich and poor. The former of these two 
senses appears the more near to tlie primary meauing of the 
word, and is that of the cognate adjective in chap. iii. 17. 

5 Them that are poor as to the world.— By change in Gr. 
text (the dative case for the genitive) for '' the poor of this world." 

To be rich in faith. — The insertion in italics is necessary 
to the sense, and, to prevent any doubt, is better expressed than 
left to he mentally si^iiplied, as in Auth. 

t> Dishonoured. — All Engl, versions, "despised:" a word which 
in Auth. represents seven distinct Gr. words. Vulg., exhono- 
rastis, Uompare Heb. x. 28. 

JAMES.— II. 431 

The poor man. — Auth., "the poor." The Gv. is iu the 
singular number, rhv irruxSy. 

And themselves drag you. — The word implies violeuce. 
Auth., " draw you." Compare Acts xxi. 26. 

Themselves.— Gr., oi»to(, with this meaning, " Is it not those 
very men, the rich, who treat you thus insolently? then why 
should you give special honour to a man because he is rich ? " 

7 The honotirable name.— Auth., with Genev., "that worthy 
najoie." Wycl. and Tynd., " that good name," as Yulg., bonmn 
nomen. Gr., rh Ka\hv ovo/xa, " the beautiful Name," from which 
they had their name given to them opprobriously, " Christians." 

9 Convicted by the law. — Auth., " convinced of the law." 
Tynd., "rebuked of the law." "Con\dnce" in Auth. sometimes 
has the sense of "convict," as in John viii. 46, "which of you 
convinceth me of sin ? " 

10 Stumble. — The same word is so rendered iu Auth. at Rom. 
xi. 11, " Have they stumbled that they should fall ? " but 
here and in chap. iii. 2, " offend." Tynd., " fail." 

12 As men that are to be judged.— Literally, "as being 
about to be judged" (/xiWovTis Kpiviadai). 

13 Judgement is without mercy to him . . .—Literally, 
" is merciless." Auth., foUowiug Craum., "we shall have judg- 
ment without mercy;" "judgement" is rei^resented as a per- 
sonal agent in both clauses of the sentence. 

15 In lack of. — So Rhem. The Gr. is the same as in chap. i. 4, 5. 
Auth., with Tynd., " destitute of." 

17 Is dead in itself.— So all Engl, versions, excejit Auth., 
" is dead, being alone," which misses the true significance of 
the original; its deaduess is intrinsic, and consists not iu its 
" being alone," or " by itself," and lacking outward support, 
which is the case rather of those whom it refiises to help. 

18 Apart from. — Separate from. Auth., " without." Gr., x<^P^J- 

19 That God is one. — Auth., "that there is one God." Gr.. efs 
iCTTiv 6 @e6s. " God " is the subject ; of Him it is predicated 
that He is One. 

432 JAMES.— III. 

20 Barren.— Literally, " idle," " doing uo wurk," as iu 2 Peter 
i. 8 ; by change in Gr. text for Autli., " dead." 

21 In that he oifered up.— Autli., " wlieu he offered." The Gr. 
participle has a causal rather than a temporal sense ; so in 
verse 25. 


1 Teachers. — Autli., " masters," a word which foriuerly had the 
special meaning of "teacher," when used absolutely, as it is 
in the Gospels, to represent '' Rabbi." But properly " master" 
denotes supei'iority, mag-ister, as inferiority is implied by 


2 Stumble.— See Note on chap. ii. 10. 

3 Now if.— By change in Gr. text for " Behold " (Auth.) 
If we put the bridle into the horse's mouth to make him obey 
us, by so doing we obtain the obedience not of his head only, 
but of his whole body ; in the same manner, he who can rule 
his tongue can rule his whole self. 

The horses' bridles.— This, according to the Gr., is the 
connection of the words, not as in all Engl, versions, with 
Vulg., " the horses' mouths." 

Bridles. — So Wycl., following Vulg. frena. Auth., " bits." 
The Gr. word, which in the preceding verse enters into 
composition with '"lead" in the verb rendered "to bridle," 
xaAivayoiyi^u, includes properly the whole bridle, though often 
used for the "bit," the wliole for the part, by the figure 
which the grammarians call synecdoche, and of which another 
form iu the opposite sense, the part for the whole, occurs in 
the next verse (Auth.). 

4 BiOugh winds. — Auth., following Tynd., "fierce." Literally, 
"hard" or "harsh." "Fierce" has an ethical meaning, which 
(7K\rip6s does not imply, when applied to physical objects and 
phenomena, such as " winds." 

JAMES.— in. 433 

Rudder.— Auth. liere, with Tyud., "helm; " but in Acts xxvii. 
40, "rudder," which is the proper meaning of the Gr. in^SdKtov. 
The " helm " is properly the upper part of the rudder, often 
used poetically for the whole. 

The impulse of the steersman.— Auth., with Gener., 
(omitting the first word) "the governor." Tynd., Cranm., and 
Rhem., " whithersoever the violence of the governor will." 
Vulg., ubi vis dirigentis voluerit. Beza, impulsus gubei-na- 
toris. Quhernator, " governor," in its primary sense is a 
steersman or pilot of a ship. 

5 How much wood. — Margin, " Or, lioio great a forest.'^ The 
Gr, v\i) may be either a quantity of wood used for fuel, or a 
standing wood, a forest, or dead matter, " materials," as Beza, 
niateriain, whence Auth., " how great a matter." This phrase, 
however, " a matter," witli the indefinite article, rather suggests 
the logical sense in which the Gr. word is used by Aristotle, 
to denote the subject-matter of an argument or discourse. Tlie 
primary meaning of v\7i is " a forest " (in Latin, sylva). The 
poetical idea of a forest destroyed by a little spark is classical, 
being found in Homer, II. xi. 115 ; Virgil, Georgic ii. 303, &c. 
In this passage, where the imagery is taken from the incidents 
of common life, the derivative meaning, wood for fuel, seems 
more probable. 

6 The world of iniquity . . . — "So" (Auth.) is omitted by 
change in Gr. text. The other changes and the ahernative ren- 
derings in the Margin depend on various modes of punctuation, 
and involve no material difference in meaning. 

The wheel of nature. — Literally, " the wheel of creation " 
or " birth ; " the orb, or cycle, or totality of creation. Tyud. 
and Craum., " all that we have of nature." Autli., with Geuev., 
" the course of nature," understanding by " the wheel " the 
orbit in which Nature moves. Vulg., rotavi nativitatis. 

Hell. — Gr., Gehenna, not Hades. 

7 Creeping things. — All Engl, versions, with Vulg., "serpents." 

Gr., fpTTiTuiy, not otpeuy, 

8 Restless.— By change in Gr. text for "unruly" (Auth.). 
Vulg., inquietam, and so Wycl. and Rhem. 

11 From the same opening.— So Wycl. and Rhem. Vulg., 
de eodem forainine. Tynd. and Auth. less literally, " at tne 
same r)lace." The Gr. 6irv ia used in Heb. xi. 38. 
C G 

434 JAMES.— IV. 

12 Neither can salt water yield sweet.— By change in Gr. 
text for Auth., " neither can a fountain both yield salt water 
and fresh." A salt source cannot yield sweet water; an evil 
tongue, similarly, cannot utter good words. 

13 Wise and understanding.— The same two words, literally, 
" wise and knowing," are found together in Dent. i. 13 (LXX.); 
the latter does not again occur in the New Testament. The 
distinctions which have been drawn between them are not 
well supported by their usage. 

14 Jealousy and faction.— Auth., " env^nug and strife." So 
Acts xiii. 45 ; Rom. ii. 8, and elsewhere. 

16 Deed. — The Gr. denotes a thing done, not " a work,'' as all 
Engl, versions. The converse change is made in chap. ii. 25. 

17 Without variance. — Aixth., " without partiality." The Gr. 
is the same as in chap. ii. 4. 


2 Covet. — Margin, "Or, are jealous.^' The Gr. may have either 
sense. Compare 1 Cor. xii. 31 ; Jas. iii. 14. 

3 Spend. — Auth., " consume," which is the usiial rendering in 
Auth. for another word, as " spend " is for this. 

4 " Adulterers." — (Auth.) Omitted by change in Gr. text. Tlie 
■ Aj)Ostle addresses those who have broken their vows to God 

in the stern language of the old prophets rebuking the people 
of Israel. Thus Ezek. (xvi. 32) says to Jerusalem, " Thou hast 
been as a wife that committeth adultery." Ps. Ixxiii. 2, 6, &c. 

Maketh himself.—" Thereby becomes." Auth., " is." Vulg., 

constituitur. Gr., KaQicrrarai, as at chap. iii. 6. 

5 Or think ye . . . — The main difference between this and the 
Auth. is caused by the change of punctuation, according to which 
the sentence, which in Auth. is one, is broken into two, the 
former being a general question, the latter not, as in Auth., 
a quotation from Scripture introduced by the former, but an 

JAMES.— IV. 435 

independent question asked by the Apostle himself. This view 
of the passage, which is that of Bede in ancient times, has 
been adopted by Whitby (A.d. 1700) and Bishop Wordsworth. 
It avoids the difficulty of attributing to the Old Testament 
a sentence which is not now found in it : and no objection 
can be raised to the rendering of ^tyei, "speaketh," instead 
of "saith,'' as in the next verse; for it is so used in 2 Cor. 
• vi. 13. The question is tlien to be understood as an inquiry 
whether the Holy Spii-it, Who has taken up His abode in us, 
longeth for us to such a degree as to be an example of envy 
and jealousy; and the implied answer is, " No, He is a Spirit of 
gentleness." On the wnole, this interpretation appears the 
more probable. That which in substance, with variations, 
has been generally followed by ancient and modern expositors 
is given in the Margin. Neither in the letter nor in the 
spirit of the Old Testament is such a statement found as 
this, if (as in Auth.) it represents the Spirit " lusting to 
envy," i.e., to a degree bordering on envy. 

10 He shall exalt you.— The phrase is made familiar to us 
by Matt, xxiii. 12 ; 1 Pet. v. 6. Auth., " lift you up." 

11 Speak against.— So Auth. in 1 Peter ii. 12, but here " speak 
evil of," which limits the prohibition to backbiting. This limited 
sense of the word is, however, supported by Dr. Field in 
his Note; and the cognate noun in Rom. i. 30 is rendered 
" backbiters." 

12 Thy neighbour.— By change in Gr. text for "another." 
Compare Rom. xiv. 4. 

13 This city.— Auth., with Tynd., "such a city;" but there 
appears to be no instance of the definite pronoun in Gr. being 
used thus indefinitely. 

Spend a year.— Literally, " make a year," as in Acts xv. 23. 
The Gr. vividly suggests the idea that the time was their 
own to " make out," and do with, as tliey pleased. 

Trade. — Auth., "buy and sell." The Gr., which does not 
occur again in the New Testament, is a general term for acting 
as a merchant. 

14 Ye are.— By change in Gr. text for " it is " (Auth.). Thus 
Horace says, Pulvis ei umhra sumus, " Dixst and a shade 
we are." 

16 Your vauntings. — Auth., "your boastings;" literally, "your 
vaingloriousnesses." The word occurs again in 1 John ii. 16. 

436 JAMES.— V. 


3 Rusted . . . their rust.— So "Wycl. Autli., " caukeroJ . . . 
their rust." The two Trorcls in Gr. are cognate. 

Ye have laid up your treasure (one word in Gr.) in the 
last days — i.e., "ye have laid up earthly treasure when the 
Lord's coming is at hand, and when ye ought to have been 
preparing for that, and with a view to it laying up treasure 
in heaven." Auth., "for the last days," erroneously trans- 
lating the preposition eV, and so falling in with another in- 
terpretation, which associates this passage with Rom, ii. 5, 
"Thou treasurest up for thyself wrath in the day of wrath." 

4 Mowed . . . reaped rejoresent two different words in the Gr, 

5 In a day of slaughter.— " As " (Auth.) being omitted by 
change in Gr. text. The comparison is with beasts feeding 
themselves as usual on the day of their slaughter ; and the 
idea is the same as that in verse 3, of treasuring up wealth 
" in the last days." 

9 Murmur not. — Auth., " grudge not," which formerly may 
have borne the same meaning, but now denotes a suppressed 
feeling of ill-will. 

13 Cheerful. — Auth., " merry," which suggests the outward ex- 
pression of joyousness, rather than the inward cheerfulness 
of the Gr. (iidvuf?. 

Let him sing praise. — Auth., " let him sing Psalms." The 
Gr. ipsalmodein) denoted properly the musical accompaniment 
of the song, and thence was applied either to the music or 
the song, or to both as one art, but not exclusively to the 
singing of " Psalms," understanding by that word the Psalter 
or " Psalms of David." Compare Rom. xv. 9 ; Eph. v. 19. 

16 Confess therefore. — " Therefore," added consequently on a 
change in the Gr. text, connects this command with the pre- 
ceding verses. There is no express injunction to confess to 
the elders of the Church : biit it would seem to be implied in 
the direction that they are to " pray over " the sick man ; 
and the further direction is here given that the believers 
should confess their sins (not to the elders only, but) "one 
to another," and " pray one for another." 

JAMES.— V. 437 

In its working.— Gr., fvepyov/xfvn. The force of this word, 
staucliug at the eud of the sentence, is much impaired 
in Auth., which rej)resents it as an epithet and resolves it 
into two adjectives, " the effectual fervent prayer." Tlie 
meaning is that the prayer avails much by its working. Com- 
pare Gal. V. 6, " faith working by love," where, as in this 
place, it is joined with la-xvn ; and see Col. i. 29. 

17 Of like passions.— Margin, "Or, nature." Auth.. "subject 
to like passions." The word occurs once again in the New 
Testament, Acts xiv. 15. 

20 Shall cover. — Shall be the means of covering, of blotting out, 
the sins of the convert. Auth., " shall hide." Compare 1 Peter 
iv. 8 ; Prov. x. 12. 




1 To the elect. — This word by the Gr. construction is joined 
with "according to the foreknowledge of God" (as in Auth.), 
but by position it is made emijhatic, coming after the name and 
title of the Apostle, with this meaning—" to those who have 
been chosen to receive the Gospel (being Jews scattered abroad 
and sojourning in Pontus, &c.) according to God's fore- 

Sojourners of the Dispersion. — See Note on James i. 
Auth., " the strangers scattered." 

2 In sanctification.— Comp. 2 Thess. ii. 13, and Note there. 
The same change of " in " for " through " (Auth.) is made in 
2 Pet. i. 2. 

3 A living hope.— Auth., "lively." Compare chap. ii. 4, 5, 
" a living stone," where the Gr. is the same. 

5 Guarded. — Protected by God's watchfulness and power. 
Auth., " kept." The Gr. is a military word. See 2 Cor. xi. 38. 

6 Ye have been put to grief. — The Gr. (aorist participle) 
denotes a definite affliction, not the being " in heaioness " (Auth.). 

7 More precious than gold — i.e., " the proof and testing of 
your faith is of more value than gold." Auth., " than of gold," 
i.e., " the proof of your faith is of more value than the testing 
of gold," which is not grammatically correct, nor helpful to the 

10 Sought.— Auth., " enquired," which implies asking questions, 
and represents another Gr. word, as in Matt. ii. 4. 

I. PETER.— I. 439 

11 What time, or what manner of time — i.e., " what would 
be the time, or of Avliat sort, by wliat signs and circumstances it 
woidd be attended." Autli., " wliat, or what manner of time," 
would mean " what things," as if the Gr. rim were the neuter 

12 Sent forth.— Aiith., " sent down." The verb in Gr. is cognate 
to the noun Apostolos. 

13 Set your hope. — The Gr. expresses a definitive act of hope, 
accomplished once for aU ; not, as Auth., " hope to the end," the 
state of hopefulness. Perfectly, without reserve or faltering ; 
not as Auth., " to the end," in a temporal sense. 

14 Children of obedience. — The common Hebraism, suggested 
by the vivid Oriental imagination, which personified obedience, 
wrath, &c., and represented those who were subject to these 
moral conditions as being their offspring. 

According to your former lusts in the time of your 
ignoi^ance. — A condensed expression, signifying " the lusts 
which ye had formerly, in the time, &c." Auth., " fashioning 
yourselves according to the former lusts, in your ignorance," as 
if " in your ignorance " were to be connected with " fashioning 

17 If ye call on him as Father.— Literally, " if ye address by 
the name of Father {e.g., in the Lord's Prayer) him who," &c. 
Auth., "if ye call on the Father." 

19 Even the hlood of Christ. — The name stands thus in the Gr. 
at the end of the sentence, and immediately followed by " who 
was foreknown." 

20 Foreknown— i.e., by God. So Auth. in Rom. viii. 29, xi. 2 ; 
but here " foreordained." 

At the end of the times.— Compare the similar phrase in 
Heb. i. 2, " at the end of these days." Auth., " in these last 

440 J. PETER.— II. 


1 Putting away.— So Auth. for the eame word in Eph. iv. 25 ; 
here " laying aside." 

8 Long for. — The Gr. is elsewhere so rendered. Auth., •' desire," 
which is not so appropriate, in reference to " newborn babes." 

Spiritual.— A paraphrase adopted here by Chrysostom; see also 
Rom. xii. I (Margin). The Gr. properly means " reasoning," 
or " rational," as contrasted with " unreasoning," " irrational," 
Auth. here, " of the word." 

Without guile.— With reference to " guile " in verse I. Auth., 
" sincere." IrenaBus (in the third century) notices in connection 
with this passage the practice of adulterating milk with gypsum. 
"In Dei lade gypsum male miscetur." {Wordsivorth.) 

4 Rejected.— Auth., following Tynd., here has "disallowed," but 
for the same Gr. in six other places " reject." 

Elect.— The same word as in verse 9, and chap. i. 1 ; Auth., 
" chosen." 

6 Because.— Auth., "wherefore." The Gr. is SiJrt not 3t(i. The 
Apostle adds from Scripture the ground on which he makes the 
preceding statement. 

Be put to shame.— Auth., " be confounded;" with Vidg., 
7ion confundetur. The Gr. is the same as in chap. iii. 16 ; 
Rom. V. 5. 

7 For you therefore ... is the preciousness.— The 

Gr. noun is akin to the adjective rendered " precious " in verse 6. 
Auth., with Tynd., " Unto you therefore ... he is precious." 
The full meaning of the passage appears to be this, " For you 
who believe in Him, for your sake, is this preciousness, this 
honour which He possesses ; that so far from being ' put to 
shame ' (verse 6), ye may partake in it, may be yourselves 
precious in the sight of God." 

9 Race. — Auth., " generation." The Gr. is yevos, not yeyea. It ia 
not a single " generation " that is here addressed, but a nation 
derived from a common Father, as Israel was from Abraham. 
Compare Isai. xliii. 20 (LXX.), rb y&os /xov rh fK\(KT6v. 

A people for Ood's own possession. — Auth., '• a 
people." See Note on Ejjhes. i. li. 

1. PETER.— III. 441 

The excellencies.— Literally, "the virtues."' The word is 
used in the passage of Isaiah referred to above, which the 
Apostle evidently here has in mind. Autli., " the praises." 
We are to shew His excellencies, His virtues, by telling them 
out among the heathen, and presenting a likeness of them 
in ourselves. 

12 Seemly.— Auth., " honest," See Note on Rom. xii. 17. 

25 Ye were going astray like sheep.— For Auth., "ye were 
as sheep going astray;" by change iu Gr. text, " going astray " 
is connected with " ye " instead of " sheep." 


3 Jewels of gold.— Literally, " pieces of gold " (ihe plural). 
Auth., " gold." 

4 In the incorruptible apparel of.— Auth., "in that which is 
not corruptible, even the ornament of." This insertion, besides 
being at variance with the construction of the Gr., somewhat 
obscures the meaning, which is this, " Let your adorning be the 
hidden man of the heart, appearing outwardly in the incorrup- 
tible apparel of a meek and quiet spirit." 

6 Are not put in fear by any terror — i.e., by any sudden 
alarm. Auth., "are not afraid with any amazement." Compare 
Prov. iii. 25, which passage the Apostle seems here to have 
in mind : " be not afraid of sudden fear, neither of the desolation 
of the wicked, when it cometh," where the word for " fear " is 
the same as in this place, irT6rj(n5, not occurring elsewhere in 
the LXX, or New Testament. Its proper meaning is the 
" flutter " or " fright " produced by sudden alarm. 

8 Compassionate, — The Gr., sympathetic, is general, not calling 
for the insertion in Auth., " having compassion one of another." 
The adjective does not occur again ; but like the verb in Heb. 
iv. 15, X. 34, and like " sympathy " in Engl., it denotes more 
frequently fellow-feeling in sorrow than in joy. 

Tenderhearted.— So Auth. for the same word in Eph. iv. 32, 
but here "pitiful" In classical Greek it means "strong- 

442 I. PETER.— ITJ. 

lieai-ted," bui as its proper meauiug is '" goodlieartod," it 
embraces both senses, and the one quality by no means ex- 
cludes the other. 

Humbleminded. — Auth., with Tynd., "courteous." So 
Cranm., but with " meek " (in brackets), from Wycl. and Vulg., 

11 Turn av/ay from.. — As in Rom. iii. 12, xvi, 17, for the same 
Greek. Auth., with Tynd., " eschew," a word of the same 
meaning, but now not in common use, connected with the 
German " scheuen," and the English " shy." Compare Prov. 
iv. 14, 15, "Enter not into the path of the wicked . . . Avoid 
it, pass not by it, avoid it, and pass away." In like manner, 
" ensue " (Auth.) has lost in its ordinary use the sense of active 
pursuit which formerly it had, and which is in the Gr. hiwKw. 
Both words are in the Psalter of the Prayer-book, but not in 
the Auth. of Ps. xxxiv. 16. 

12 Is upon them. — Auth., " against," with Margin, " Gr., upon." 
The preposition is the same as in the former part of the verse. 

13 Be zealous. — Literally, " zealots," by change in Gr. text for 
"imitators," or, as in Auth., "followers." 

14 Blessed are ye. — Auth., " happy are ye." There is an e\'ident 
reference to the Sei-mon on the Moimt, "Blessed are they that 
have been persecuted for righteousness' sake," Matt. v. 10. 

Fear not their fear.— As in Isa. viii. 12 (Auth.), " Neither 
fear ye their fear, nor be afraid," " Their fear " may mean 
either " that of which they are afraid," or " that of which they 
would make you afraid." The latter interpretation is the more 
probable, and is that of Alf oi-d and Wordsworth. Bengel rather 
happily combines the two, " Fear not that which they fear them- 
selves, and of which they would make you afraid." 

15 Sanctify . . . Christ as Lord.— So Vulg., Wycl., and 
Rhem. The Auth., following another reading of the Gr. text 
has " the Lord God." Compare Isa. viii. 13, " Sanctify the 
Lord of hosts himself ; and let him be your fear, and let him 
be your dread." Thus the Apostle places before us Christ to 
be our Lord, and to be set up in our hearts as the object (if 
reverence and godly fear, in the words which the prophet of 
the Old Testament uses with regard to the " Lord Jehovah." 

Yet with meekness.— The very needful condition expressed 
by " jet " is due to the addition of iAXti in the Gt. toxt. 

1. PETER.— 1X1. 143 

16 Ye are spoken against. — By chauge iu Gr. text for " they 
speak evil of you, as of evildoers " (Autn.). 

Revile. — The Gr., which occurs again only in Luke vi. 28, has 
not the sense given to it in the English versions, " falsely 
accuse," following Yulg., cahimniantur. 

18, 19 Quickened in the spirit ; in whicli.— Auth. (alone) 
has "quickened by the Spirit {rep irvevixaTt), by which" (iv ^). 
It cannot be said that Christ was quickened by the Spirit, i.e., 
by the Divine Spirit, without saying in the previous part of the 
verse (where the Gr. constmction is the same) that " He was put 
to death by the flesh." But whereas he was put to death as 
regards the flesh, his natural body, He was by death quickened, 
endued with new power, new life, " in the spirit," in the un- 
dying sj)iritual nature, which as man He had in common with us 
all ; and in that spiritual nature, thus quickened, He went and 
preached to the spirits in prison : not as Auth., " by which," 
meaning "by the power of the Divine Sj)irit." AU Engl, 
versions except Auth. have " quickened iu the spirit," and aU 
except Auth. and Genev., " in which " (verse 19). 

We shall not be presumptuous if we infer from this that our 
own spirits, so far from being deprived of life or impaired, 
wUl, like Christ's, at dissolution be "quickened," endued with 
a fresh vitality. (Wordsworth.) 

20 Were saved through water. — Auth., " by water." Similarly 
in 1 Cor. iii. 15 we read, "he liimself shall be saved; yet so as 
thi'ough fire," instead of " by fire " (Auth.). The marginal 
rendering, which is more exactly literal, "into which few . . . 
were brought safely through water," is i)erhaj)s a stiU further 

21 Which also, after a true likeness — Margin, "Or, in the 
antitype — by change in Gr. text for Auth., " the like figure 
whereunto." The meaning, with this change, is " which also 
{i.e., water), after a true likeness to the waters of the deluge 
through which the faithful were saved when the disobedient Avere 
drowned, even the water of baptism, doth now save you, put you 
in a state of salvation ;" as it is said in Titus iii. 5, " According 
to His mercy He saved us, through the washing of regeneration 
and the renewing of the Holy Ghost." 

Baptism is further explained to be not, as under the Jewish law, 
a ceremonial washing, a cleansing of the flesh, symbolical of the 
purification of the spirit, but the interrogation of a 
good conscience toward God. So WycL, "the axing of 

444 I. PETER.— IV. 

a good oonscieuce in Gcd," following imperfectly Viilg., bonoe 
conscientice interrogatio in Deum. Subsequent versions vary : 
Rhem., " tlie examination ; " Tynd., " in that a good conscience 
consentetli (Genev., ' maketh request ') to God; " Autli. (alone), 
" the answer of a good conscience toward God ; " " Interroga 
tion," or " inquiry," is the tnie rendering of the word, but in 
what sense applicable here it is difficult to determine. Without 
discussing the several interpretations which are possible, and 
have been held by different commentators in ancient or modern 
times, it wUl be sufficient to give that which appears the most 
probable : " Baptism is the interrogation or inquiiy of a good 
conscience seeking after God." In this sense and with this con- 
struction the cognate verb is used m 2 Kings xi. 7 (LXX.), 
iwripuTria-ev AavlS eis elprivr}v 'IcwajS, "David inquired after the peace 
of Joab." In no other place of the New Testament or the Old 
Testament does the word occur. 

Through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.— This is 

to be connected -with " save you," as in Auth., though the 
marks of a parenthesis are not retained. It has been observed 
that when St. Peter speaks of glories he uses the human name of 
"Jesus," when of sufferings, the title of "Christ." With the 
Jews the glorification of human nature in the Son of Mary, and 
the death of their expected Messiah, " the Christ," were alike 
stumbling-blocks to belief in the Gospel. 

22 Who is on the right hand of God . . .—The order of the 
two clauses, inverted in Auth., has been restored. The main fact 
thus stands first : He is at the right hand of God, ha"v^ng gone 
into heaven, the place of the heavenly powers, which have been 
all made subject to Him. 


3 "Wine-bibbings. — Auth., " excess of wine." The word is not 
used again in the New Testament. The same may be said of 
that which f oUows, rendered carousings — Auth., " ban- 

7 Be sober.— As at chaiDs. i. 13, v, 8. Auth.. ■' watch." 

I. PBTER.— V. 445 

10 A gift— i.e., of " the Spirit." See 1 Cor. xii. 4. Auth. inserts 
the article here, and again with " oracles of God " (verse 11), 
wliere tlie meaning is, " Let him speak not as of himself, but as 
a deputed minister, uttering thouglits received by him from God." 

11 Strengfth. — Power of whatever kind, physical, intellectual, 
spiritual, pecuniary. Auth., " ability." Gr., l<rx^os. 

Supplieth.— Auth., " giveth." Vulg., administrat. See Note 
on 2 Cor. ix. 10. 

Whose is the glory , . .—Auth., " to whom be praise." The 
Gr. is $ iariv r] 56^a. This may be the original of the doxology 
which, in process of time, became attaelied to the Lord's Prayer. 
See Note on Matt. vi. 13, and compare the doxologies in chap. v. 
11 ; Rom. xi. 36; Eph. iii. 21. The article, twice in this passage 
unduly inserted in the English versions, is here unduly omitted. 

12 The fiery trial among you, which cometh upon you 
to prove you.— More exact than Auth., " tlie fiery trial which 
is to try you." 

15 A meddler . . .—Auth., with Tynd., " a busybody,'' &c. The 
Gr. for this phrase is a single word — not found elsewhere, except 
in Christian Authors, who may have taken it from St. Peter — 
meaning litei'ally "an overseer, or bishop, of other men's af- 
fairs," aWoTpioeirlffKOTTos. Plato, in his Eejniblic, uses a word 
very similar in form and meaning, aWoTpioTrpay/xoa-vvri. 

16 Let him glorify God in this name— i.e., in the name of 
Christ, by dying for it. So Wycl. and Vulg. ; Auth., ^vith 
Tynd., "on this behalf," following another reading of the 
Gr. text {fJ-epei, not bv6ixa.Ti), 


1 A fellow-elder. — The Gr. is a single word, in form like those 
which are translated " fellow-worker," " fellow-soldier." Vulg., 
consenior. Auth., " also an elder." 

2 Tend. — The same word is used in the charge given to St. Peter 
in Jolm xxi. 16. Auth., " feed." 

446 I. PETER.— V. 

Exercising. — Auth., "taking." The Gr. ciria-KOTrovvrts does 
not mean taking, assuming, but practising, exercising the over, 

3 As lording it over. — Auth., "as being lords over." The 
Gr. denotes the exercise of an arbitrary tyrannical power, not the 
" lordship," the legitimate authority, which is consistent with due 
respect on the part of the niler for the rights of those who are 
under him. 

The charge allotted to you. — Gr., tHu K\i]puv. Autli., 
with Genev., "God's heritage." Tynd. and Cranm., "the 
parishes," which is good as an interpretation, the word being 
literally " the lots " assigned to the presbyters as their respective 
portions in God's vineyard. From this word clems the " clergy " 
take their name, they being clerici, officers to .whom such " lots " 
or portions have been assigned. In Acts i. we have an example 
of the Apostolic office being assigned by lot, by the counsel of 
St. Peter. 

5 Gird yourselves. — Auth., "be clothed with," which gives the' 
meaning better than TjTid., "knit yourselves together with;" 
or Genev., " deck yourselves inwardly with ; " or Rhem., " in- 
sinuate humility," following Yulg., insinuate JixLviilitatem. The 
Gr. is aveiy imusual word, and signifies literally " tie yourselves 
up with the apron or cape of a slave," being, a verb formed from 
the word encombroma, a garment tied on with strings or bands 
(comboi), and worn by slaves. St. Peter uses the word to indi- 
cate the menial service which they were to render one to another ; 
in the same way as our Lord shewed it in His own example and 
person when He girded Himself with a towel and washed the 
disciples' feet (John xiii.). 

7 Anxiety.— The Gr. is the same as in Matt. xiii. 22, The word 
is varied in the latter part of the verse, as is shewn in Wycl. and 
Rhem., following Vulg., soZiciYwcZinem . . . ciira. Tynd. and 
Auth. have overlooked the distinction which is drawn by the 
Apostle between our anxieties and God's care for us. 

10 A little while. — The Gr. lays stress on the short duration of 
the suffering, not as Auth., "a while," which rather draws atten- 
tion to the necessity of some temporary suffering. Tynd., " after 
ye have suffered a little affliction." 

Himself, solemn and emphatic in the Gr., is expressed in Yulg., 
Wycl., Genev., and Rliem., not in Tynd., Cranm., or Axith, 

Shall himself perfect.— The future for the precatory form, 
by change in Gr, text. 

I. PETKR— V. 447 

12 As I account him. — The Gr, does not indicate any doubt. 
Auth., " as I suppose." 

Stand ye fast therein. — The imperative for the indicative, 
by change in Gr. text. 

13 She. — Auth., the Clmrcli, following Vulg., Tyud., and Rheiu. ; 
but as the word is not expressed, any insertion must be conjec- 
tural ; and some commentators, as Bengal and Alf ord, recognise 
here the wife of St. Peter ; but the former supposition, " the 
Church," is more probable. The words indicate that the writer 
was himself at Babylon ; and that he should point to a single in- 
dividual there by this elliptical phrase is highly unlikely. " In 
Babylon " is to be understood literally, not (as it has by some been 
interpreted) figuratively of Rome, in which seuso it is to be 
understood six times in the Ai^ocalypse ; there, ho^vover, it is 
always distinguished as " Babylon the great," e.g., Rov. xiv. 8. 




1 Our God and Saviour. — So all versions prior to Antli., which 
has " God and our Sa^Tour." Compare Note on Titus ii. 13. 

3 By Ms own glory and virtue.—" Own," iSws, is added 
in Gr. text, and is characteristic of the Epistles of St. Peter : 
.see chap. ii. 22 ; 1 Peter iii. 1, 5 (Wordsworth). " His 
glory " denotes the essential power and majesty of God ; His 
moral attributes are signified by "his virtue," a word rarely 
applied to God, but so used in the plural by St. Peter (1. ii. 9). 
Genev. and Auth., " Called us to glory and virtue," which is a 
departure from the correct rendering of previous versions, sug- 
gested, it may be, by the strangeness of the expression " called 
us by his virtue." 

4 He hath granted unto us.— The Gr., though passive in 
form, is transitive in sense, and is so rendered in Auth. (verse 3). 

5 Yea, and for this very cause. — The Gr. is an idiomatic 
phrase, literally, " this very thing," avrh toCto — the preposition 
Sid being dropped, as in ri, " why ? " i.e., Stk tI — not as Auth., 
"besides tliis." but "because God has been gracious to you, 
tlierefore do ye for your part," &c. Compare 1 Peter i. 15, where 
the Apostle urges the holiness of God as a reason why we should 
be holy. 

Adding on your part. — Literally, bringing in, in addition 
to, by the side of, what God has done for you, all diligence on 
your part. Auth., with Tynd., " give all diligence." The Gr., 
a double compound verb, irapfKrcpfpw, is not again used in the New 

II. PETER.— I. 449 

In your faith supply virtus. — lu tlio exercise of eacli 
Cliristiau gnice which yo possess develop a further growth of 
grace. Ye have received faith as the gift of God ; in the exercise 
of faitli furnish forth virtue — here probably meauiug the special 
virtue which we caU moral courage — aud iu the strength of virtue 
pi'oduce knowledge, the practical knowledge which discerns good 
from evil, and tends to corresponding action ; and as a conse- 
quence of this knowledge, temperance, self-control ; and ont of 
tliis, patience, patient endui'ance ; aud as a f nait of this, godli- 
ness, confidence in God and resignation to His will ; and in 
your godliness remember 'love of the brethren, do not rest on 
your trust in God, as if that might supersede love for all who 
are your brethren in Him ; aud while loving the brethren seek 
to attain to the largeness of heart, the love that extends to all 
mankind, according to the saying of St. Paul (1 Thess. iii. 12), 
" Abound in love toward the brethren, and toward all men." 
Thus St. Peter links together seven virtues as issuing one from 
another, and all from Faith; but of course this is not to be 
understood as a logical account of the mode in which they are 
connected and unfolded. 

Supply. — The same word as iu verse 11 and 2 Cor. ix. 10, where 
see Note ; also 1 Peter iv. 11, where the simple A'erb, x°pvy^'^>', is 
used iu the same sense. Auth., " Add to your faith virtue," &c., 
following Genev. and Beza, adjicite fidei vestrce virtutem. 
Wycl., Tynd., and Craum., " Minister iu your faith virtue," as 
Vulg., niinistrate in fide vestrd virtutetn. 

9 The cleansing' from. — Auth., " that he was pm'ged." The 
Gr. is a noun ; the same, aud with the same construction, as in 
Heb. i. 3. 

10 Give the more diligence.— Auth., " wherefore, the rather, 
brethren, give diligence," as if some other alternative were iu 
view, to which tliis shoiild be preferred. 

Stumble. — Auth., " fall." See Note ou James ii. 10. 

12 I shall be ready.— By change in Gr. text for Auth., " I will 
not be negligent." The same word occurs again only iu Matt, 
xxiv. 6. 

The truth which is with you— i.e., " now among you." 
Auth., " the present truth," as if it meant the truth now present 
to your thoughts, now under your consideration. Compare Col. 
i. 6. 

14 The putting off of my tabernacle cometh swiftly.— 

So Wycl., following the careful i-endering of Yuig., vdox est 

450 II. PETER.— 11. 

depositio tabernaculi mei, not ineauiug, as Autli., foUowiug 
Cranm., " that I must shortly (i.e., soou) put off," &c., but that 
" my death when it comes will be sharp and sudden," referring 
to the prediction of our Lord in John xxi. 18. So Alford, quoting 
classical authorities for this sense of raxtvv and rax^s, " speedy, ' 
as applied to the end of life, e.g., Eurip. Hippol., lOi. Putting 
this interpretation on the Apostle's words, we understand him to 
say that he thinks it right to give these admonitions while he can, 
as he may expect to be very suddenly called away by death. 

18 We ourselves. — " "We " is here emphatic in the Gr. 

19 We have the word of prophecy made more sure. — 
Auth., " we have also a more sure word of prophecy " (omitting 
the article), which is obscure. Rhem., more correctly, " the pro- 
phetical word more sure." The meaning is " ha^nug been wit- 
nesses of His majesty and hearers of His voice from heaven, we 
have the word of prophecy made more firm (as a foundation of 
our faith) by the fulfilment which it has received." The phrase 
is in this sense illustrated in a learned Note of Dr. Field. 

A lamp.— Not as Auth., " a light." See Note on John v. 35. 

21 Men spake from God.— By change in Gk. text for Auth., 
*'holy men of God spake." 

Being moved. — The Gr., <pfp6nevot, indicates the cause of their 
speaking, " because they were moved," not " as they were 
moved" (Auth.), which points to the manner or substance of 
their prophesying. By the changes in Gr. text and translation 
the contrast is rendered more simple and direct. 


1 Destructive.— Auth., "damnable." Literally, "sects of de- 
struction," tending to the destruction of those who hold them. 

The Master.— Auth., " the Lord." Gr., SftrirSTriv (despoten), 
the correlative of which would be Sov\oi, slaves, servants acquired 
by purchase. Compare Jude 4. The Apostle, as he wrote these 
words, may have been looking back on his oavu grievous but 
forgiven denial of the Lord. 

2 Ijascivious. — For "pernicious " (Auth.), by change in Gr. text. 

11. PETER.— II. 451 

4 Pits.— For "chains " (Auth.), bycliauge in Gr. text. 

5 Noah. with, seven others. — Auth. follows the Gr. idiom, 

" Noah, the eighth person." 

A flood. — The Gr. has not the article as it has in the Gospels, 
Matt. xxiv. 38 ; Luke xvii. 27. 
9 Under punishment. — Actually in that state, not " to be 
punished," as all Engl, versions, following Vulg., cruciandos. 
The Gr. is the present participle. 

10 Despise dominion.— So Auth. in Jude 8 ; here, " govern, 
meut," the Gr. being the same. 

Daring. — Auth., " pi*esumptuous." Gr., roXfx-nral. The Gr. for 
railing is cognate to the adjective in verse 11. 

11 Judgement. — So all Engl, versions except Auth., "accusation." 

12 Creatures without reason. — Auth., " brute beasts," following 
Tynd. The adjective &\oya, " unreasoning," is in modem Gr. 
the word for " animals" generally. 

Born mere animals. — Literally, "born natural creatures," 
not spiritual. Auth. connects the word with "beasts ; " but by 
change in Gr. text it is removed from that word and connected 
with "born." Compare Jude 10. 

To be taken and destroyed. — Literally, " for taking and 
destroying." These words, which represent substantives in Gr., 
may have either an active or passive sense, according as we con- 
sider the purpose which they serve for men, or the mode by which 
they get their own food. 

Shall in their destroying surely be destroyed— i.e., 

while causing destruction to otliers, shall accomplish their own 
destruction. Auth. fails to bring out this meaning, " shall 
utterly perish in their own corruiition." Compare 1 Cor. iii. 17, 
" If any man destroyeth the temple of God, him shall God de- 
stroy" (Wordsworth). 

13 Suffering wrong as the hire of wrong-doing. — By 
change in Gr. text, for "receiving the reward of wrong-doing." 
The emphatic and vehement repetition of words is characteristic 
of this Epistle. 

14 Enticing. — Tempting with a bait. Auth., "beguiling." The 
Gr. is the same as in verse 18 and James i. 14. 

Children of cursing— i.e., " devoted to the curse." Tlie 
Hebraism has not the same meaning as Auth., " ciu'sed children." 
Compare 2 Thess. ii. 3, " the son of perdition." 

452 IT. PETER.— III. 

15 Beor.— The Chaldee form of Bosor, 

The hire of wrong-doing.— See verse 13. 

16 Stayed. — ^Auth., " forbade," as iu Matt. iii. 13. 

17 Springs.— This, or " fouutains," is the usual aud proper mean- 
ing of the Gr. irrryai, though in John iv., where it is applied to 
" Jacob's well," the word of Auth., " well," has been retained. 

Mists. — So Wycl., " mists driven Avith whirling winds." The 
Gr. is different from that in the parallel passage of Jude 12, 
which is rightly rendered " clouds " (Auth.) 

18 Just escaping. — For Auth., " clean escaped " — (1) bv change 
in Gr. text, oxlya^s for iivrais ; (2) the Gr. participle is of the 
present tense, indicating an escape in progress, not accomplished. 

20 The last state.— Auth., " the latter end." The Apostle's 
words are almost identical with the saying of our Lord (Matt, 
xii. 45). 

22 The sow that had washed. — The Gr. is in the middle 
Voice, " that had washed herself." Auth., " that was washed." 


1 This is now. — Expressed less conveniently in Auth., following 
the Gr. idiom, " This second Epistle (beloved) I now write imto 

Sincere. — The Gr. is the same as in Phil. i. 10 {u\tKpivri). 
Auth., " pui'e," which represents KaOapSs. 

Mind. — The Gr. is in the singular number. 

2 The commandment of the Lord and Savionr through 
your Apostles. — By change from viJ-<^y to v/^uv the Gr. 
text giA^es in a condensed form this meaning, instead of Auth., 
" the commandment of us the Apostles of the Lord aud Saviour." 
" Your " Apostles, as St. Paul is called " the Apostle of the 

3 Mockers shall come with mockery. — The last words are 
added in the Gr. text, according to the Hebraic mode of empha- 
sising by iteration. 

II. PETER.— III. 453 

6 "Wilfully forget. — More exact than " willingly are ignorant 
of " (Auth.). 

There were heavens from of old, and an earth.— 

The article, inserted in Auth., is not expressed nor to be under- 
stood in the Gr. 

Compacted. — Or, as in Margin of Auth., " consisting," as the 
word is rendered in Col. i. 17, literally "standing together," the 
reference being to the material out of which an earth was con- 
stituted, not to its position, as Auth., " standing out of the water 
and in the water," or Tynd. and Genev., " the earth that was in 
the water appeared up out of the water." Rhem., "the earth 
out of water and through water consisting by the word of God," 
is nearly correct. 

8 Forget not this one thing. — Referring to verse 5. 

10 " In the night." — (Auth.) Omitted in Gr. text : perhaps inter- 
polated from 1 Thess. v. 2. 

Shall be dissolved.— Auth., " shall melt." The Gr. does not 
contain the idea of melting from heat, but simply that of disso- 
lution. It occurs in John ii. 19, " Destroy this temple ; " and 

see next verse (Auth.) 

12 Earnestly desiring. — Margin, "Or, hastening." The Gr. 
has both senses in classical authors. The latter may be supported, 
with reference to "the day of God," by considering that 
Christians may, as the Scriptures say, helj) forward the accom- 
plishment of God's purposes by their holy lives and their 
prayers. It was also a Rabbinical saying, " If thou keepest this 
precept, thou hastenest the day of the Messiah," and it may there- 
fore be presumed that the thought was familiar to the Jewish 
Christians to whom the Apostle was writing. There is, however, 
no instance in the New Testament of the word being used transi- 
tively, in the sense of " hastening." In Isa. xvi. 5 it may pro- 
perly be rendered " be earnest about," though the Auth. has 
" hasting righteousness," a loose ti-anslation of the Hebrew. 

By reason of which— i.e., either " day," or " coming." 
Auth., " wherein," wliich would be eV f, not di' V. 

17 Being carried away.— Auth., " led away." The Gr., an un- 

common word, is used in Gal. ii. 13 of Barnabas being " carried 
away with their dissimulation" {i.e., of Peter and others); and 
it is remarkable that St. Peter should use a word which, as he 
was acquainted with St. Paul's Epistles, he may have seen in a 
passage making such reference to himself (Alford). 




1 That which we beheld— " which we looked upon with 
stedfast gaze." The word is the same that is used in Acts i. 11, 
of the Apostles beholding the ascension of the Lord. 

The "Word of life. — The capital letter denotes that the Divine 
Son of God is spoken of by St. John here, as at the beginning 
of his Gospel. In this sense the phrase has been generally 
understood both by ancient and modem expositors : but as there 
are some who explain it of the doctrine taught by Christ, this 
interpretation, however improbable, has been recognised in the 

2 The life, the eternal life. — The emphatic repetition of the 
Gr. article with noun and adjective requires in English the repe- 
tition of the noun. 


2 Por the whole world. — The ellipsis needs not to be supplied 

as in Auth., " for the sins of the whole world." 

8 Is passing away. — Auth., " is past." The Gr. verb is in 
the present tense. 

8, 9, 11 Darkness. — The article is throughout these verses ex- 
pressed in the Gr. with this word. 

12 3fy little children. — The Gr. is the same as in verse 1, except 
that '• my '" is omitted, but the meaning is the same. Hia 

I. JOHN— III. 455 

disciples are all comprehended in this address, and so in verse 27. 
At verse 13 he uses a different word, naiSia, and addresses those 
who are actually chikli'en in age. 

13, 14 Because ye know.— The Gr. is in tlie perfect tense, which 
in this verb, as in the corresponding Latin novi, has a present 
meaning. Aiith., " ye have known.' So in chaps, iii. 16, iv. 16. 

I hav